Journals AIDS Research and Human Retrov...

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ke Xu, Junfang Chen, Min Zhu, Xingliang Zhang, Sisheng Wu, Wenjie Luo, Ling Ye
The number of newly reported HIV-1 infections among older individuals (aged ≥50 years) has increased rapidly in Hangzhou, a central city in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. To provide a scientific basis for prevention and intervention strategies targeted at older individuals in Hangzhou, an epidemiological survey combined with molecular transmission network analysis was conducted. A total of 2899 individuals with newly confirmed HIV-1 infections, including 635 older individuals and 2264 younger individuals (aged <50 years), were enrolled in this study...
February 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karine Dube, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Hursch Patel, Carina Zhou, Lynda Dee, Gail Graham, Steven Meanley, Morgan Philbin
Advancements in long-acting (LA) HIV treatment and cure research with analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) have generated important scientific and implementation questions. There is an urgent need to examine challenges navigating the evolving HIV treatment and cure research landscape. From August - October 2022, we conducted 26 semi-structured interviews with biomedical researchers and community members representing a predominantly woman demographic to explore the complexity of navigating the rapidly evolving HIV therapeutic and HIV cure research landscape...
February 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Emrah Güler, Ayse Arikan Sarioglu, Nazife Sultanoğlu, Kaya Suer, Tamer Sanlidag, Murat Sayan
The distribution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subtypes indicates difference from region to region and in risk groups acquiring the disease worldwide. Although subtype C is more in terms of total cases, subtype B is dominant in certain regions, especially in Western and Central Europe. Molecular epidemiological studies are essential for the control, effective treatment, and understanding in transmission routes of HIV-1 infection. This study aims to determine the molecular epidemiology and antiretroviral drug resistance profiles of HIV-1 in Northern Cyprus...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jeremiah Khayumbi, Loren Sasser, Taryn McLaughlin, Benson Muchiri, Joshua Ongalo, Joan Tonui, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Angie Campbell, Felix Hayara Odhiambo, Chelimo Kiprotich, Neel R Gandhi, Cheryl Day
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in people with HIV (PWH) is associated with depletion of Mtb-specific CD4 T cell responses, increased risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) disease and increased immune activation. While higher HIV viral loads have been reported in Mtb/HIV co-infection, the extent to which Mtb infection and TB disease impact the frequency and phenotype of HIV-specific T cell responses has not been well described. We enrolled a cohort of PWH in Kenya across a spectrum of Mtb infection states, including those with no evidence of Mtb infection, latent Mtb infection (LTBI) and active pulmonary TB disease, and evaluated the frequency, immune activation, and cytotoxicity phenotype of HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in peripheral blood by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Gsrsnk Naidu, Pooja Chauhan, Siftinder Kharbanda, Jasleen Kaur, Prashansa Joseph, Sunil K Arora, Aman Sharma
HIV infected individuals receiving regular antiretroviral therapy (ART) can present with a high viral load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at time when it is suppressed in blood. This study presents data of HIV infected patients who had undetectable or low plasma viral load in blood but presented with neurological signs and symptoms and were diagnosed to have CSF HIV viral escape. Records were reviewed for clinical manifestations, details of opportunistic or coinfection, HIV viral copies in plasma and CSF at time of diagnosis of CSF escape...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Wilson Domingues, Sabri Saeed Sanabani, Victor Angelo Folgosi, Igor Neves Barbosa, Jorge Casseb
Despite care and the availability of effective antiretroviral treatment, some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals suffer from neurocognitive disorders associated with HIV (HAND) that significantly affect their quality of life. The different types of HAND can be divided into asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and the most severe form known as HIV-associated dementia. Little is known about the mechanisms of HAND, but it is thought to be related to infection of astrocytes, microglial cells, and macrophages in the human brain...
