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International Reviews of Immunology

Farnaz Khodabakhsh, Mahdi Behdani, Abbas Rami, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
Nanobodies for the first time were identified in the sera of Camelidae. Single-domain antibodies or nanobodies are a class of next-generation antibodies that have specific features: small size (in nanoscale), high penetration in various tissues, high stability in hard situations and ease production process in microbial systems. In fact single-domain antibodies are the smallest fragment of the antibody with binding ability. Unique characteristics and features of nanobodies make them an appropriate candidate for further evaluation as the development of novel antibody-based therapeutics...
February 11, 2019: International Reviews of Immunology
Chong Joo Chan, Timmy Richardo, Renee Lay Hong Lim
Peanut allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction with symptoms varying from mild to severe anaphylaxis, tends to be lifelong and very few are able to outgrow this allergy. The prevalence of peanut allergy is highest among the Western countries and over the past decade, a 3.5 fold increase in prevalence of peanut allergy was reported among children in the United States. Increasing prevalence has also been observed among the Asian countries. As with other food allergies, peanut allergy reduces quality of life for the affected individuals and the social and economy burden of healthcare for peanut allergy is substantial...
January 13, 2019: International Reviews of Immunology
Hayk Minasyan, Friedrich Flachsbart
Infection proliferates and disseminates rapidly and so innate immunity should react effectively and fast. Innate immunity mechanisms depend upon fluid dynamics and are different in compartments with slow (the tissues) and rapid (the bloodstream) liquid flow. In the tissues, coagulation initiated by clotting factors, platelets and erythrocytes, is prompt and effective mechanism of the first line of antibacterial defense. Resident macrophages, transmigrated neutrophils, monocytes, NETs and platelets are the second line of the defense...
January 11, 2019: International Reviews of Immunology
Mario Graziano, Mauro Rossi
INTRODUCTION: Coeliac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy, characterised by the expression of specific genotypes and the production of autoantibodies. The inflammatory process specifically targets the intestinal mucosa, but gastrointestinal and extraintestinal signs and symptoms can also be present. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be diagnosed in individuals who have intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten, but do not have autoantibodies and do not suffer from lesions in the duodenal mucosa...
December 5, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Dorota Dąbrowska, Ewa Jabłońska, Agnieszka Iwaniuk, Marzena Garley
Neutrophils constitute the most numerous populations of peripheral blood leukocytes, fulfilling the fundamental role in the development of the innate immune response. As the cells of the first line of defense, they guard the organism against the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Neutrophils, similar to the other cells of the immune system, enter the path of death after fulfilling their biological function. Depending on the conditions that they are found in, they may undergo different types of cell death which requires the involvement of numerous signaling pathways...
December 5, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Pernille Koefoed-Nielsen, Bjarne Kuno Møller
The detection of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) is a cornerstone in the immunological risk assessment prior to organ transplantation. The detection methods have developed rapidly during the last decade, and the evidence for clinical interpretation of results obtained by solid phase immunoassays (SPI) is slowly accumulating. Nevertheless, technical limitations and theoretical concerns still mean that "expert opinions" govern clinical decision-making when results of bead-based arrays are applied in immunological risk assessment prior to transplantation...
November 20, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Antonis S Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Helen Melita, Antonis S Manolis
Psoriasis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, with its most common coexisting condition, psoriatic arthritis, seem to be more than just a local skin or joint disease, as evidence has accumulated over the years that it is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may confer an increased cardiovascular event and death rate. The data come mostly from observational studies and meta-analyses and indicate a potential pathogenetic link between these two systemic diseases, however definite proof of this detrimental relationship awaits further prospective studies...
November 20, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Himanshu Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Qi Hao Looi, Jhi Biau Foo, May Teng Lim, Cheng Foh Le, Pau Loke Show
Despite of ongoing research programs and numerous clinical trials, seasonal influenza epidemics remain a major concern globally. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current flu vaccines have several limitations, including limited vaccine capacity, long production times, inconsistence efficacy in certain populations, and lack of a "universal" solution. Different next-generation approaches such as cell line-based culture, reverse genetics, and virus expression technology are currently under development to address the aforementioned challenges in conventional vaccine manufacture pipeline...
