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Journals Hematology/oncology Clinics of...

Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38789374/benefits-and-harms-of-interception-and-early-detection-of-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Parmigiani
Strategies for early detection and interception of cancer are based on 2 synergistic elements: proactive search for asymptomatic cancer, precancer, or cancer predisposition and proactive disruption of cancer evolution. Benefits and harms of both these elements will vary widely depending on the screened populations, the types of cancers targeted, the detection modalities, and the health care delivery approaches following diagnosis. This article attempts to identify common elements that can inform the evaluation of alternative strategies across many of these scenarios...
May 23, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38782647/biomarkers-in-cancer-screening-promises-and-challenges-in-cancer-early-detection
#2
REVIEW
Indu Kohaar, Nicholos Hodges, Sudhir Srivastava
Cancer continues to be one the leading causes of death worldwide, primarily due to the late detection of the disease. Cancers detected at early stages may enable more effective intervention of the disease. However, most cancers lack well-established screening procedures except for cancers with an established early asymptomatic phase and clinically validated screening tests. There is a critical need to identify and develop assays/tools in conjunction with imaging approaches for precise screening and detection of the aggressive disease at an early stage...
May 22, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38782646/skin-cancer-precursors-from-cancer-genomics-to-early-diagnosis
#3
REVIEW
Madison M Taylor, Kelly C Nelson, Florentia Dimitriou
Skin cancers, including melanoma and keratinocyte carcinomas, are responsible for increasing health care burden internationally. Risk stratification and early detection are paramount for prevention and less risky treatment to overall improve patient outcomes and disease morbidity. Here, the authors discuss the key concepts leading to skin cancer initiation and progression. The authors also outline precursor and progression models for melanoma and keratinocyte carcinomas, including discussion of genetic alterations associated with the various stages of progression...
May 22, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38760198/cervical-cancer-precursors-and-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe
Cervical cancer, caused due to oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), is a leading preventable cause of cancer morbidity and mortality globally. Chronic, persistent HPV infection-induced cervical precursor lesions, if left undetected and untreated, can progress to invasive cancer. Cervical cancer screening approaches have evolved from cytology (Papanicolaou test) to highly sensitive HPV-based molecular methods and personalized, risk-stratified, management guidelines. Innovations like self-collection of samples to increase screening access, innovative triage methods to optimize management of screen positives, and scalable and efficacious precancer treatment approaches will be key to further enhance the utility of prevention interventions...
May 16, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38760197/gastrointestinal-cancer-precursor-conditions-and-their-detection
#5
REVIEW
Asaf Maoz, Nicolette J Rodriguez, Matthew B Yurgelun, Sapna Syngal
Gastrointestinal cancers are a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Many gastrointestinal cancers develop from cancer precursor lesions, which are commonly found in individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes. Hereditary cancer syndromes have advanced our understanding of cancer development and progression and have facilitated the evaluation of cancer prevention and interception efforts. Common gastrointestinal hereditary cancer syndromes, including their organ-specific cancer risk and surveillance recommendations, are reviewed in this article...
May 16, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38724285/early-detection-of-precursor-diseases-of-multiple-myeloma
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth K O'Donnell, Brittany A Borden, Irene M Ghobrial
Precursor diseases of multiple myeloma (MM) are monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance and smoldering MM. While it is well known that a percentage of those affected by these conditions will progress to MM, it is difficult to predict who will progress and when, and guidelines for screening for these conditions are lacking. Moreover, there are various models for risk stratification, though there are ongoing efforts to improve these models in order to predict who may benefit from treatment. Finally, there are various clinical trials, both past and ongoing, expanding the scope of possible treatment options for precursor diseases...
May 9, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38724286/early-detection-and-interception-of-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Allison E B Chang, Alexandra L Potter, Chi-Fu Jeffrey Yang, Lecia V Sequist
Recent advances in lung cancer treatment have led to dramatic improvements in 5-year survival rates. And yet, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, in large part, because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, when cure is no longer possible. Lung cancer screening (LCS) is essential for intercepting the disease at an earlier stage. Unfortunately, LCS has been poorly adopted in the United States, with less than 5% of eligible patients being screened nationally. This article will describe the data supporting LCS, the obstacles to LCS implementation, and the promising opportunities that lie ahead...
May 8, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38719654/early-cancer-detection-in-focus
#8
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth O'Donnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38705773/cancer-precursor-syndromes-and-their-detection-in-the-head-and-neck
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Villa, William N William, Glenn J Hanna
This article explores the multifaceted landscape of oral cancer precursor syndromes. Hereditary disorders like dyskeratosis congenita and Fanconi anemia increase the risk of malignancy. Oral potentially malignant disorders, notably leukoplakia, are discussed as precursors influenced by genetic and immunologic facets. Molecular insights delve into genetic mutations, allelic imbalances, and immune modulation as key players in precancerous progression, suggesting potential therapeutic targets. The article navigates the controversial terrain of management strategies of leukoplakia, encompassing surgical resection, chemoprevention, and immune modulation, while emphasizing the ongoing challenges in developing effective, evidence-based preventive approaches...
May 4, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38582720/advances-in-the-surgical-management-of-esophageal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Smita Sihag
Radical esophagectomy with two or three-field lymphadenectomy remains the mainstay of curative treatment for localized esophageal cancer, often in combination with systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this article, we describe notable advances in the surgical management of esophageal cancer over the past decade that have led to an improvement in both surgical and oncologic outcomes. In addition, we discuss new approaches to surgical management currently under investigation that have the potential to offer further benefits to appropriately selected patients...
