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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

Sophie N Saxton, Sarah B Withers, Anthony M Heagerty
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is no longer recognised as simply a structural support for the vasculature, and we now know that PVAT releases vasoactive factors which modulate vascular function. Since the discovery of this function in 1991, PVAT research is rapidly growing and the importance of PVAT function in disease is becoming increasingly clear. Obesity is associated with a plethora of vascular conditions; therefore, the study of adipocytes and their effects on the vasculature is vital. PVAT contains an adrenergic system including nerves, adrenoceptors and transporters...
February 12, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Wangde Dai, Jianru Shi, Juan Carreno, Sharon L Hale, Robert A Kloner
PURPOSE: We investigated whether bilateral, lower limb remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) improved long-term survival using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated, and randomly assigned to RIPC, induced by inflating bilateral pressure cuffs around the femoral arteries to 200 mmHg for 5 min, followed by 5-min release of the cuffs (repeated for 4 cycles), or control group (cuffs were inflated to 30 mmHg)...
February 12, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Yunhui Du, Xiao Li, Haicun Yu, Li Yan, Wayne Bond Lau, Shihan Zhang, Yanwen Qin, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu, Michael Fu
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported significantly elevated titers of serum autoantibody against the second extracellular loop of β1 -adrenoceptor (β1 -AA), a catecholamine-like substance with β1 -adrenergic activity, in patients with heart failure. Although evidence demonstrates that this autoantibody may alter T cell proliferation and secretion, the role of T lymphocytes in heart failure induced by β1 -AA remains unclear. The current study was designed to determine whether T cell disorder contributes to heart failure induced by β1 -AA...
February 12, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Lisandro D Colantonio, Keri L Monda, Robert S Rosenson, Todd M Brown, Katherine E Mues, George Howard, Monika M Safford, Larisa Yedigarova, Michael E Farkouh, Paul Muntner
PURPOSE: Determine the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among adults with clinically evident CVD who meet the inclusion criteria for the FOURIER clinical trial on PCSK9 inhibition in a real-world database. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2072 African American and 2972 white REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants 45-85 years of age with clinically evident CVD. Study participants meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria (one major or two minor cardiovascular risk factors, fasting LDL cholesterol ≥ 70 mg/dL or non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≤ 400 mg/dL, and taking statin) were followed for CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and CVD death) from baseline in 2003-2007 through 2014...
February 11, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Henry N Ginsberg, Jaakko Tuomilehto, G Kees Hovingh, Bertrand Cariou, Raul D Santos, Alan S Brown, Santosh K Sanganalmath, Andrew Koren, Desmond Thompson, Frederick J Raal
PURPOSE: This post-hoc analysis examined whether age modified the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), using pooled data from four 78-week placebo-controlled phase 3 trials (ODYSSEY FH I, FH II, LONG TERM, and HIGH FH). METHODS: Data from 1257 patients with HeFH on maximally tolerated statin ± other lipid-lowering therapies were analyzed by an alirocumab dose regimen and by age subgroups (18 to < 45, 45 to < 55, 55 to < 65, and ≥ 65 years)...
February 8, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Ruduwaan Salie, Aisha Khlani Hassan Alsalhin, Erna Marais, Amanda Lochner
The β3-AR (beta3-adrenergic receptor) is resistant to short-term agonist-promoted desensitization and delivers a constant intracellular signal, making this receptor a potential target in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AIM: To investigate whether selective modulation of β3-AR prior to or during ischemia and/or reperfusion may be cardioprotective. METHODS: Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to 35-min regional ischemia (RI) and 60-min reperfusion. The β3-AR agonist (BRL37344, 1 μM) or antagonist (SR59230A, 0...
