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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Barbara L Shacklett, Julià Blanco, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Nyaradzo Mgodi, Jose Alcami, Susan Buchbinder, Mike Chirenje, Smritee Dabee, Mamadou Diallo, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Carolina Herrera, Matthew E Levy, Enrique Martin-Gayo, Nigel Aminake Makoah, Kate M Mitchell, Kenneth Mugwanya, Krishnaveni Reddy, Maria Luisa Rodríguez, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Chelsea L Shover, Tripti Shrivastava, Georgia D Tomaras, Michiel Van Diepen, Monika Walia, Mitchell Warren, Amapola Manrique, Bargavi Thyagarajan, Tamara Torri
The HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) conference is dedicated to advancing HIV prevention research, responding to a growing consensus that effective and durable prevention will require a combination of approaches as well as unprecedented collaboration among scientists, practitioners and community workers from different fields and geographic areas. The conference theme in 2018, "From Research to Impact", acknowledged an increasing focus on translation of promising research findings into practical, accessible and affordable HIV prevention options for those who need them worldwide...
April 22, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Manohar Nesakumar, Hemalatha Haribabu, Narayanaiah Cheedarla, Ramesh Karunaianantham, Nandagopal Kailasam, Pattabiraman Sathyamoorthy, Murugesan Selvachithiram, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
A cross sectional study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and pattern of HIV drug resistance mutations among recently HIV-1 infected and antiretroviral therapy-naïve individuals from Chennai, South India. The HIV-1 Pol gene encompassing the Protease and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) regions were analysed from 53 ART -naïve HIV-1 infected individuals using an in-house method for identifying drug resistance mutations by genotyping. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was found to be 11...
April 19, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Andrea Ries Thurman, Neelima Chandra, Jill L Schwartz, Vivian Brache, Beatrice Chen, Susana Asin, Christiane Rollenhagen, Betsy Herold, Raina Fichorova, Sharon L Hillier, Debra H Weiner, Christine Mauck, Gustavo Doncel
OBJECTIVE: Reproductive age women may choose to concurrently use topical anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and hormonal contraceptives (HC) to simultaneously prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and unintended/mistimed pregnancy. There are conflicting data on the effect of HCs on mucosal susceptibility to HIV-1. The objective of this study was to evaluate cervico-vaginal (CV) mucosal data from healthy women before and after initiation of either oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)...
April 18, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karine Dube, Jane Simoni, Michael Louella, Laurie Sylla, Zahra H Mohamed, Hursch Patel, Stuart Luter, Ann Cornwall Collier
Multiple strategies to cure HIV infection are under investigation, including cell and gene therapy approaches. Research, and ultimately treatment, with these novel strategies will require patients' willingness to participate. To elicit the perspectives of people living with HIV (PLWH) specific to these novel approaches, we conducted four focus group discussions with a diverse group of 19 English-speaking men and women living with HIV in care at a large academic HIV clinic in the northwestern U.S. Thematic analysis indicated participants expressed initial fear about cell and gene therapy research...
April 16, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mehri S McKellar, Maragatha N Kuchibhatla, Kris Oursler, Stephen Crystal Ph D, Kathleen M Akgun, Kristina Crothers, Cynthia Gibert, Karen Nieves-Lugo, Julie Womack, Janet Tate, Gerda G Fillenbaum
BACKGROUND: Little is known about longitudinal change in physical functioning of older African-American/Black and White HIV-infected persons. METHODS: We examined up to 10 years of data on African-American (N=1157) and White (N=400) men with HIV infection and comparable HIV-negative men (Ns: 1137, 530), age 50-91 from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Survey sample. Physical functioning was assessed using the SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) score. Mixed effects models examined association of demographics, health conditions, health behaviors and selected interactions with PCS score; HIV biomarkers were evaluated for HIV-infected persons...
