Journals AIDS Research and Human Retrov...

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Gad Rutayisire, Emmanuel Ssemwanga, Roman Ntale, Uwera Marie Grace, Jean Pierre Gashema, Paul Gasana, Enock Wekia, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard Ssentalo Bagaya
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and associated mortality continue to occur at unacceptably high rates, despite the extensive rollout and implementation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programs, including the modified versions of Option B and B+ in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Maternal HIV viral load (VL) and socio-behavioral factors sustaining MTCT in Rwanda remain largely unexplored. The study examined the effects of socio-behavioral factors on maternal VL and their contribution to in utero transmission of HIV-1 in the context of Rwanda's HIV epidemic...
May 21, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Christine Tagliaferri Rael, Rebecca Giguere, Ewa Bryndza Tfaily, Sara Sutton, Elizabeth Horn, Robert J Schieffer, Craig W Hendrix, Richard T D'Aquila, Thomas J Hope
To improve current and future use of existing (oral, injectable) and potential future (implants, douches) PrEP products, we must understand product preferences relative to one another, among gay and bisexual men (GBM), and physicians who prescribe PrEP. We completed an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) with separate groups of GBM and/or physicians from the U.S., South Africa, Spain, and Thailand. Participants were presented information on PrEP products, including daily pills, event-driven pills (2-1-1 regimen), injections, subdermal implants (dissolvable, removable), and rectal douches...
May 16, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tarun Mishra, Stacia Phillips, Crystal Maldonado, Jack Stapleton, Li Wu
RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is important for regulating gene expression and innate immune responses to viral infection. HIV-1 in vitro infection induces a significant increase in m6A modification of cellular RNA; however, whether m6A levels of cellular RNA are affected by HIV-1 replication or by antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infected individuals remain unknown. Using dot blot or ELISA, we measured RNA m6A levels of peripheral blood monocytic cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors or HIV-1-infected individuals with or without ART...
May 16, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lei Guo, Yanhua Fu, Xiaoxin Xie, Wan Yan, Hai Long
In China, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are integral to the antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for HIV/AIDS patients, comprising over 80% of such treatments. To broaden treatment options and improve therapeutic effectiveness, Ainuovirine (ANV), a new NNRTI, was authorized for ART in 2021. Nevertheless, the clinical efficacy of ANV and its impact on blood biochemical markers remain somewhat underexplored. This study seeks to evaluate ANV's clinical performance in ART and its influence on relevant treatment indicators...
May 16, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Griffin Woolley, Kyle Kroll, Kate Hoffman, Ashley Ward, Amy Corneli, Sarah V Mudrak, M Umar Qureshi, Nwora Lance Okeke, Cliburn Chan, Akhenaton-Andrew D Jones, Georgia D Tomaras, R Keith Reeves
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May 16, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tsunefusa Hayashida, Linh Khanh Tran, An Luong-Dieu Dang, Moeko Nagai, Shoko Matsumoto, Hoa Nguyen-Minh Le, Trang Dinh Van, Giang Van Tran, Junko Tanuma, Thach Ngoc Pham, Shinichi Oka
Some candidates of a new circulating recombinant form (CRF) of HIV-1 were found in northern Vietnam in our previous study. We succeeded in near full-length sequencing using MinION with plasma samples from 12 people living with HIV. Three of the samples were CRF109_0107, which was recently reported in China. Three others were the newly identified CRF127_07109, while six of them were considered to be CRF127_07109-related unique recombinant forms (URFs). The time to the most recent common ancestor of CRF127_07109 was estimated to be between 2015 and 2019...
April 26, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Weizhen Li, Yuxin Feng, Jingwan Han, Xiaolin Wang, Yongjian Liu, Lei Jia, Erhei Dai, Yuling Wang, Hanping Li, Lin Li
In China, the proportion of HIV-1 infections due to men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased rapidly. More and more new subtypes are found among MSM populations besides known CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, and B. The co-circulation of several HIV subtypes in the same population provides the opportunity to develop a new CRF and URF. Here we reported two new URFs from two HIV-1 positive subjects infected through homosexual contact in Hebei, China. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses based on the near full-length genome (NFLG) of the two URFs are the second-generation recombinant strains originated from B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC...