February 2, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Luiz Cláudio Ferreira Romanelli, Gustavo Guimarães Rocha Figueiredo, Maisa Aparecida Ribeiro, Marina Lobato Martins
A silent spread of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been occurring for thousands of years, with a high prevalence in some regions due to the sexual and vertical transmission and formation of family clusters. The time from HTLV-1 infection until the onset of virus-associated diseases is extremely long, approximately one to three decades. In this study, we evaluated intrafamilial HTLV-1 transmission and associated diseases in 1,204 individuals enrolled and followed up by the GIPH cohort between 1997 and 2017...
February 1, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nina A Matsegora, Antonina V Kaprosh, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Petro B Antonenko, Kateryna Antonenko
Previously, an increase in clinical effectiveness of the antituberculosis treatment (ATT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in case of additional immunoglobulin G (IgG) administration in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/HIV coinfection was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of IgG administration in addition to the standard second-line ATT and ART on the humoral immunity status in patients with MDR-TB/HIV coinfection immune deficiency. The study involved 52 patients living with HIV with MDR-TB coinfection and CD4+ lymphocyte cell count below 50 cells/μCL...
January 31, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Arturo Ciccullo, Valentina Iannone, Francesca Lombardi, Alberto Borghetti, Simona Di Giambenedetto
January 2, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Christian Mangala, Denis Maulot-Bangola, Alain Moutsinga, Anges Gar Wamba, Serge Christian Okolongo Mayani, Joseph Fokam
BACKGROUND: Detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and HIV-1 subtypes ensures effective therapeutic management for HIV-infected individuals. In Gabon, data on DRMs are very little available in the population of people living with HIV (PLHIV) but also among voluntary HIV-positive blood donors. This study aimed to study subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 positive volunteer blood donors in Gabon. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Transfusion Center (NBTC) of Gabon...
January 2, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Eisuke Adachi, Makoto Saito, Amato Otani, Michiko Koga, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi
Introduction Long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine has revolutionized the concept of antiretroviral therapy, but as the causes of virologic failure and satisfaction can depend on patient background, real-world data are needed. Methods In this single-center study, we reviewed clinical records of people with HIV who received injectable cabotegravir plus rilpivirine between June 2022 and January 2023. We assessed virological and safety outcomes, including injection site reactions and changes in serum creatinine and cystatin C...
January 2, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tianfu Li, Kun Qian, Jingwan Han, Yongjian Liu, Lei Jia, Xiaolin Wang, Tianyi Li, Bohan Zhang, Jingyun Li, Hanping Li, Liping Dou, Lin Li
Hematological malignant tumors (HMTs) are serious diseases that threaten human health and life with high mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have recently attracted increasing attention as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we explored the association between HERV-K expression levels and HMTs development. Clinical data and peripheral blood samples were collected from 236 leukemia, 384 lymphoma patients, and 69 healthy controls...
December 21, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bhavna H Chohan, Hanley Kingston, Ashley S Tseng, Betsy Sambai, Brandon L Guthrie, Eduan Wilkinson, Jennifer Giandhari, Loice W Mbogo, Aliza Monroe-Wise, Sarah Masyuko, Rose Bosire, Natasha T Ludwig-Barron, William Sinkele, David Bukusi, Tulio de Oliviera, Carey Farquhar, Joshua Herbeck
We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of HIV viral non-suppression and HIV drug resistance (HIV-DR) in a cohort of people who inject drugs living with HIV (PWID-LH) and their sexual and injecting partners living with HIV in Kenya. HIV-DR testing was performed on participants with viral non-suppression. Of 859 PWID-LH and their partners, 623 (72.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ≥4 months and 148/623 (23.8%) were not virally suppressed. Viral non-suppression was more common among younger participants and those on ART for a shorter duration...
December 8, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sanjay Pujari, Sunil Gaikwad, Suhrud Panchawagh, Abhishek Chitalikar, Kedar Joshi, Chaitrangi Rohekar, Digamber Dabhade, Vivek Bele
Introduction We assessed the effectiveness and safety of switching to generic Dolutegravir/Lamivudine (DTG/3TC) amongst People Living with HIV (PWH) in Western India. Methods In this single-center, retrospective observational study, PWH switched to DTG/3TC were followed for virologic, immunologic, clinical effectiveness and safety including weight changes, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Multivariate linear mixed effects models were used to predict average change in weight adjusted for age, sex, duration of previous ARV regimens and baseline weight...
