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Research in Developmental Disabilities

Nuria Calet, Nicolás Gutiérrez-Palma, Sylvia Defior, Gracia Jiménez-Fernández
BACKGROUND: The deficit on segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia is well established and according to recent studies this deficit extends to suprasegmental phonology or prosody. However, these studies have focused on word-level prosody. Further research is needed concerning prosodic deficit in dyslexia, especially with a Spanish-speaking population. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of linguistic (word and phrase-level) and non-linguistic prosodic skills in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia...
May 10, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Michael Brown, Edward McCann
BACKGROUND: There is a growing and evolving research evidence base regarding sexuality issues and adults with intellectual disabilities. However, the experiences and views of families and direct care support workers and their support and development needs in the topic area are unclear. AIMS: The aim of this narrative review was to explore the views and experiences of families and direct care support workers in relation to the expression of sexuality by adults with intellectual disabilities and to identify their distinct support and development needs...
May 10, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
D Giofrè, S Provazza, D Angione, A Cini, C Menazza, F Oppi, C Cornoldi
Intelligence measures are typically used in the assessment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but there is a paucity of research on the implications of such testing. In the present study, we examined children with ASD using two of the most largely adopted instruments, i.e., the WISC-IV, arguably the most utilized scale in the world; and the Leiter-3, a nonverbal scale that also excludes, from the IQ calculation, working memory and processing speed, which are points of weakness in ASD. Results showed that IQ and indices of these two batteries are strongly correlated...
May 10, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Zsuzsanna Varga, Linda Garami, Anett Ragó, Ferenc Honbolygó, Valéria Csépe
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with various risks, including delayed or atypical language development. The prenatal start of prosodic tuning may affect the processing of word stress, an important suprasegmental feature of spoken utterances. AIM: Our study focused on the expected contribution of intra-uterine experience to word stress processing. We aimed to demonstrate the hypothesized effect of intra-uterine sound exposition on stress sensitivity. METHOD: We recorded ERP responses of 34 preterm infants elicited by bisyllabic pseudo-words in two oddball conditions by switching the stress pattern (legal vs...
May 9, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Julie M Orlando, Samuel Pierce, Mayumi Mohan, Julie Skorup, Athylia Paremski, Megan Bochnak, Laura A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy are less likely to be physically active than their peers, however there is limited evidence regarding self-initiated physical activity in toddlers who are not able, or who may never be able, to walk. AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure self-initiated physical activity and its relationship to gross motor function and participation in non-ambulatory toddlers with cerebral palsy. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were between the ages of 1-3 years...
May 4, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Carolien A N Knoop-van Campen, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
Children with dyslexia are often provided with audio-support to compensate for their reading problems, but this may intervene with their learning. The aim of the study was to examine modality and redundancy effects in 21 children with dyslexia, compared to 21 typically developing peers (5th grade), on study outcome (retention and transfer knowledge) and study time in user-paced learning environments and the role of their executive functions (verbal and visual working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility) on these effects...
April 30, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Fars Kabiyea, Iris Manor-Binyamini
BACKGROUND: Although children across the world experience Developmental Disabilities, most research on DD has been conducted using Western cultural perspectives and has primarily focused on mothers, leaving significant gaps in the literature. This study intends to fill some of these gaps by exploring and gaining an understanding of the experiences of fathers raising children with DD. Thus, the aim of this study was: to examine whether stigma, somatization, and parental self-efficacy were associated with stress among Bedouin fathers of adolescents with DD...
April 26, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Aubyn C Stahmer, Jessica Suhrheinrich, Scott Roesch, Sasha M Zeedyk, Tiffany Wang, Neilson Chan, Hyon Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has identified a need to understand key components of complex evidence-based practices (EBP). One approach involves examining the relationship between component use and child behavior. AIMS: This study provides initial evidence for identifying key components in a specific EBP, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). We examined which components were related to child response and evaluated relationships between provider characteristics, child characteristics and component intensity...
April 25, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Raaya Alon
BACKGROUND: Raising a child with special needs challenges mothers in complicated ways, yet, alongside these difficulties, there is evidence for maternal post-crisis growth. Social support is one element that may contribute to growth. AIMS: This study explores the relationship between social support and post-crisis growth, examines type of disability as a mediating variable between support and growth, and, looks at the relations between subtypes of support and growth...
April 25, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Andrew M H Siu, Zuie Lin, Joanna Chung
BACKGROUND: The Treatment & Education of Autistic and Communication Related Handicapped Children (TEACCH) approach has been widely adopted around the world, but most previous studies focus on applying it to teaching children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have high functioning or without intellectual disabilities. AIMS: This study evaluated the application and effectiveness of a TEACCH approach in teaching functional skills to young adults with ASD who have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities...