April 26, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Pablo Franco Oliva-Sánchez, Salvador Landeros-López, Maria Margarita Rosas-Dossetti, Samuel Grobeisen-Levin, Jorge Alberto Islas-Martínez, Daniel Aznar-Guerra, Aneth Paola Valdez-Celiz, Luis Soto-Ramirez
Persons with HIV (PWH) face an increased risk of cardiovascular events due to immune activation, comorbidities, and certain antiretrovirals. However, the current cardiovascular risk (CVR) scores are not specifically directed toward PWH. This study aimed to assess the agreement between different predictive CVR scores and explore their relationship with clinical and demographic data in Mexican PWH. A descriptive cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 200 PWH with a mean age of 42 years who were treated at a Mexican urban center from 2017 to 2018...
April 26, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Farzaneh Ghassabi, Ava Hashempour, Behzad Dehghani, Zahra Hasanshahi, Nastaran Khodadad, Farideh Behizadeh, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah
Background Glycoprotein 41 (gp41) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein plays a critical role in membrane fusion. Gp41 binds to proteins in the plasma membrane of CD4+ T cells, particularly the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). These findings indicate that gp41 is involved in the assembly of HIV-1 at the plasma membrane of T cells and affects the stimulation of the TCR. To control HIV-1, new inhibitors were introduced to target the gp41 protein. However, mutations in this region might reduce their efficacy...
March 30, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tian Renrong, Ting Li, Ming-Xu Zhang, Tian-Zhang Song, Hong-Yi Zheng, Yong-Tang Zheng
HIV/AIDS cannot be cured because of the persistence of the viral reservoir. Due to the complexity of the cellular composition and structure of the human organs, HIV reservoirs of anatomical site is also complex. Recently, although a variety of molecules have been reported to involved in the establishment and maintenance of the viral reservoirs, or as marker of latent cells, the research mainly focuses on blood and lymph nodes. Now, the characteristics of the viral reservoir in tissue are not yet fully understood...
March 27, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Chunlin Lan, Bo Zhu, Zhuo Hailong, Shi Yuting, Zixuan Sun, Zhang Lixuan, Lei Jia, Hanping Li, Jingyun Li, Yongjian Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Bohan Zhang, Jingwan Han, Junjun Jiang, Lin Li
With the prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC subtypes in China, the co-circulation of multiple subtypes in HIV-1 positive population may result in dual infection or super-infection in the population, leading to the emergence of unique recombinant forms (URFs) of the HIV-1 virus. In this study, two second-generation unique recombinant strains, BI0114 and BI0116, were identified, and their near full-length genome sequences were obtained; recombination analysis showed that both sequences were the isoform of URF_0107, and they were second-generation unique recombinant strains formed by the recombination of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, and the isoforms were CRF01_AE and CRF0107_BC, respectively...
March 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Danielle L Le Brazidec, Kevin Cormier, Alexi Almonte, Siena Napoleon, Laura C Chambers, Jun Tao, Thomas E Bertrand, Caroline L Gummo, John Beltrami, Jennine Kinsey, Amanda Maguire-Wilkerson, Philip A Chan
Partner notification services (PNS) offers opportunities to discuss HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and provide referrals. We evaluated the PrEP care cascade among men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in PNS within a sexually transmitted infections clinic. Among 121 MSM eligible for PrEP during PNS, 21% subsequently initiated PrEP.
March 18, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Michael B Wohlfeiler, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Laurence Brunet, Javeed Siddiqui, Michael Harbour, Amy L Phillips, Brooke Hayward, Jennifer S Fusco, Ricky Hsu, Gregory P Fusco
HIV-associated wasting (HIVAW) is an under-appreciated AIDS-defining illness, despite highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). We (a) assessed the association between incident HIVAW/low weight and all-cause mortality and (b) described virologic outcomes after people with HIV (PWH) experienced HIVAW/low weight while on ART. In the Observational Pharmaco-Epidemiology Research & Analysis (OPERA® ) cohort, PWH without prior HIVAW/low weight who were active in care in 2016-2020 were followed through death, loss to follow-up, or study end (31OCT2021)...
March 14, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Huijuan Geng, Bing Liu, Yang Liu, Sisi Chen, Haoxi Shi, Weiguang Fan
At present, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are the predominant intersubtype recombinants among sexually active populations, especially among men who have sex with men(MSM) in China. Here, we report a novel second-generation unique recombinant form(URF) of HIV-1 named BDD028A that was isolated from an HIV-1-positive man who was infected through homosexual transmission in Baoding City, Hebei Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the near-full-length genome (NFLG) sequence indicated that BDD028A formed a monophyletic branch that did not cluster with other HIV-1 subtypes...