February 6, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Daniel A Hyman, Vincent Siebert, Xiaoming Jia, Mahboob Alam, Glenn N Levine, Salim S Virani, Yochai Birnbaum
Atrial fibrillation is a well-known risk factor for cardioembolic stroke; a number of risk stratification scoring systems have been developed to help differentiate which patients would stand to benefit from anticoagulation. However, these scoring systems cannot be utilized in patients whose atrial fibrillation has not been diagnosed. As implantable cardiac monitors become more prevalent, it becomes possible to identify occult, subclinical atrial fibrillation. With this data, it is also possible to examine the relationship between episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism and the total burden of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and thromboembolic risk...
January 25, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Scott T Chiesa, Marietta Charakida
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) has long been referred to as 'good cholesterol' due to its apparent inverse relationship with future CVD risk. More recent research has questioned a causal role for HDL-c in this relationship, however, as both genetic studies and numerous large-scale randomised controlled trials have found no evidence of a cardiovascular protective effect when HDL-c levels are raised. Instead, focus has switched to the functional properties of the HDL particle. Evidence suggests that both the composition and function of HDL may be significantly altered in the context of an inflammatory milieu, transforming the particle from a vasoprotective anti-atherogenic particle to a noxious pro-atherogenic equivalent...
January 24, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Jingyi Chen, Zhenzhen Jiang, Xing Zhou, Xingxing Sun, Jianwei Cao, Yongpan Liu, Xianyu Wang
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious threat to the health of people around the world. Recent evidence has indicated that high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is involved in I/R-induced inflammation, and inflammation can cause necroptosis of cells. Interestingly, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we speculated that DEX preconditioning may suppress H/R-induced necroptosis by inhibiting expression of HMGB1 in cardiomyocytes. We found that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) significantly increased cellular damage, as measured by cell viability (100 ± 3...
January 24, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Alvaro Garcia-Ropero, Donna Mancini, Sean P Pinney, Johanna P Contreras, Icilma Fergus, Vivian Abascal, Pedro Moreno, Farah Atallah-Lajam, Ronald Tamler, Anu Lala, Javier Sanz, Valentin Fuster, Juan Jose Badimon
The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular mortality by 38% and heart failure (HF) hospitalizations by 35% in diabetic patients. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of empagliflozin in ameliorating HF and improving cardiac function in a non-diabetic porcine model of HF mediated via a switch in myocardial metabolism that enhances cardiac energetics. Therefore, we hypothesized that the cardiac benefits of empagliflozin can also be extended to non-diabetic HF patients. The EMPA-TROPISM clinical trial is a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, trial comparing the efficacy of and safety of empagliflozin in non-diabetic HF patients...
January 24, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Zhonglin Cai, Jianzhong Zhang, Hongjun Li
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) frequently have erectile dysfunction (ED) because the two conditions have similar risk factors and potential mechanisms. The therapeutic effect of CVD is strongly dependent upon long-term management of the condition. Patients with CVD tend to have poor medication compliance, and the coexistence of ED often discourages patients with CVD from continuing their long-term CVD management, thus worsening CVD treatment compliance. The two major reasons for poor compliance are that (i) the adverse effects of cardiovascular medications on erectile function drive people to reduce the prescribed dosage or even stop taking the medications to obtain satisfactory sexual arousal and (ii) a worsening mental state due to ED reduces medication compliance...
January 24, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Bungo Shirouchi, Yumiko Furukawa, Yuri Nakamura, Asuka Kawauchi, Katsumi Imaizumi, Hirosuke Oku, Masao Sato
PURPOSE: Oxycholesterols (OCs) are produced from cholesterol by oxidation of the steroidal backbone and side-chain. OCs are present in blood and evidence suggests their involvement in disease development and progression. However, limited information is available regarding the absorption mechanisms and relative absorption rates of dietary OCs. Although ezetimibe is known to inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption via Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), whether it also inhibits dietary OC absorption is unclear...
January 22, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Samuel A Watson, Cesare M Terracciano, Filippo Perbellini
Myocardial slices, also known as "cardiac tissue slices" or "organotypic heart slices," are ultrathin (100-400 μm) slices of living adult ventricular myocardium prepared using a high-precision vibratome. They are a model of intermediate complexity as they retain the native multicellularity, architecture, and physiology of the heart, while their thinness ensures adequate oxygen and metabolic substrate diffusion in vitro. Myocardial slices can be produced from a variety of animal models and human biopsies, thus providing a representative human in vitro platform for translational cardiovascular research...