April 24, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mareike Altgassen, Daniel P Sheppard, Marc P H Hendriks
This study explored the impact of motivation on the memory for delayed intentions (so-called, prospective memory, PM) in autistic individuals. Specifically, we were interested in the effects of personal (i.e., receiving a reward) as compared to social motivation (i.e., performing a favour for someone). Given the well-established theory of mind deficits in autism, we expected autistic individuals to benefit more strongly from personal than social importance manipulations, whereas the opposite pattern was predicted for controls...
April 20, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kenneth N K Fong, W Y Ma, H K Pang, Pakki P K Tang, Lawla L F Law
BACKGROUND: Coloured overlays have often been used to improve reading performance in preschool children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, previous evidence shows conflicts in its application. AIMS: To investigate the immediate effects of coloured overlays on reading performance using eye tracking in preschool children with ASD and their typical development (TD) counterparts closely matched by chronological age. METHODS: Forty participants with ASD (n = 20) or TD (n = 20) were recruited by convenience sampling and asked to read aloud numbers randomly arranged on paper...
April 13, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Joanne Danker, Iva Strnadová, Therese M Cumming
BACKGROUND: Student well-being, though widely researched, continues to be a poorly defined concept. Few student well-being studies focus on students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who may have a poorer sense of well-being compared to typically developing students. AIMS: The current study aims to explore the conceptualisation, barriers, and ways to enhance the well-being of students with ASD from their perspectives. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Photovoice, a participatory research method was used to elicit the views of 16 high school students with ASD to explore the concept of well-being...
April 12, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Gal Ben-Yehudah, Adi Brann
BACKGROUND: Higher-education students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often face difficulties in self-regulation of learning (SRL). Studies of typical students have shown that SRL is less effective for digitally displayed texts. The current study investigated the influence of the media (digital, print) on reading comprehension and self-monitoring (a component of SRL) in higher-education students with and without ADHD. METHODS: Forty-five students with ADHD and 61 matched controls read an expository text displayed digitally or in print...
April 10, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jafar Nasiri, Maryam Kachuei, Rasool Kermani, Zahra Samaninobandegani
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with West syndrome (WS) by using the Bayley-III scale of infant development, as the first report from the Middle-East. METHODS: Between January 2013 and February 2016, we prospectively enrolled 67 consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of WS from Isfahan, Iran. Cognition, language and motor outcomes of the studied subjects were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III)...
April 8, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kristin L Berg, Cheng-Shi Shiu, Rebecca T Feinstein, Kruti Acharya, Jonathan MeDrano, Michael E Msall
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) experience significant health disparities. An overlooked risk factor for health disparities in the DD population is adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). The purpose of this study was to generate population prevalence data about level of adverse experiences among children with DD in comparison to children without DD and the extent to which potential confounders may influence observed associations between adversity and child DD status...
April 8, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Melanie Feldman, Melissa Maye, Sarah Levinson, Alice Carter, Jan Blacher, Abbey Eisenhower
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High quality student-teacher relationships (STR) are important for children's academic and social development. We explore how individual child language domains (semantics, syntax, pragmatics), teacher years of experience, and classroom placement (general or special education) relate to STR quality for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the school year. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 191 children with ASD (Mage  = 5.6 years) completed a standardized language assessment and their teachers reported on STR quality twice during the school year...
April 5, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mary Godfrey, Susan Hepburn, Deborah J Fidler, Tinashe Tapera, Fengqing Zhang, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Nancy Raitano Lee
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with increased rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by social-communicative impairments (SOC-COM) and repetitive behaviors and interests (RBI). However, little is known about the ASD symptom presentation in children with DS + ASD. AIMS: The current study sought to describe parent-report of SOC-COM and RBI symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview -Revised (ADI-R) in children with DS (n = 22), DS + ASD (n = 11), and ASD (n = 66)...
April 5, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jessica Ezzell Hunter, Charisma L Jenkins, Valerie Grim, Sue Leung, Krista H Charen, Debra R Hamilton, Emily G Allen, Stephanie L Sherman
BACKGROUND: Women who carry an FMR1 premutation (PM) allele and are mothers of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) experience elevated maternal stress. In-person mindfulness sessions have been shown to be effective in alleviating maternal stress-related outcomes among mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Our prior studies indicate women with a PM are at risk of social anxiety, a potential barrier to in-person mindfulness sessions. AIM: The main goals of this pilot study were to assess feasibility and adherence of an app-based mindfulness training program among mothers of children with FXS and to explore stress, social outcomes, and potential barriers to social support...
April 5, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Roy McConkey, Sarah Craig, Caraíosa Kelly
BACKGROUND: International prevalence rates for intellectual disability vary widely with estimates often based on samples. In Ireland people with an intellectual disability are identified in the national census. Moreover, a national register of people receiving or requiring intellectual disability services is maintained and updated annually. AIMS: The prevalence rates from the census were contrasted with those from the register along with variations in prevalence across the 26 counties of Ireland...
April 1, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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