September 25, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Masoumeh Bagheri, Azadeh Zahmatkesh
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known for their essential roles in promotion of innate immunity and induction of adaptive immunity through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLR genes are excellent models for the study of the selective pressure enforced by microorganisms on the host genome. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that interactions between pathogens and immune systems have changed during evolution. Selective pressure for maintenance of specific pathogen recognition has led to evolution of TLRs under both positive and purifying selection...
September 12, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
D Ducloux, J Bamoulid, E Daguindau, J M Rebibou, C Courivaud, P Saas
T cell depletion by polyclonal antithymocyte globulins (ATG) has been used for many years in both organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation as an induction and rejection therapy. Nevertheless, its use remains largely empirical and many clinical questions, such as the determination of an individualized dose, therapeutic relevance of nondepletive effects, or prediction of long-term effects, are still unresolved. This review evaluates the evidence-based knowledge and the uncertainties concerning ATG, and suggests perspectives and opportunities for modern use of this old drug...
August 6, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Ashwinder Kaur, Learn-Han Lee, Sek-Chuen Chow, Chee-Mun Fang
Transcription factors are gene regulators that activate or repress target genes. One family of the transcription factors that have been extensively studied for their crucial role in regulating gene network in the immune system is the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). IRFs possess a novel turn-helix turn motif that recognizes a specific DNA consensus found in the promoters of many genes that are involved in immune responses. IRF5, a member of IRFs has recently gained much attention for its role in regulating inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases...
July 9, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Vishakha Bhurani, Aditi Mohankrishnan, Alexandre Morrot, Sarat Kumar Dalai
The ultimate goal of any vaccine is to generate a heterogeneous and stable pool of memory lymphocytes. Vaccine are designed with the hope to generate antigen specific long-lived T cell responses, as it may be the case in natural infection; however, inducing such response by sub-unit vaccine has been a challenge. Although significant progress has been made, there is lot of scope for designing novel vaccine strategies by taking cues from the natural infection. This review focuses upon the roadblocks and the possible ways to overcome them leading to developing effective vaccines...
June 21, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Fatemeh Faraji, Zahra Karjoo, Maryam Vakili Moghaddam, Sahel Heidari, Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza Falak
Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we will focus on a number of factors, which play crucial roles in the human protein immunogenicity...
May 31, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Kane Langdon, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
The progressive damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to an increase in inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a decrease in number or function of immunomodulatory regulatory T cells (Tregs). Many therapies that are effective in RA are shown to affect Th1/Th17 cells and/or Tregs. One such therapy, abatacept, utilizes a physiologic immunomodulatory molecule called cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) which causes contact-dependent inhibition of inflammatory T-cell activation. Recent advances in CTLA-4 research has uncovered the method by which this occurs physiologically but the actions of the CTLA-4Ig fusion protein are still not fully understood...
May 14, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Omid Rezahosseini, Sara Hanaei, Mehdi Hamadani, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Nima Rezaei
Association between HIV/AIDS and some of the cancers such as lymphomais is well known. Relative risk for developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increases 60-200 folds in HIV-infected individuals. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) are among the most frequent subtypes. During the last century, scientists found that the immune system could potentially detect and destroy cancer cells. Therefore, they started a new field of study, which is named immunotherapy...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Bruna K Banin-Hirata, Carlos E C de Oliveira, Roberta Losi-Guembarovski, Patricia M M Ozawa, Glauco A F Vitiello, Felipe C de Almeida, Daniela R Derossi, Nayara D André, Maria A E Watanabe
Breast cancer represents a complex and heterogeneous disease that comprises distinct disease conditions, histological features, and clinical outcome. Since many years, it has been demonstrated as an association between HER2 amplification and poor prognosis, because its overexpression is associated with an aggressive phenotype of breast tumor cells. A significant proportion of cases have developed resistance to the current therapies available. Consequently, new prognostic markers are urgently needed to identify patients who are at the highest risk for developing metastases...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Scott Le Rossignol, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is associated with significant morbidity. Redox sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB, HIF, AP-1, and Nrf2 are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The treatment of this disease is limited by the elusive nature of the pathogenesis of RA. NF-κB is crucial for the maturation of immune cells as well as production of TNFα and MMPs, which escalate RA. HIF is essential for activation of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and pannus formation in RA...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
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