February 26, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Natalia Laufer, María Belén Bouzas, Silvina Fernández-Giuliano, Ines Zapiola, Lilia Mammana, Horacio Salomon, Cecilia Monzani, Gonzalo Castro, Maria Laura Suarea Ornani, Paula Rojas Machado, Natalia Cochon, Ariel Adaszko, Giovannu Ravasi, Marcelo Vila, Sergio Maulen, Mariana Ceriotto, María Gabriela Barbas, Sergio Leonardo Martini Novas
INTRODUCTION: More than 62.000 individuals are currently on antiretroviral treatment within the public health system in Argentina. In 2019, more than 50% of people on ART received NNRTIs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in Argentina using the WHO guidelines. METHODS: This was a nationwide cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive 18 year-old and older individuals starting ARVs at 19 ARV-dispensing centers. This allowed us to estimate a point prevalence rate of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) with a CI of 5% (for the total population and for those without antiretroviral exposure)...
February 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ke Xu, Junfang Chen, Min Zhu, Xingliang Zhang, Sisheng Wu, Wenjie Luo, Ling Ye
The number of newly reported HIV-1 infections among older individuals (aged ≥50 years) has increased rapidly in Hangzhou, a central city in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. To provide a scientific basis for prevention and intervention strategies targeted at older individuals in Hangzhou, an epidemiological survey combined with molecular transmission network analysis was conducted. A total of 2899 individuals with newly confirmed HIV-1 infections, including 635 older individuals and 2264 younger individuals (aged <50 years), were enrolled in this study...
February 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karine Dube, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Hursch Patel, Carina Zhou, Lynda Dee, Gail Graham, Steven Meanley, Morgan Philbin
Advancements in long-acting (LA) HIV treatment and cure research with analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) have generated important scientific and implementation questions. There is an urgent need to examine challenges navigating the evolving HIV treatment and cure research landscape. From August - October 2022, we conducted 26 semi-structured interviews with biomedical researchers and community members representing a predominantly woman demographic to explore the complexity of navigating the rapidly evolving HIV therapeutic and HIV cure research landscape...
February 22, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Emrah Güler, Ayse Arikan Sarioglu, Nazife Sultanoğlu, Kaya Suer, Tamer Sanlidag, Murat Sayan
The distribution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subtypes indicates difference from region to region and in risk groups acquiring the disease worldwide. Although subtype C is more in terms of total cases, subtype B is dominant in certain regions, especially in Western and Central Europe. Molecular epidemiological studies are essential for the control, effective treatment, and understanding in transmission routes of HIV-1 infection. This study aims to determine the molecular epidemiology and antiretroviral drug resistance profiles of HIV-1 in Northern Cyprus...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jeremiah Khayumbi, Loren Sasser, Taryn McLaughlin, Benson Muchiri, Joshua Ongalo, Joan Tonui, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Angie Campbell, Felix Hayara Odhiambo, Chelimo Kiprotich, Neel R Gandhi, Cheryl Day
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in people with HIV (PWH) is associated with depletion of Mtb-specific CD4 T cell responses, increased risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) disease and increased immune activation. While higher HIV viral loads have been reported in Mtb/HIV co-infection, the extent to which Mtb infection and TB disease impact the frequency and phenotype of HIV-specific T cell responses has not been well described. We enrolled a cohort of PWH in Kenya across a spectrum of Mtb infection states, including those with no evidence of Mtb infection, latent Mtb infection (LTBI) and active pulmonary TB disease, and evaluated the frequency, immune activation, and cytotoxicity phenotype of HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in peripheral blood by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Gsrsnk Naidu, Pooja Chauhan, Siftinder Kharbanda, Jasleen Kaur, Prashansa Joseph, Sunil K Arora, Aman Sharma
HIV infected individuals receiving regular antiretroviral therapy (ART) can present with a high viral load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at time when it is suppressed in blood. This study presents data of HIV infected patients who had undetectable or low plasma viral load in blood but presented with neurological signs and symptoms and were diagnosed to have CSF HIV viral escape. Records were reviewed for clinical manifestations, details of opportunistic or coinfection, HIV viral copies in plasma and CSF at time of diagnosis of CSF escape...
February 17, 2024: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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