April 9, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Dan Zhao, Yingying Ding, Haijiang Lin, Xiaoxiao Chen, Weiwei Shen, Meiyang Gao, Qian Wei, Sujuan Zhou, Xing Liu, Na He
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations have an important effect on metabolic disorders, but none study has been conducted in HIV-infected patients in Asia. We investigated the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups and their correlation with metabolic disorders in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 296 Chinese HIV patients aged over 40 years from a prospective HIV cohort. The entire mtDNA sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using four overlapping pairs of primers that have been standardly used...
April 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Akihiro Matsunaga, Masako Oka, Kenta Iijima, Mari Shimura, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka, Yukihito Ishizaka
We developed a detergent-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV), and detected soluble Vpr in approximately 22% of HIV patients who were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and were free of plasma HIV RNA. Notably, the levels of CD8-positive cell count, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), all of which are markers of chronic inflammation in HIV patients, were higher in Vpr-positive patients than in Vpr-negative patients...
April 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elizabeth Gonese, Peter Kilmarx, Cari van Schalkwyk, Eduard Grebe, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Bharat Parekh, Trudy Dobbs, Yen Duong Pottinger, Silvina Masciotra, Michele Owen, Jean Nachega, Gert van Zyl, John Hargrove
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers for detecting early HIV infection and estimating HIV incidence should minimise False-Recent Rates (FRRs) while maximising Mean Duration of Recent Infection (MDRIs). We compared BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED), Sedia Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg) and Bio-Rad avidity incident incidence (BRAI) assays using samples from Zimbabwean postpartum women infected with clade C HIV. METHODS: We calculated MDRIs using 590 samples from 351 seroconverting postpartum women, and FRRs using samples from 2,825 women known to be HIV-positive for >12 months...
April 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Anja Potthoff, Sandeep Nambiar, Norbert H Brockmeyer
Retroviral coinfections with HIV-1/HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 occur with variable frequencies world-wide and despite an increased risk for development of neurologic complications including TSP/HAM, leukemia, lymphoma and other neurological disorders in such coinfection scenarios, their global and regional surveillance outside the context of research has steadily declined coincidental to the post-HAART era. Therefore, we thought it relevant to ascertain the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 among HIV positive individuals as HTLV/HIV coinfection is reported among patients involved in high risk behaviors...
March 29, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Wangming Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Li, Jinhe Liu, Qingyuan Long, Bin Cheng, Qiulin Liang, Yihua Kong, Ling Huang, Li Wu
A novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) was isolated from an HIV-positive subject among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guizhou province in Southwest China. Recombinant analyses of the near full-length genome (NFLG) suggested that the strain was composed of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC with one region of CRF07-BC inserted into a CRF01-AE backbone. Further analysis indicated that the CRF01_AE regions of the recombinant were highly clustered together with a subcluster 4 lineage of CRF01_AE, which is exclusively circulating among MSM in China...
March 29, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bing Pei, Lei Jia, Zhenjiang Zhang, Xin Shen, Youde Yan, Xiaolin Wang, Jingwan Han, Yongjian Liu, Tianyi Li, Zuoyi Bao, Hanping Li, Lin Li
Jiangsu province has severe HIV-1 epidemic in China. Suqian which is located in north of the province has limited HIV epidemic information. Therefore, the current work aimed to characterize the epidemic details in the area. 196 plasma samples were collected from treated HIV-1 positive cases and viral RNA was extracted. Then HIV partial pol genes (nucleotide 2147-3462 by using HXB2 as calibrator) were amplified and sequenced. Finally, 84 partial pol genes were successfully obtained. The subtyping results indicate that multiple HIV-1 subtypes are circulating in Suqian district...
March 29, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
José Ramón Santos, Adrian Curran, Jordi Navarro-Mercadé, Mario F Ampuero, Pablo Pelaez, Núria Pérez-Álvarez, Bonaventura Clotet, Roger Paredes, José Moltó
Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) monotherapy as an antiretroviral treatment simplification strategy in HIV-infected patients already on suppressive darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy in routine clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective multi-centre study including all adult patients switched from DRV/r monotherapy to DRV/c monotherapy while HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL and who had at least one follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients remaining free of treatment failure (TF), defined as discontinuation of monotherapy for any reason, including loss of follow-up...
