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Cognition & Emotion

Karoline Bading, Christoph Stahl, Klaus Rothermund
Moran and Bar-Anan (Moran, T., & Bar-Anan, Y. (2013). The effect of object-valence relations on automatic evaluation. Cognition and Emotion, 27(4), 743-752) demonstrated that evaluations on a direct measure reflected information on both US valence and CS-US relations, whereas evaluations on an indirect measure (IAT) reflected only information on US valence. This dissociation between measures supposedly tapping into propositional and associative processes apparently supports dual process models of EC. In the present study, we present an alternative explanation of this pattern, based on an interpretation of IAT effects in terms of flexible similarity construction processes...
April 19, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Ana I Orejuela-Dávila, Sara M Levens, Sara J Sagui-Henson, Richard G Tedeschi, Gal Sheppes
Previous research has examined emotion regulation (ER) and trauma in the context of psychopathology, yet little research has examined ER in posttraumatic growth (PTG), the experience of positive psychological change following a traumatic event. ER typically involves decreasing negative affect by engaging (e.g. reappraisal) or disengaging (e.g. distraction) with emotional content. To investigate how ER may support PTG, participants who experienced a traumatic event in the past 6 months completed a PTG questionnaire and an ER choice task in which they down regulated their negative emotion in response to negative pictures of varying intensity by choosing to distract or reappraise...
April 18, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Thomas Meyer, Conny W E M Quaedflieg, James A Bisby, Tom Smeets
Contextual learning pervades our perception and cognition and plays a critical role in adjusting to aversive and stressful events. Our ability to memorise spatial context has been studied extensively with the contextual cueing paradigm, in which participants search for targets among simple distractor cues and show search advantages for distractor configurations that repeat across trials. Mixed evidence suggests that confrontation with adversity can enhance as well as impair the contextual cueing effect. We aimed to investigate this relationship more systematically by devising a contextual cueing task that tests spatial configuration learning within complex visual scenes that were emotionally neutral or negative (Study 1) and was preceded by the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition (Study 2)...
April 16, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer, Christopher R Madan, Esther Fujiwara
Although item-memory for emotional information is enhanced, memory for associations between items is often impaired for negative, emotionally arousing compared to neutral information. We tested two possible mechanisms underlying this impairment, using picture pairs: 1) higher confidence in one's own ability to memorise negative information may cause participants to under-study negative pairs; 2) better interactive imagery for neutral pairs could facilitate associative memory for neutral pairs more than for negative pairs...
April 16, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Tal Moran, Yoav Bar-Anan
After co-occurrence of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with an affective unconditioned stimulus (US), the evaluation of the CS acquires the US valence. This effect disappears when information about the CS-US relation indicates that they are opposite in valence. In that case, people often show a contrastive effect, evaluating the CS with valence opposite of the US. We investigated whether the assimilative effect of co-occurrence persists and is only obscured by a stronger counteracting contrast effect of the inference from the CS-US opposition relation...
April 15, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Jared Piazza, Justin F Landy
Theories that view emotions as being related in some way to moral judgments suggest that condemning moral emotions should, at a minimum, be understood by laypeople to coincide with judgments of moral disapproval. Seven studies (total N = 826) tested the extent to which anger and disgust align with this criterion. We observed that while anger is understood to be strongly related to moral disapproval of people's actions and character, disgust is not (Studies 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, and 3), and that, in contexts where disgust expressions are thought to coincide somewhat with moral disapproval, part of the reason is that the expression is perceived as anger (Study 4)...
April 15, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Laurent Grégoire, Steven G Greening
While modern theories of emotion emphasize the role of higher-order cognitive processes such as semantics in human emotion, much research into emotional learning has ignored the potential contributions of such processes. This study aimed to determine whether emotional learning affects semantic representations of words independent of perceptual features by assessing whether fear conditioning to a neutral word generalises across languages in bilingual participants. Two sessions differing according to the reinforced language were performed by English-Spanish bilinguals...
April 15, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Michael R Sladek, Leah D Doane, Reagan S Breitenstein
Rumination is an involuntary cognitive process theorized to prolong arousal and inhibit proper emotion regulation. Most available research has examined individual differences in cognitive dispositions to ruminate about stress as a risk marker for psychopathology and other health problems. This intensive longitudinal study extended previous research by examining day-to-day associations of rumination about stress with objectively-measured actigraph-based sleep and diurnal salivary cortisol activity. Sixty-one healthy participants (Mage  = 20...
April 8, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Parisa Parsafar, Elizabeth L Davis
Distraction can reduce adults' memory for emotion-eliciting information, whereas reappraisal can preserve or enhance it. Yet, when given instructions to use specific emotion regulation (ER) strategies, adults report using other strategies too. The consequences of non-instructed strategy use within instructed ER paradigms are rarely examined. We investigated how both instructed and non-instructed but reported strategies related to memory for emotional information in childhood. Older (N = 69; 8- to 10-year-olds; 24 girls) and younger (N = 65; 5- to 7-year-olds; 35 girls) children received instructions to use cognitive distraction, reappraisal, or do nothing (control) before and after viewing a negative emotional film clip...