January 22, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Hangqi Luo, Changzuan Zhou, Jufang Chi, Sunlei Pan, Hui Lin, Feidan Gao, Tingjuan Ni, Liping Meng, Jie Zhang, Chengjian Jiang, Zheng Ji, Haitao Lv, Hangyuan Guo
PURPOSE: The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cardiovascular disease is now recognized. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to have cardiovascular protective effects by decreasing ER stress. This study aimed to assess the ability of TUDCA to decrease ER stress, inhibit dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and reduce in-stent restenosis. METHODS: The effect of TUDCA on dedifferentiation of VSMCs and ER stress was investigated in vitro using wound-healing assays, MTT assays, and western blotting...
January 21, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Krzysztof Ozierański, Paweł Balsam, Agnieszka Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agata Tymińska, Robert Kowalik, Marcin Grabowski, Michał Peller, Anna Wancerz, Michał Marchel, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Aldo P Maggioni, Jarosław Drożdż, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Grzegorz Opolski
PURPOSE: Current clinical recommendations do not emphasise superiority of any of diuretics, but available reports are very encouraging and suggest beneficial effects of torasemide. This study aimed to compare the effect of torasemide and furosemide on long-term outcomes and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class change in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). METHODS: Of 2019 patients enrolled in Polish parts of the heart failure registries of the European Society of Cardiology (Pilot and Long-Term), 1440 patients treated with a loop diuretic were included in the analysis...
January 16, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Lang She, Hua Tu, Yin-Zhuang Zhang, Li-Jing Tang, Nian-Sheng Li, Qi-Lin Ma, Bin Liu, Qingjie Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Jun Peng
PURPOSE: Necroptosis is an important form of cell death following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) functions as the convergent point for multiple necrosis pathways. This study aims to investigate whether inhibition of PGAM5 could reduce I/R-induced myocardial necroptosis and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The SD rat hearts (or H9c2 cells) were subjected to 1-h ischemia (or 10-h hypoxia) plus 3-h reperfusion (or 4-h reoxygenation) to establish the I/R (or H/R) injury model...
January 14, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Marguerite Blignaut, Yolandi Espach, Mignon van Vuuren, Karthik Dhanabalan, Barbara Huisamen
PURPOSE: Cardiotoxicity is a well-known side effect of chloroquine. Several studies have proposed chloroquine as a potential anti-diabetic treatment but do not address this problem. The current study investigated the effect of ex vivo chloroquine treatment on (1) heart function and glucose uptake, (2) mitochondrial function and (3) in vivo treatment on heart function. METHODS: Control or obese male Wistar rats were used throughout. Dose responses of increasing chloroquine concentrations versus vehicle on cardiac function were measured using isolated, Langendorff-perfused hearts whilst glucose uptake and cell viability were determined in ventricular cardiomyocytes...
January 11, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Yong Hoon Kim, Ae-Young Her, Myung Ho Jeong, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Seung-Yul Lee, Sung-Jin Hong, Dong-Ho Shin, Jung-Sun Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limited comparative data concerning long-term clinical outcomes of combination therapy between beta-blockers (BB) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are available. We thought to compare 2-year major clinical outcomes between BB with ACEI and BB with ARB therapy in patients with STEMI after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES)...
January 10, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Thomas E Kaier, Bashir Alaour, Michael Marber
Chest pain is responsible for 6-10% of all presentations to acute healthcare providers. Triage is inherently difficult and heavily reliant on the quantification of cardiac Troponin (cTn), as a minority of patients with an ultimate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) present with clear diagnostic features such as ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram. Owing to slow release and disappearance of cTn, many patients require repeat blood testing or present with stable but elevated concentrations of the best available biomarker and are thus caught at the interplay of sensitivity and specificity...
January 8, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Maria Fragiadaki, Paul C Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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