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Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Shiu F Wong, Frederick Aardema, Jessica R Grisham
The inference-based approach (IBA) is one cognitive model that aims to explain the aetiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). IBA theory suggests that certain reasoning processes lead an individual with OCD to confuse imagined possibilities with actual probabilities, a process termed inferential confusion. One such reasoning process is inverse reasoning, where hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Recently, we developed a task-based measure of inverse reasoning...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sara J Bufferd, Lea R Dougherty, Thomas M Olino
Although anxiety can be early-emerging, impairing, and persistent, behaviors relevant to anxiety mirror typical development in early childhood. To better understand the spectrum of typical to problematic behavior, this study characterizes the range of frequency and severity of separation and social anxiety behaviors and associated impairment in preschool-aged children using a novel daily diary method. Primary caregivers of 291 3-5-year-old children reported the frequency of children's daily separation and social anxiety behaviors and related impairment for 14 days...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Eli R Lebowitz, Yaara Shimshoni, Wendy K Silverman
Nightmares are commonly reported in clinically anxious children and are associated with the presence of other sleep-related problems. Family accommodation has been theorized as playing a central role in the sleep-related problems of anxious children, but empirical data is lacking. We examined associations between nightmares, maternal reports of family accommodation, and sleep-related problems in clinically anxious children. We also examined a hypothesized mediational pathway linking nightmares to other sleep-related problems, through increased family accommodation using structural equation modeling...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Wayne Chappelle, Tanya Goodman, Laura Reardon, Lillian Prince
The prevalence and expression of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among United States Air Force remotely piloted aircraft (RPA; commonly referred to as "drones") warfighters exposed to battlefield trauma via remote, electronic warfare is relevant and critical to the effective delivery of mental health care for this population. RPA warfighters (n = 715) with real-time exposure to at least one traumatic event participated in an online survey. Measures included the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and survey of exposure to traumatic events during the course of operational combat missions...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Matthew T Tull, Courtney N Forbes, Nicole H Weiss, Kim L Gratz
Studies show that patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at high risk for engaging in risky behaviors. However, these studies do not speak to the context in which these behaviors are more likely to occur. This study examined whether SUD patients with current PTSD, compared to those without a history of PTSD, are more likely to exhibit risk-taking on a laboratory-based risk-taking task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), following exposure to a personalized trauma script versus a neutral script...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sean Minns, Andrew Levihn-Coon, Emily Carl, Jasper A J Smits, Wayne Miller, Don Howard, Santiago Papini, Simon Quiroz, Eunjung Lee-Furman, Michael Telch, Per Carlbring, Drew Xanthopoulos, Mark B Powers
Stereoscopic 3D gives the viewer the same shape, size, perspective and depth they would experience viewing the real world and could mimic the perceptual threat cues present in real life. This is the first study to investigate whether an immersive stereoscopic 3D video exposure-based treatment would be effective in reducing fear of spiders. Participants with a fear of spiders (N = 77) watched two psychoeducational videos with facts about spiders and phobias. They were then randomized to a treatment condition that watched a single session of a stereoscopic 3D immersive video exposure-based treatment (six 5-minute exposures) delivered through a virtual reality headset or a psychoeducation only control condition that watched a 30-minute neutral video (2D documentary) presented on a computer monitor...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Amanda M Raines, Mary E Oglesby, Jessica L Walton, Gala True, C Laurel Franklin
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), defined as an inability to tolerate the unpleasant response triggered by the observed absence of information, has received increased empirical attention in recent years. The contribution of this cognitive behavioral construct to the etiology and maintenance of various anxiety disorders has become increasingly recognized. However, the relationship between IU and other affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), remains largely unexplored. The current study sought to examine the relationship between IU and overall PTSD symptom and cluster severity using an outpatient sample of veterans (N = 116) assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom structure...
March 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jon D Elhai, Jason C Levine, Brian J Hall
In the present paper, we examine the literature studying relations between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and anxiety symptom severity. We first present background on the health advantages and disadvantages of using a smartphone. Next, we provide caveats in distinguishing healthy smartphone use from unhealthy PSU, and we discuss how PSU is measured. Additionally, we discuss theoretical frameworks explaining how some people develop PSU, including Uses and Gratifications Theory, and Compensatory Internet Use Theory...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Craig S Rosen, Nancy C Bernardy, Kathleen M Chard, Barbara Clothier, Joan M Cook, Jill Crowley, Afsoon Eftekhari, Shannon M Kehle-Forbes, David C Mohr, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Robert J Orazem, Josef I Ruzek, Paula P Schnurr, Brandy N Smith, Nina A Sayer
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) for PTSD at all of its facilities, but little is known about systematic differences between patients who do and do not initiate these treatments. VA administrative data were analyzed for 6,251 veterans receiving psychotherapy over one year in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty clinics at nine VA medical centers. CPT and PE were initiated by 2,173 (35%) patients. Veterans' probability of initiating either CPT or PE (considered together) was 29% lower (adjusted odds ratio = ...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kumar Raghav Gujjar, Arjen van Wijk, Ratika Kumar, Ad de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Although Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) has proven to be effective in the treatment of various subtypes of specific phobia, there is limited evidence of its role in the treatment of dental phobia. METHOD: A single-blind RCT was conducted among 30 randomized patients with dental phobia to either VRET or informational pamphlet (IP) condition. Primary outcome anxiety measures (VAS-A, MDAS and DFS) were evaluated at baseline, pre- and post-intervention, 1-week, 3-months and 6-months follow-up...
