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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677874/abnormal-puberty-revisited-a-practical-approach
#1
EDITORIAL
Peter A Lee, John S Fuqua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677873/precocious-and-delayed-puberty-revisited
#2
EDITORIAL
Robert Rapaport
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677872/hormone-therapy-during-infancy-or-early-childhood-for-patients-with-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-klinefelter-or-turner-syndrome-has-the-time-come
#3
REVIEW
Elodie Fiot, Juliane Léger, Laetitia Martinerie
Managing patients unable to produce sex steroids using gonadotropins to mimic minipuberty in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or sex steroids in patients with Klinefelter or Turner syndrome, is promising. There is a need to pursue research in this area, with large prospective cohorts and long-term data before these treatments can be routinely considered.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677871/primary-amenorrhea-and-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#4
REVIEW
Svetlana A Yatsenko, Selma F Witchel, Catherine M Gordon
This review focuses on primary amenorrhea and primary/premature ovarian insufficiency due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Following a thoughtful, thorough evaluation, a diagnosis can usually be discerned. Pubertal induction and ongoing estrogen replacement therapy are often necessary. Shared decision-making involving the patient, family, and health-care team can empower the young person and family to successfully thrive with these chronic conditions.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677870/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#5
REVIEW
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, John S Fuqua, Selma F Witchel
Delayed puberty is defined as absent testicular enlargement in boys or breast development in girls at an age that is 2 to 2.5 SDS later than the mean age at which these events occur in the population (traditionally, 14 years in boys and 13 years in girls). One cause of delayed/absent puberty is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), which refers to inadequate hypothalamic/pituitary function leading to deficient production of sex steroids in males and females. Individuals with HH typically have normal gonads, and thus HH differs from hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which is associated with primary gonadal insufficiency...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677869/delayed-puberty-including-constitutional-delay-differential-and-outcome
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer Harrington
Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most common cause of delayed puberty in both male and female individuals. This article reviews the causes of delayed puberty focusing on CDGP, including new advances in the understanding of the genetics underpinning CDGP, a clinical approach to discriminating CDGP from other causes of delayed puberty, outcomes, as well as current and potential emerging management options.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677868/presentation-and-care-for-children-with-peripheral-precocious-puberty
#7
REVIEW
John S Fuqua, Erica A Eugster
Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) refers to the early onset of sexual maturation that is independent of central nervous system control. The extensive differential diagnosis includes congenital and acquired causes. Presenting features depend on which class of sex steroids is involved, and diagnosis rests on hormonal and, if indicated, imaging and/or genetic studies. Effective treatment exists for nearly all causes of PPP. Ongoing research will advance our therapeutic armamentarium and understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of these conditions...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677867/diagnosis-treatment-and-outcomes-of-males-with-central-precocious-puberty
#8
REVIEW
Renée Robilliard, Peter A Lee, Lisa Swartz Topor
Central precocious puberty (CPP) among males is less frequent than among females but more likely to have an underlying pathologic cause. Diagnosis of CPP is often straightforward among males because increased testicular volume, the first sign of puberty, can be verified although careful central nervous system (CNS) assessment is generally necessary. Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is indicated, given in conjunction with any therapy needed for CNS lesions. Monitoring of treatment usually can consist of evaluating growth and physical puberty and with testosterone levels as the only lab data...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677866/treatment-of-central-precocious-puberty-with-a-focus-on-girls
#9
REVIEW
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Karen O Klein, Erica A Eugster
The age of thelarche has declined in the past few decades but not the age of menarche. This is important when assessing girls who present with breast development between 6 and 8 years because not all of them will need treatment. The decision for treatment depends on age, bone age (BA), rate of pubertal progression, height velocity, psychosocial factors, and predicted adult height (PAH), with the caveat that height predictions are not precise and BA interpretation is variable.