April 5, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575457/advances-in-the-imaging-of-esophageal-and-gastroesophageal-junction-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Lisa Ruby, Vetri Sudar Jayaprakasam, Maria Clara Fernandes, Viktoriya Paroder
Accurate imaging is key for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers . Current imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and 18F-FDG (2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, have limitations in accurately staging these cancers. MRI shows promise for T staging and residual disease assessment. Novel PET tracers, like FAPI, FLT, and hypoxia markers, offer potential improvements in diagnostic accuracy. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI combines metabolic and anatomic information, enhancing disease evaluation...
April 3, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575456/advances-in-systemic-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth H Yu
Substantial progress has been made toward understanding biology and developing new therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this review, new insights from genomic profiling, as well as implications for treatment and prognosis, are discussed. New standards of care approaches with a focus on drug therapies are discussed for the treatment of resectable and advanced PDAC. The role of targeted and immune therapies remains limited; cohorts likely to benefit from these approaches are discussed. Promising, preliminary results regarding experimental therapies are reviewed...
April 3, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38521686/advances-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-targeted-therapy-in-upper-gastrointestinal-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Jaeyop Lee, Geoffrey Ku
The Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial marked a pivotal moment in the adoption of trastuzumab for treating advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive esophagogastric (EG) cancer. The KEYNOTE-811 trial brought to light the synergistic effect of immune modulation and HER2 targeting. Additionally, the emergence of trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) highlighted the potential of new pharmaceutical technologies to extend response, particularly for patients who have advanced beyond initial HER2-targeted therapies...
March 22, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38493074/advances-in-immunotherapy-in-esophagogastric-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Khalid Jazieh, Harry Yoon, Mojun Zhu
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are rapidly transforming the care of patients with esophagogastric cancer. Particularly, anti-PD-1 therapy has demonstrated promising efficacy in metastatic and resectable disease. In this review, the authors discuss landmark clinical trials, highlight challenges and opportunities in this field, and propose potential directions for future work.
March 15, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38485552/esophagogastric-cancer-the-current-role-of-radiation-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Leila T Tchelebi, Karyn A Goodman
Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in the management of patients with esophageal cancer regardless of tumor location (proximal, middle, or distal esophagus) or histology (squamous cell vs adenocarcinoma). The addition of neoadjuvant CRT to surgery in patients who are surgical candidates has consistently shown a benefit in terms of locoregional recurrence, pathologic downstaging, and overall survival. For patients who are not surgical candidates, CRT has a role as definitive treatment.
March 13, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38485551/targeted-agents-in-esophagogastric-cancer-beyond-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2
#16
REVIEW
Eric Mehlhaff, Devon Miller, Johnathan E Ebben, Oleksii Dobrzhanskyi, Nataliya V Uboha
Gastroesophageal cancers are highly diverse tumors in terms of their anatomic and molecular characteristics, making drug development challenging. Recent advancements in understanding the molecular profiles of these cancers have led to the identification of several new biomarkers. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating new targeted agents with promising results. CLDN18.2 has emerged as a biomarker with established activity of associated targeted therapies. Other targeted agents, such as bemarituzumab and DKN-01, are under active investigation...
March 13, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38458854/upper-gastrointestinal-cancers-and-the-role-of-genetic-testing
#17
REVIEW
Emily C Harrold, Zsofia K Stadler
Beyond the few established hereditary cancer syndromes with an upper gastrointestinal cancer component, there is increasing recognition of the contribution of novel pathogenic germline variants (gPVs) to upper gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The detection of gPVs has potential implications for novel treatment approaches of the index cancer patient as well as long-term implications for surveillance and risk-reducing measures for cancer survivors and far-reaching implications for the patients' family. With widespread availability of multigene panel testing, new associations may be identified with germline-somatic integration being critical to determining true causality of novel gPVs...
March 7, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38431494/the-role-of-screening-and-early-detection-in-upper-gastrointestinal-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Jin Woo Yoo, Monika Laszkowska, Robin B Mendelsohn
Upper gastrointestinal cancers are among the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide with exceptionally poor prognosis, which is largely attributable to frequently delayed diagnosis. Although effective screening is critical for early detection, the highly variable incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancers presents challenges, rendering universal screening programs suboptimal in most populations globally. Optimal strategies in regions of modest incidence, such as the United States, require a targeted approach, focused on high-risk individuals based on demographic, familial, and clinicopathologic risk factors...
March 1, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38429197/advances-in-surgery-and-neo-adjuvant-therapy-in-the-management-of-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mengyuan Liu, Alice C Wei
A multimodality approach, which usually includes chemotherapy, surgery, and/or radiotherapy, is optimal for patients with localized pancreatic cancer. The timing and sequence of these interventions depend on anatomic resectability and the biological suitability of the tumor and the patient. Tumors with vascular involvement (ie, borderline resectable/locally advanced) require surgical reassessments after therapy and participation of surgeons familiar with advanced techniques. When indicated, venous reconstruction should be offered as standard of care because it has acceptable morbidity...
February 29, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38423933/immunotherapy-a-sharp-curve-turn-at-the-corner-of-targeted-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-biliary-tract-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Layal Al Mahmasani, James J Harding, Ghassan Abou-Alfa
Biliary tract cancers continue to increase in incidence and have a high mortality rate. Most of the patients present with advanced-stage disease. The discovery of targetable genomic alterations addressing IDH, FGFR, HER2, BRAFV600 E, and others has led to the identification and validation of novel therapies in biliary cancer. Recent advances demonstrating an improved outcome with the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to chemotherapy have established a new first-line care standard. In case of contraindications to the use of checkpoint inhibitors and the absence of targetable alterations, chemotherapy remains to be the standard of care...
February 28, 2024: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
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