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Revue Scientifique et Technique

Y Armas Valdes, D Obregon Alvarez, R Grandia Guzman, A Mitat Valdes, E Roque Lopez, M Pérez Ruano, A A Entrena Garcia
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, due to the existence of a wide variety of Toxoplasma gondii hosts, which include several domestic animal species. In Cuba, there is sustained production of the Bubalus species, which is highly adaptable and disease resistant, although it has been identified as a reservoir for a range of aetiological agents. Several countries have reported buffaloes as the intermediate host of T. gondii, noting the need to carry out epidemiological studies and confirm the possible presence of this parasitic infection in the Bubalus species...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
P V K Sasidhar, M Suvedi
he objectives of this study were two-fold - to assess the technical competencies of veterinarians and their application, and to investigate veterinarians' activities and appropriate ways for them to acquire and enhance competencies. The studywas undertaken in three South Indian states: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana. The survey data, collected in 2015-2016 from nine districts in the three states, came from in-depth questionnaires completed by 270 veterinary assistant surgeons (VASs). The key survey questions were related to: specific technical competencies and their application, appropriate ways to acquirethem, additional competencies needed and recommended activities to enhancethem...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
U Farooq, M Idris, M Iqbal, A Khurshid, Z U Rehman
The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) is an independent, autonomous and constitutionally established institution that provides primary funding for higher education in Pakistan, which it also oversees, regulates and accredits. According to the HEC Charter: 'the HEC of Pakistan may set up national or regional evaluation councils or authorise any existing council/or similar body to carry out accreditation of institutions including their departments, facilities and disciplines by giving them appropriate ratings'...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
V Henaux, M JaŸ, C Siebeke, D Calavas, C Ponsart
Bovine brucellosis is a major zoonosis and is responsible for significant reproductive disorders and production losses in cattle. Surveillance and control are regulated at the European level with specific conditions to obtain and maintain the officially free status, which facilitates access to export markets. These European standards allow for harmonisation in brucellosis surveillance and diagnosis while leaving some flexibility to countries in the choice of measures to meet the desired objectives. This study reviews the bovine brucellosis surveillancesystems currently in place across the European continent, according to countries' brucellosis status, based on a survey addressed to brucellosis diagnosis expertsin the National Reference Laboratory of each country...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A Selim, M M Elhaig, S A Taha, E A Nasr
Tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic disease in animals and humans in Egypt. This study aims to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs, using the microplate Alamar blue assay. The AgNPs were chemically synthesised and their form and size were characterised by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.The reference strains of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosisH37Rv, and one multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) strain of M...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
R A J Nicholas, O Sayi, M A Türkyilmaz, S H Erpek
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) was detected for the first time on the European continent in the Thrace region of Turkey in 2002 following outbreaks of an unusually severe respiratory disease in goats. Mycoplasma capricolums ubspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp), the causative agent, was identified in many infected herds throughout the region by serological, bacteriological and molecular biological techniques. However, as no quantitative data on the prevalence and distribution of the disease have been gathered in the intervening years, the extent of infection is unknown...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M Gharbi, M-A Darghouth, G Drissi
A preliminary study was carried out to examine the population dynamics of ticks on 24 pure Arabian horses. The horses were monitored monthly over one year in the Ghardimaou region of north-west Tunisia. A total of 120 adult ticks were collected and identified, leading to the estimation of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to a single genus (Hyalomma) and three species: H. scupense (59%), H. marginatum (28%) and H. excavatum (13%) (p < 0.001). The mean infestation prevalence was 29...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
B Thur, N Renevey
This is particularly important for outbreaks of highly contagious animal diseases. Efficient and correct testing as well as the reduction of technical breakdowns should be addressed by a laboratory contingency plan specially designed for the use of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), i.e. PCR or reverse transcription PCR ([RT]-PCR) or the high-throughput quantitative real-time form of these tests([RT]-qPCR). Problems with contamination during outbreak investigations can negatively impact reliable diagnostics, and ultimately the eradication of the disease in the field...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A Peters
Disease-causing pathogens have been with humanity for as long as the species has existed, but the world has changed. The human population is increasing and becoming more globalised. Meanwhile, the international system remains unstable and biotechnology is advancing at a breakneck speed. Humans are coming into contact with new and re-emerging pathogens as they spread into previously uninhabited environments. Pathogens play an increasingly global role, and infectious disease is becoming less confined by geographical or climatic boundaries...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
C Saegerman, G Czaplicki, F Dal Pozzo, C Quinet
Infections due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are endemic in most cattleproducing countries throughout the world and bovine viral diarrhoea is considered a transboundary disease. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are vaccination, biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals and surveillance. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity (Se) and the specificity (Sp) of two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on selected immune-dominant BVDV proteins: the non-structural protein NS3 (p80) and the recombinant envelope glycoprotein E0(Erns)...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
C Marobela-Raborokgwe, B M Modise, T Kgotlele, K P O Masoba, L Keokilwe, K Dipuo
