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Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720410/how-and-why-disgust-responses-underlie-prejudice
#1
Michael Bang Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30348235/anticipating-emerging-biotechnology-threats
#2
Kathleen M Vogel, Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley
This article discusses the contingencies and complexities of CRISPR. It outlines key problems regarding off-target effects and replication of experimental work that are important to consider in light of CRISPR's touted ease of use and diffusion. In light of literature on the sociotechnical dimensions of the life sciences and biotechnology and literature on former bioweapons programs, this article argues that we need more detailed empirical case studies of the social and technical factors shaping CRISPR and related gene-editing techniques in order to better understand how they may be different from other advances in biotechnology - or whether similar features remain...
October 23, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30253812/national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report-on-genetically-engineered-crops-influences-public-discourse
#3
Emily L Howell, Christopher D Wirz, Dominique Brossard, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dietram A Scheufele, Kenneth M Winneg, Michael A Xenos
In May 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released the report "Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects," summarizing scientific consensus on genetically engineered crops and their implications. NASEM reports aim to give the public and policymakers information on socially relevant science issues. Their impact, however, is not well understood. This analysis combines national pre- and post-report survey data with a large-scale content analysis of Twitter discussion to examine the report's effect on public perceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)...
September 26, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30238865/a-cultural-neuroscience-perspective-on-north-korean-strategic-culture
#4
John M Friend
Given the complexity of the current nuclear age and the absence of work on deterrence under true multipolarity, interdisciplinary models can provide new perspectives on tailored deterrence. Drawing from recent findings in the life sciences, this article offers a cultural neuroscience approach to deterrence decision-making, with special attention given to the ways in which culture interacts with cognition and the security environment to shape behavioral outcomes during conflict. Since North Korea remains largely a "black box" in international relations, a cultural neuroscience perspective can provide valuable insight into the effects of cultural conditioning on perception and cognition within the context of nuclear deterrence on the Korean Peninsula...
September 21, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29441838/in-your-face
#5
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29386075/-new-political-interfaces-in-the-life-sciences
#6
Dietram Scheufele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488816/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-sociopolitical-attitudes
#7
Edward Bell, Christian Kandler, Rainer Riemann
A new paradigm has emerged in which both genetic and environmental factors are cited as possible influences on sociopolitical attitudes. Despite the increasing acceptance of this paradigm, several aspects of the approach remain underdeveloped. Specifically, limitations arise from a reliance on a twins-only design, and all previous studies have used self-reports only. There are also questions about the extent to which existing findings generalize cross-culturally. To address those issues, this study examined individual differences in liberalism/conservatism in a German sample that included twins, their parents, and their spouses and incorporated both self- and peer reports...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488815/-doing-crispr
#8
Dorothy Jane Dankel
Salmon farming is a key industry in Norway, with firsthand value of more than 60 billion Norwegian crowns in 2017. The salmon industry is a driving force for biotechnological applications in the marine sector. The recent release of the Atlantic salmon reference genome offers new opportunities to solve major aquaculture bottlenecks that currently limit expansion of the industry. One major bottleneck is the genetic impact of escaped farmed salmon on wild populations. To solve this problem, the industry can use sterile salmon in production...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488814/how-to-read-for-current-developments-in-human-genetics-relevant-to-justice
#9
Benjamin Gregg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488813/dual-use-nano-neurotechnology
#10
Kathryn Nixdorff, Tatiana Borisova, Serhiy Komisarenko, Malcolm Dando
The chemical and biological nonproliferation regime stands at a watershed moment, when failure seems a real possibility. After the unsuccessful outcome of the 2016 Eighth Review Conference, the future of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention is uncertain. As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) approaches its Fourth Review Conference in 2018, it has almost completed removing the huge stocks of chemical weapons, but it now faces the difficult organizational task of moving its focus to preventing the reemergence of chemical weapons at a time when the international security situation appears to be increasingly more difficult and dangerous...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717966/cass-r-sunstein-s-nudge-science
#11
Ronald F White, Eliah J White, Charles Kroncke, Edward Sankowski, David Vanderburgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717965/issues-with-choice-architecture-environmental-ethics-and-globalization
#12
Edward Sankowski
Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717964/an-introduction-to-nudge-science
#13
Ronald F White
Let's begin by addressing the most obvious question: given the vast number of books published on political science every year, why would the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) and its journal Politics and the Life Sciences expend time, energy, and resources publishing a multiple-author analysis of a series of books that contain little (if anything) about the life sciences, Darwin, or evolution? The answer is that Cass R. Sunstein's recent research on "nudge science" provides an excellent opportunity for APLS to expand its commitment to interdisciplinarity, especially its long-standing interest in behavioral economics...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717963/nudging-toward-a-stable-retirement
#14
Charles Kroncke
The classical economics perspective is that public policy should be used to allow, not hinder, economic freedom. In some cases it may be possible for government to gently nudge individuals to change their behavior without hindering freedom. One example is a change from the default on pension program enrollment forms from "not contribute" to "contribute." This is generally viewed as a good nudge that gets people to do what the majority of people view as generally the correct behavior. However, a choice to contribute to a pension fund is not always in the individual's best interest - thus, it is a nudge, not a mandate...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717962/the-problem-of-obesity-and-dietary-nudges
#15
Eliah J White
From a psychological perspective, Cass R. Sunstein's 2016 book The Ethics of Influence is an insightful examination of the ethics of using social and cognitive psychological principles to influence behavior and decision-making. The United States has been experiencing what can only be described as an obesity epidemic. Scientists know that this epidemic has been brought about in part by the prevailing choice architecture, which influences what we eat, how much we eat, and how little we exercise. From a public health perspective, the policy issue centers on how a democracy can employ a combination of bans, mandates, and nudges to reshape our dietary habits to combat obesity...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717961/breast-cancer-screening
#16
David Vanderburgh
Cass R. Sunstein's 2016 book The Ethics of Influence: Government in the Age of Behavioral Science provides an extremely informative introduction to the science and ethics of the exercise of "influence" over others. As a longtime physician employed in both the public and private sectors, I now recognize that most of my formal training has been in the hard sciences, with little, if any, training in the appropriate influence of the decision-making processes of my patients and/or other health care professionals in institutional settings...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717960/handedness-and-the-neurocognitive-foundations-of-public-attitudes-about-international-laws-and-norms
#17
Michael C Grillo, Juris Pupcenoks, Keith B Lyle
Whether Geneva Conventions (GC) rights should apply to terrorists is a contentious question that has received little attention in public opinion research. Both personality and contextual factors may be important. We queried participants' support for applying the GC to alleged terrorists, but first we measured participants' authoritarianism and presented them with a scenario concerning an alleged terrorist. We manipulated whether (1) the scenario contained examples of GC rights and (2) the alleged terrorist's religious affiliation was Muslim or non-Muslim...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717959/what-do-we-know-about-suicide-bombing
#18
REVIEW
Veronica Ward
In this article, the present status of our knowledge about the phenomenon of "suicide" bombing or "martyrdom" operations is identified. A review of many studies located at different levels of analysis is conducted, followed by an analysis and evaluation of the state of the research at each level. In addition, an exploration of the evolution in the characteristics of this tactic and the differences, if any, between subnational and transnational acts is undertaken. The conclusion identifies what we know and what may be appropriate for future research and public policy initiatives...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717958/social-cues-and-ideology
#19
Jordan Mansell
Research shows that individuals with liberal and conservative ideological orientations display different value positions concerning the acceptance of social change and inequality. Research also links the expression of different values to a number of biological factors, including heredity. In light of these biological influences, I investigate whether differences in social values associated with liberal and conservative ideologies reflect alternative strategies to maximize returns from social interactions. Using an American sample of Democrats and Republicans, I test whether information about shared and unshared social values in the form of implicit social attitudes have a disproportionate effect on the willingness of Democrats and Republicans to trust an anonymous social partner...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29717957/subduing-attitude-polarization
#20
Eulàlia P Abril
Researchers have sought to understand the effects of like-minded versus contrary news exposure on attitude polarization, which can be a threat to democracy. The online news environment offers opportunities for exposure to both types of news, albeit unequally. This study tests the effects of exposure to heterogeneous partisan news bundles (both like-minded and contrary news) on attitude polarization. Because media exposure can lead to bias, attitude polarization is tested as a direct and indirect effect via hostile media perceptions...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
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