March 30, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Susan W White, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Thomas H Ollendick
Although attention bias (AB) toward threat has been associated with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), concerns regarding the ability of current measures to detect change in AB following treatment exist. We sought to examine change in bias, as measured via eye-tracking, in adolescents with SAD receiving either attention-bias modification training (ABMT) or attention-control training (ACT). Gaze-based AB was associated (r = -0.361) with symptoms of social anxiety prior to treatment, whereas there was no association between bias as measured via dot probe and social anxiety...
March 30, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Sasha Nahleen, Georgia Dornin, Melanie K T Takarangi
Sharing experiences with others, even without communication, can amplify those experiences. We investigated whether shared stressful experiences amplify. Participants completed the Cold Pressor Task at the same time as a confederate, or while the confederate completed another task. Importantly, participants in the shared (vs. unshared) condition experienced more sensory pain characteristics and reported more stress over time in relation to the task. Importantly, they reported thinking more about the confederate's thoughts and feelings...
March 25, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Malek Mneimne, Samantha Dashineau, K Lira Yoon
To extend our understanding of the proximal etiology of personality pathology, this study examined the dynamic, in-the-moment relations between mindfulness and negative affectivity (NA; emotional lability, anxiousness, separation insecurity) as defined by the alternative model for personality disorders. We tested predictions based upon the Monitor and Acceptance Theory that when people monitored their attention judgmentally, their state NA would be higher than usual; by contrast, when they monitored their attention nonjudgmentally, their state NA would be lower than usual...
March 25, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Hanna Drimalla, Niels Landwehr, Ursula Hess, Isabel Dziobek
Despite advances in the conceptualisation of facial mimicry, its role in the processing of social information is a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between mimicry and cognitive and emotional empathy. To assess mimicry, facial electromyography was recorded for 70 participants while they completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test, which presents complex context-embedded emotional expressions. As predicted, inter-individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy were associated with the level of facial mimicry...
March 21, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Colin Tucker Smith, Jimmy Calanchini, Sean Hughes, Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer
Learning procedures such as mere exposure, evaluative conditioning, and approach/avoidance training have been used to establish evaluative responses as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). In this paper, we used the Quad model to disentangle the processes driving IAT responses instantiated by these evaluative learning procedures. Half of the participants experienced one of these three procedures whereas the other half only received instructions about how the procedure would work. Across three experiments (total n = 4231), we examined the extent to which instruction-based versus experience-based evaluative learning impacted Quad estimates of the Activation of evaluative information in IAT responses...
March 21, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Konrad Bresin, Kristen Mccowan, Edelyn Verona
Prior research and theory has suggested that rumination plays a role in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and rumination increases recall of negative autobiographical information in dysphoric individuals. Across two studies, we investigated whether rumination (versus distraction) differentially influences the recall of emotional words among dysphoric persons with and without a history of NSSI. Participants encoded unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant words and then were randomly assigned to either focus on the meaning and consequences of their emotions (i...
March 20, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Matthew E Sachs, Jonas Kaplan, Assal Habibi
Empathy involves a mapping between the emotions observed in others and those experienced in one's self. However, effective social functioning also requires an ability to differentiate one's own emotional state from that of others. Here, we sought to examine the relationship between trait measures of empathy and the self-other distinction during emotional experience in both children and adults. We used a topographical self-report method (emBODY tool) in which participants drew on a silhouette of a human body where they felt an emotional response while watching film and music clips, as well as where they believed the character in the film or performer was feeling an emotion...
March 20, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Pieter Van Dessel, Jeremy Cone, Anne Gast, Jan De Houwer
Previous research has shown that the presentation of valenced information about a target stimulus sometimes has different effects on implicit and explicit stimulus evaluations. Importantly, however, research examining the moderators of implicit-explicit dissociations has often failed to account for differences in the properties of the instruments used to measure implicit and explicit evaluations, preventing a clear interpretation of the results. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we conducted a study that probed the impact of valenced information on implicit and explicit evaluations as measured with procedures that were matched on methodological factors...
March 19, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Michael Batashvili, Paul A Staples, Ian Baker, David Sheffield
Previous research has outlined high anxiety in connection with gamma modulation, identifying that gamma-band activity (40-100 Hz) correlates with processing of threat perception, attention and anxiety. Maths anxiety research has also noted the involvement of these aspects, yet this has not been investigated from a neurophysiological standpoint. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to research gamma-band activity in relation to maths anxiety over two studies. The first measured gamma differences during the processing of complex addition and multiplication stimuli...
March 18, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Ana P Pinheiro, Diogo Lima, Pedro B Albuquerque, Andrey Anikin, César F Lima
How do we perceive voices coming from different spatial locations, and how is this affected by emotion? The current study probed the interplay between space and emotion during voice perception. Thirty participants listened to nonverbal vocalizations coming from different locations around the head (left vs. right; front vs. back), and differing in valence (neutral, positive [amusement] or negative [anger]). They were instructed to identify the location of the vocalizations (Experiment 1) and to evaluate their emotional qualities (Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Ji-Eun Shin
What three words come to your mind in response to "happiness"? Using a free-association task [cf. Nelson, D. L., McEvoy, C. L., & Dennis, S. (2000). What is free association and what does it measure? Memory and Cognition, 28, 887-899], this research finds that the number of social words (e.g. family, love) provided in link to happiness predicts people's actual life satisfaction level. However, this association was significantly moderated by the person's self-perceived financial state. The contingency between holding a socially-oriented belief about happiness and experienced life satisfaction was significant among members of low socioeconomic status (SES), but not among the high SES group...
March 14, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
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