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677865/diagnosis-of-central-precocious-puberty
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Lawrence A Silverman
A thorough history and physical examination including Tanner staging and growth assessments can guide differential diagnosis and aid in the evaluation of precocious puberty. Basal luteinizing hormone levels measured using a highly sensitive assay can be helpful in diagnosing central precocious puberty (CPP). Brain MRI is indicated with males diagnosed with CPP and females under the age of 6 with CPP. As more information becomes available regarding the genetic etiologies of CPP, genetic testing may preclude the need for imaging studies and other hormonal testing, especially in familial cases...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677864/isolated-vaginal-bleeding-before-the-onset-of-puberty
#11
REVIEW
Natalie G Allen, Paul B Kaplowitz
Isolated vaginal bleeding before the onset of puberty is a rare presentation of isosexual precocity. In most cases, isolated vaginal bleeding without an abnormal genital examination is self-limited with resolution usually within 1 to 3 episodes. Watchful waiting is appropriate in most patients who do not have persistent bleeding, other signs of puberty, or signs/symptoms of an underlying etiology. Workup for patients with concerning features may include puberty hormone levels and/or transabdominal and transperineal ultrasound...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677863/premature-pubarche-a-pragmatic-approach
#12
REVIEW
Paul B Kaplowitz
Premature pubarche (PP) is a common and usually benign variant of normal puberty most often seen in 5-year-old to 9-year-old children. Some providers routinely order laboratory testing and a bone age to try to rule out other diagnoses including nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and gonadal or adrenal tumors. I review the natural history of PP and studies which suggest that without clinical features such as rapid growth and progression or genital enlargement, it is unlikely that a treatable condition will be found...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677862/females-with-breast-development-before-three-years-of-age
#13
REVIEW
Paul B Kaplowitz, Peter A Lee
Breast development in a girl 3 years of age or younger is a commonly encountered scenario. Nearly all of these cases will either regress or fail to progress during follow-up, confirming a diagnosis of premature thelarche (PT). Studies show that these girls will have onset of true puberty and menses at a normal age. The authors present evidence that laboratory testing, particularly basal and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone -stimulated gonadotropin levels, will show overlap between girls with PT and the rare patients with the onset of central precocious puberty before age 3, mainly of whom have hypothalamic hamartomas...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38677861/normal-puberty
#14
REVIEW
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Selma F Witchel
Puberty is characterized by gonadarche and adrenarche. Gonadarche represents the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion following the quiescence during childhood. Pubarche is the development of pubic hair, axillary hair, apocrine odor reflecting the onset of pubertal adrenal maturation known as adrenarche. A detailed understanding of these pubertal processes will help clarify relationships between the timing of the onset of puberty and cardiovascular, metabolic, and reproductive outcomes in adulthood...
June 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272603/the-evolving-landscape-of-type-1-diabetes-management
#15
EDITORIAL
Osagie Ebekozien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272602/type-1-diabetes
#16
EDITORIAL
Robert Rapaport
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272601/social-determinants-of-health-screening-in-type-1-diabetes-management
#17
REVIEW
Nana-Hawa Yayah Jones, India Cole, Kelsey J Hart, Sarah Corathers, Shivani Agarwal, Ori Odugbesan, Osagie Ebekozien, Manmohan K Kamboj, Michael A Harris, Kathryn L Fantasia, Mona Mansour
Type 1 diabetes management is intricately influenced by social determinants of health. Economic status impacts access to vital resources like insulin and diabetes technology. Racism, social injustice, and implicit biases affect equitable delivery of care. Education levels affect understanding of self-care, leading to disparities in glycemic outcomes. Geographic location can limit access to health care facilities. Stressors from discrimination or financial strain can disrupt disease management. Addressing these social factors is crucial for equitable diabetes care, emphasizing the need for comprehensive strategies that go beyond medical interventions to ensure optimal health outcomes for all individuals with type 1 diabetes...
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272600/emerging-technologies-and-therapeutics-for-type-1-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Halis Kaan Akturk, Alexis M McKee
Recent years witnessed advancements in diabetes technologies and therapeutics. People with type 1 diabetes have more options to control their blood glucose, prevent hypoglycemia, and spend more time with their loved ones. Newer diabetes technologies and therapeutics improve the quality of life and boost the confidence of people with type 1 diabetes. In parallel to changes in the diabetes technology field, stem cell research has been evolving. Gene editing and production of β cells from stem cells are ongoing...
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272599/optimizing-glycemic-outcomes-for-minoritized-and-medically-underserved-adults-living-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Devin W Steenkamp, Kathryn L Fantasia, Howard A Wolpert
Individuals living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from medically underserved communities have poorer health outcomes. Efforts to improve outcomes include a focus on team-based care, activation of behavior change, and enhancing self-management skills and practices. Advanced diabetes technologies are part of the standard of care for adults with T1D. However, health care providers often carry implicit biases and may be uncomfortable with recommending technologies to patients who have traditionally been excluded from efficacy trials or have limited real-world exposure to devices...
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38272598/incorporating-the-six-core-elements-of-health-care-transition-in-type-1-diabetes-care-for-emerging-adults
#20
REVIEW
Faisal S Malik, Kathryn W Weaver, Sarah D Corathers, Patience H White
A growing body of literature finds persistent problems in the provision of recommended health care transition services, as well as adverse outcomes associated with the lack of these services in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. The Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition offers a structured approach to the phases of health care transition support for both pediatric and adult diabetes practices. This article reviews strategies to incorporate the Six Core Elements into ambulatory diabetes care to support successful health care transition for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes...
March 2024: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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