The Botswana National Veterinary Laboratory (BNVL) has conducted ring trials (proficiency testing) on an annual basis since 2010. Proficiency testing is carried out to evaluate the ability of veterinary laboratories to perform serological complement fixation tests (CFTs) and molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). In this paper, the authors discuss the experience gained and the lessons learned in coordinating these ring trials over a period of six years, from 2010 to 2015...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
C Stephen, J P Duff, D Gavier-Widen, M P Ryser-Degiorgis, M M Uhart, J Sleeman, N Nguyen, P Zimmer, T Grillo, H Lee, J Rijks, T Tana
Wildlife health is important for conservation, healthy ecosystems, sustainable development and biosecurity. It presents unique challenges for national programme governance and delivery because wildlife health not only crosses jurisdictional responsibilities and authorities but also inherently spans multiple sectors of expertise. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) encourages its Members to have wildlife disease monitoring and notification systems. Where national wildlife health surveillance programmes do exist, they vary in scope and size...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M Ouagal, E Brocchi, P Hendrikx, D Berkvens, C Saegerman, S Grazioli, B Y Adel, S Keith, D Kiram, A Oussiguere
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all Artiodactyla. Seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) exist. In Chad, although FMD is included in the list of diseases monitored by the Chadian Animal Disease Surveillance Network (REPIMAT), the epidemiological situation remains unclear. A serological survey was conducted in the cattle population in eight of the nine administrative regions of the country (those regions with the highest cattle densities), to evaluate the prevalence and serotypes of circulating FMDV...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M D Salman, T Dejyong, S Rao, K Wongsathapornchai, J Hadrich, K Chanachai, S Weeragidpanit
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease that infects porcine species and has a major impact on the pig industry. Thailand imported approximately4 million kilograms of pig products from Italy in 2015 during the same time as an ASF outbreak was occurring on the island of Sardinia in Italy, thereby posing a potential risk of introduction of ASF virus (ASFV) into Thailand. To estimate whether or not importing pig products from Italy is a risk for Thailand and to identify gaps in control and prevention measures, risk analysis was performed...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
S Teshale, G Moumin, C Moussa, M Gezahegne
Despite the occurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in all other countries in the Horn of Africa, which engage in free animal movement, to date, PPR has not been reported in Djibouti. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of PPR and its associated risk factors in sheep and goats in that country. A cross-sectional method was used with proportional sampling to allocate the number of small ruminants to be sampled from each of the country's regions (Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock and Tadjourah)...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M L Barros, A M C Borges, A C S Oliveira De, W Lacerda, A O Souza De, D M Aguiar
The prevalence of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) in the three biomes of the state of Mato Grosso (Amazon, Cerrado and Pantanal) was estimated. Serum samples were collected from 3,858 equines in 1,067 herds between Septemberand December 2014. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay was used to detect EIA virus antibodies, and if a herd contained a seropositive animal itwas classified as a focus. The prevalence rates were 17.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.9-19.8%) for herds and 6.6% (95% CI: 5.8-7.5%) for animals...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A A Elfadil, A G Ahmed, M O Abdalla, E Gumaa, O H Osman, A E Younis, A N Al-Hafufi, L J Saif, A Zaki, A Al-Rumaihi, N Al-Harbi, S Kasem, R H Al-Brahim, A Al-Sahhaf, F E Bayoumi, I A Qasim, A Abu-Obeida, A Al-Dowairij
A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions in Saudi Arabia to investigate the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during April and May2015. Serum and nasal swab samples were tested for MERS-CoV antibodies andribonucleic acid (RNA) using a recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), respectively. The overall MERS-CoV antibody seroprevalence was 80...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
F Mukherjee, A N Kanani, G K Sharma, V A Srinivasan, V S Bahekar, S Y Pasha, P Kannan, A Prasad, S K Rana, D Premalatha
The majority of tuberculosis cases in ruminants are caused by Mycobacterium bovis (MB). However, in this study, the authors reported the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) from bovine milk, nasal swabs and post-mortem tissue samples (n = 841) collected from cattle and buffaloes in the states of Telangana, Maharashtra and Gujarat in India in the period from 2010 to 2015. The isolates (n = 7) were confirmed as Mycobacterium due to their growth characteristics and colony morphology in a commercial liquid medium Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)™ employing the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system and the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium supplemented with glycerol but not with sodium pyruvate, and BD-DIFCO™ Middlebrook 7H10 agar containing oleic albumin dextrose catalase (OADC)...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
C Garcia, J M Soriano, C Marin, P Catala-Gregori, V Cortes, S Sevilla-Navarro
The aim of this study was to design and implement a dynamic prevalence map for managing the data collected within the framework of the Salmonella spp. National control plan in broiler flocks, using a data set from the Valencian Community, Spain. Such a map would be a useful tool for veterinarians seeking to define control options. The development of the mapping tool for this study involved three main phases: data collection, data analysis and data representation. The data used were obtained from the results of the National Control Programme (based on European Commission [EC] Regulation No...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
G Drissi, M Mhadhbi, L Sassi, M Gharbi, S Dhaouadi, T Mahjoub, A Bahri
Leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum infection) and piroplasmoses (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections) are vector-borne diseases with significant economic and public health impacts. Despite their importance, there is a lack of data concerning these infections in equids from Tunisia. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of L. infantum, T. equi and B. caballi in 104 equids from northern Tunisia. The authors reported for the first time on the seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in equids in Tunisia (6...
December 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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