December 8, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Man Zhang, Yingyue Zeng, Fengchao Wang, Huawei Feng, Qingqing Liu, Feng Li, Shan Zhao, Jian Zhao, Zhikui Liu, Fangliang Zheng, Hongsheng Liu
To investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the interaction between nonstructural protein (NS1) and nucleolar and coiled-body phosphoprotein 1 (NOLC1) on rRNA synthesis via nucleolar telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) under nucleolar stress in avian influenza A virus infection. The analysis of TRF2 ties into the exploration of ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) because TRF2 has been found to interact with NOLC1, and the RPL11-MDM2 pathway plays an important role in nucleolar regulation and cellular processes...
December 7, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lydia A Fein, Rebecca Barnett, Tianhao Liu, JoNell E Potter, Nichole R Klatt, Maria L Alcaide, Deborah L Jones
Gender affirmation may reduce stigma and gender-based discrimination that drive increased behaviors that can lead to HIV in transgender women (TW). For many TW, vaginoplasty is gender affirming, yet has not been previously evaluated with regard to likelihood of HIV . This pilot study of TW aimed to evaluate the influence of gender-affirming vaginoplasty on stigma and the drivers of HIV acquisition. Adult TW without HIV were recruited. Interviewer-administered surveys were used to assess demographics, gender identity stigma, psychosocial factors, importance of and satisfaction with gender affirmation, and behaviors that increase the likelihood of HIV in TW who had either undergone gender-affirming vaginoplasty (TWWV) or who had not (TWWOV)...
November 21, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Zahra Hasanshahi, Behzad Dehghani, Ava Hashempour
It was confirmed that SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 replication. In contrast, Vpx protein in HIV-2 and some simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) can counteract this effect. The possible interaction between SAMHD1 and Vpx was suggested by previous studies, however, there is no data to confirm this interaction. Therefore, this study aimed to study the interaction between two proteins and the properties of Vpx protein for the first time using bioinformatics tools. Vpx and SAMHD1 sequences were obtained from NCBI GenBank...
November 21, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shuofan Dong, Xinli Lu, Yingying Wang, Ning An, Meng Liu, Yan Li, Qi Li
The unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV is formed by multiple subtypes which are co-circulating in some area, and the number of HIV recombinants is on the increase worldwide. In this study, we identified a URF named 2019638, composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B, in a man who has sex with men (MSM) in Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, China. The near-full-length genome (NFLG) sequence was confirmed to be a novel URF. within this NFLG, two CRF01_AE fragments were inserted into the pol and vif regions, respectively, using subtype B as the backbone...
November 19, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ling Zhang, Miaotian Cai, Bin Su, Yulin Zhang, Yingmin Ma
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic infections and is a leading cause of mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV infection causes serious defects in the host immune system and increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). TB infection promotes HIV replication and aggravates host damage in patients with HIV/AIDS. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are essential immune cells during TB and HIV infections. AMs undergo a shift in mitochondrial metabolism during TB or HIV infection, that is, metabolic reprogramming, allowing them to act in the form of classical activated macrophages (M1) and alternative activated macrophages (M2) at different stages of infection...
October 26, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sarah Laper, Corrilynn Olesky Hileman, Graham Block, Kristine M Erlandson, Martin Krsak
OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the prevalence of and motivation for cannabis use and whether legalization of cannabis impacts the frequency and perceived risks and benefits of use in people living with HIV (PWH). METHODS: The study was based at two HIV clinics located in Cleveland, Ohio, and Aurora, Colorado. Participants responded to a 45-question survey and responses were summarized in aggregate and stratified by frequency of cannabis use and site. RESULTS: 397 participants completed the survey...
October 12, 2023: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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