March 26, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Deepa Nanayakkara, Xiaoying S Sun, Sheldon Morris, Stan Louie, Kathleen Mulligan, Turner Overton, Isaac Asante, Katya Corado, Sonia Jain, Michael Dube
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) reduces bone mineral density in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). We hypothesized that PrEP with TDF-FTC would increase bone turnover markers (BTMs) at week 24 and that vitamin D supplementation from week 24 to 48 would blunt this increase. Participants were from a cohort of 398 MSM and transgender women who received daily TDF-FTC for PrEP. At week 24, a prospective intervention group initiated vitamin D3 4000 IU daily...
March 23, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Marta Bull, Jennifer McKernan, Sheila Styrchak, Kelli Kraft, Jane Hitti, Susan E Cohn, Ken Tapia, Wenjie Deng, Sarah Holte, James I Mullins, Robert W Coombs, Lisa Frenkel
INTRODUCTION: Identifying tissue sources of HIV that rebound following "failure" of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical to evaluating cure strategies. To assess the role of the uterine cervix and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as viral reservoirs, nearest-neighbor phylogenetic analyses compared genetic relatedness of tissue sequences during ART-suppression to those detected in plasma at viral rebound. METHODS: Blood and genital tract specimens from a natural history cohort of HIV-infected women were collected over five years...
March 20, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Irene Portilla, Sergio Reus, Rafael Leon, Carlos van-der Hofstad, José Sánchez, Nicolás López, Vicente Boix, Esperanza Merino, Joaquin Portilla
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-people depends on the population studied and the methodology used. We analyze the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and associated factors in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART), without comorbidities. Matherial and methods. Cross-sectional observational study in HIV-subjects, ≥18 years-old, on stable ART and HIV viral load <50copies/mL. Patients with medical or psychiatric comorbidities and substance abuse were excluded...
March 18, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lukman Edwar, Birry Karim, Ika Wijaya, Ibnu Ariyanto, Selita Tanudjaja, Riwanti Estiasari, Ratna Sitompul, Patricia Price
BACKGROUND: HIV patients responding to antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a high burden of CMV and display accelerated cardiovascular change assessed systemically. We assessed the effects of HIV, ART and CMV on retinal arteries calibers (RAC), as a non-invasive measure of vasculopathy in HIV patients beginning ART. METHODS: We analysed 79 HIV patients beginning ART in Jakarta, Indonesia, with a median (range) age of 31(19-48) years. RAC was assessed using Image J software from fundus photos of both eyes, before ART (V0) and after 3-12 months (V3-V12)...
March 18, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Arpan Acharya, Julius Fonsah, Dora Ngum Mbanya, Alfred Njamnshi, Georgette Kanmogne
Variations in the HIV genome influence HIV/AIDS epidemiology. We report here a novel HIV-1 unique recombinant (URF) isolated from an HIV-infected female (NACMR092) in Cameroon, based on analyses of near full-length viral genome (partial gag, full-length pol, env, tat, rev, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef genes, and partial 3' LTR). Phylogeny, recombination breakpoints and recombination map analyses showed that NACMR092 was infected with a mosaic unique recombinant that had eight breakpoints (two in gag, one in pol, one in vpr, two in env, and two in the nef regions), nine sub-genomic regions, and included fragments that had important similarities with HIV-1 subtypes A1, CRF02_AG, and CRF01_AE...
March 12, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shanshan Shen, Hong Ji, Xiaowan Guo, Yinmin Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nathan Summers, Colleen Kelley, Wendy Armstrong, Vincent Marconi, Minh Ly Nguyen
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and PML immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS) can be devastating neurologic processes associated with HIV, but limited knowledge of their characteristics in the established antiretroviral (ART) era is available. We conducted a case series to evaluate the clinical course of PML and PML-IRIS at our urban safety-net hospital in Atlanta, GA. All HIV-positive individuals with a positive JCV DNA PCR in the spinal fluid between 5/1/2013 to 6/1/2017 were identified from the electronic health records (EHR) using the HIV Disease Registry...
March 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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