March 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kelly A Correa, Huiting Liu, Stewart A Shankman
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a putative key, transdiagnostic factor in internalizing psychopathologies. However, it is unclear if elevated levels of IU, as measured by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, short form (IUS-12) and its subscales (prospective and inhibitory IU), persist into remission of internalizing psychopathologies (or particular types of internalizing psychopathologies; e.g., fear vs. distress-misery disorders). It is also unknown if IU is specifically characteristic of internalizing (vs...
March 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Lisa-Marie Emerson, Claire Ogielda, Georgina Rowse
Anxious cognitions and parental behavior are important in the development of child anxiety. The current review aims to appraise the literature on the relationship between parental factors and chid anxious cognitions. Online database searches of PsycInfo, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Web of Science were systematically searched using key terms related to 'parent', 'child', 'anxiety' and 'cognitions'. Included studies (N = 13) were quality assessed and study findings were appraised in line with cognitive behavioral frameworks of the parental pathways to the development of anxious cognitions in children...
March 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Amanda A Benbow, Page L Anderson
A proposed advantage of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders is that people will be less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely if the treatment involves facing one's fear in a virtual world rather than the real world, but this has yet to be empirically tested. The present meta-analyses assess the odds of dropout from virtual reality exposure therapy compared to in vivo exposure therapy, estimate the overall rate of dropout from virtual reality exposure treatment, and test potential moderating variables...
January 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Tanja Jovanovic, Boadie W Dunlop, Sheila Rauch, Carly Yasinski, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Callan Coghlan, Seth Norrholm, Albert Skip Rizzo, Kerry Ressler, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exaggerated expression of fear responses to danger and safety cues. Translational research suggests that dexamethasone facilitates fear extinction in animal and human fear conditioning models. For this randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N = 27), we aimed to translate these findings to the clinic by using virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD to determine whether dexamethasone will increase the efficacy of exposure therapy for VRE relative to placebo...
January 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Emily Carl, Aliza T Stein, Andrew Levihn-Coon, Jamie R Pogue, Barbara Rothbaum, Paul Emmelkamp, Gordon J G Asmundson, Per Carlbring, Mark B Powers
Trials of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety-related disorders have proliferated in number and diversity since our previous meta-analysis that examined 13 total trials, most of which were for specific phobias (Powers & Emmelkamp, 2008). Since then, new trials have compared VRET to more diverse anxiety and related disorders including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. With the availability of this data, it is imperative to re-examine the efficacy of VRET for anxiety...
January 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
L J Kreuze, G H M Pijnenborg, Y B de Jonge, M H Nauta
Anxiety-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) effectively reduces anxiety in children and adolescents. An important remaining question is to what extent anxiety-focused CBT also affects broader outcome domains. Additionally, it remains unclear whether parental involvement in treatment may have impact on domains other than anxiety. A meta-analysis (nstudies  = 42, nparticipants  = 3239) of the effects of CBT and the moderating role of parental involvement was conducted on the following major secondary outcomes: depressive symptoms, externalizing behaviors, general functioning, and social competence...
December 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Santiago Papini, Derek Pisner, Jason Shumake, Mark B Powers, Christopher G Beevers, Evan E Rainey, Jasper A J Smits, Ann Marie Warren
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in a substantial minority of emergency room admits. Inexpensive and accurate person-level assessment of PTSD risk after trauma exposure is a critical precursor to large-scale deployment of early interventions that may reduce individual suffering and societal costs. Toward this aim, we applied ensemble machine learning to predict PTSD screening status three months after severe injury using cost-effective and minimally invasive data. Participants (N = 271) were recruited at a Level 1 Trauma Center where they provided variables routinely collected at the hospital, including pulse, injury severity, and demographics, as well as psychological variables, including self-reported current depression, psychiatric history, and social support...
December 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
M E Oglesby, N A Short, B J Albanese, A K Portero, N B Schmidt
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the perceived and/or actual behavioral capacity to tolerate negative emotional states, is considered an important risk factor for various externalizing and internalizing disorders. Despite the importance of DT in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, few reliable and valid indicators of DT have been developed. One potentially useful way to assess DT is through interpretation bias (IB) paradigms. The current study sought to examine the convergent validity, reliability, and clinical utility of a DT-focused IB paradigm by directly measuring an individual's interpretations of distressing information...
December 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ruud A Jongedijk, Niels van der Aa, Joris F G Haagen, Paul A Boelen, Rolf J Kleber
Individuals diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show remarkably different symptom presentations. Identification of diagnostic profiles of PTSD may contribute to knowledge about treatment modifications to enhance treatment effectiveness. The present study aimed to identify symptom severity classes among 236 Dutch veterans based on a broad range of psychopathology outcomes, including PTSD, using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Moreover, multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether class membership could be predicted by the number and characteristics of traumatic event types, coping and personality dimensions...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
M Prabhavi N Perera, Neil W Bailey, Sally E Herring, Paul B Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease that causes significant decline in the quality of life of those affected. Due to our limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of OCD, successful treatment remains elusive. Although many have studied the pathophysiology of OCD through electroencephalography (EEG), limited attempts have been made to synthesize and interpret their findings. To bridge this gap, we conducted a comprehensive literature review using Medline/PubMed and considered the 65 most relevant studies published before June 2018...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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