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Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Page 2

C D Schenkel, T Kamber, F Schaffner, A Mathis, C Silaghi
Invasive Aedes mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) are of public health concern in Europe because they are either recognized or potential vectors of pathogens. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and simple method for amplifying DNA with high specificity and efficiency, with the technique having potential for application in the field, including in high-throughput format. Specific LAMP assays based on rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 or 2 sequences, considering intraspecies variability at these loci, were developed for Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus and the indigenous Aedes geniculatus...
February 8, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Díaz, S Remesar, J M Venzal, M E Vázquez-López, G Fernández, C López, P Díez-Baños, P Morrondo, R Panadero
Ixodes ricinus, comprising the predominant tick species in Europe, can transmit important human pathogens, including Borreliella spp., the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis. One hundred and seventy five roe deer hunted in two areas (plateau and mountain) of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined for the presence of ticks; all roe deer were infested by I. ricinus. Nymphs (n = 1000), males (n = 1449) and females (n = 1000) of I. ricinus were analysed in pools of up to 10 ticks to detect both Borreliella and Borrelia DNA...
February 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P O Odeniran, E T Macleod, I O Ademola, S C Welburn
The interactions of host, vector and parasite in bovine trypanosomiasis transmission cycles in southwest Nigeria are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) species infection prevalences and bloodmeal sources were determined in transmitting vectors of the genera Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae), Tabanus (Diptera: Tabanidae) and Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae) collected using Nzi traps in cattle settlements in southwest Nigeria. Sequenced cytochrome B mitochondrial DNA segments obtained from vector digestive tracts identified bloodmeal sources from eight host species, namely human, cattle, hippopotamus, giraffe, gazelle, spotted hyena, long-tailed rat and one unidentified species...
February 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Nava, J R Toffaletti, N Morel, A A Guglielmone, A J Mangold
This work was performed to test the efficacy of winter-spring control strategies against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) infestations on cattle in the area ecologically most favourable for the development of this tick in Argentina. Two control schemes using three and four annual applications of acaricides, respectively, were evaluated. Animals in Group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0, fluazuron on day 34, and fipronil on day 85. Animals in Group 2 were treated with ivermectin 3...
January 22, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Sharif, P Jacquiet, F Prevot, C Grisez, I Raymond-Letron, M O Semin, A Geffré, C Trumel, M Franc, É Bouhsira, E Liénard
Cattle besnoitiosis caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Eucoccidiorida: Sarcocystidae) is a re-emerging disease in Europe. Its mechanical transmission by biting flies has not been investigated since the 1960s. The aim of this study was to re-examine the ability of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit virulent B. besnoiti bradyzoites from chronically infected cows to susceptible rabbits. Three batches of 300 stable flies were allowed to take an interrupted bloodmeal on chronically infected cows, followed by an immediate bloodmeal on three rabbits (Group B)...
January 21, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J T Magalhães-Junior, A de A Oliva-Filho, H O Novais, P R R Mesquita, F M Rodrigues, M C Pinto, S M Barrouin-Melo
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the primary vector of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the Americas. Studies have been carried out to identify new alternatives for monitoring and controlling this sandfly species, particularly with the use of chemical baits. The attractiveness of odours emitted by foxes and alcohols found in some plants has already been demonstrated in laboratory tests with Lu. longipalpis. However, no studies have evaluated the responses of these insects to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by dogs...
January 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Y A Derua, S C Kahindi, F W Mosha, E J Kweka, H E Atieli, G Zhou, M-C Lee, A K Githeko, G Yan
The microbial larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) are well known for their efficacy and safety in mosquito control. In order to assess their potential value in future mosquito control strategies in western Kenya, the current study tested the susceptibility of five populations of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), collected from five diverse ecological sites in this area, to Bti and Bs under laboratory conditions...
January 9, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Arias-Robledo, J R Stevens, R Wall
Calliphorid blowflies perform an essential ecosystem service in the consumption, recycling and dispersion of carrion nutrients and are considered amongst the most important functional groups in an ecosystem. Some species are of economic importance as facultative agents of livestock myiasis. The interspecific ecological differences that facilitate coexistence within the blowfly community are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to quantify differences in habitat use by calliphorid species. Thirty traps were distributed among three habitats at two sites in southwest England for collections made during March-August 2016...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S A Zanzani, E Pintore, E Olivieri, N Columbano, A Scanu, V Melosu, E Sanna Passino, G Careddu, A L Gazzonis, M T Manfredi, G Garippa
The Sardinian coloured donkey Equus asinus (Perissodactyla: Equidae) and its albino colour morph represent the wildlife species most typical of the island of Asinara. This Mediterranean island represents a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases; however, knowledge of the tick fauna on Asinara is scarce. A total of 106 Sardinian donkeys were inspected for tick infestation from June to November 2015. All ticks found were collected, classified by stage and sex, and identified to species level. The level of infestation of each donkey was determined; both the overall tick infestation and infestations of each detected species were classified on a scale of 1-3 to give an infestation score (IS)...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S S Sahu, T Sonia, S Dash, K Gunasekaran, P Jambulingam
Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been reported in different districts of Odisha state (east central India) since 1992. During 2016, a major outbreak of JE and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) occurred in the Malkangiri district of Odisha, causing 103 deaths in children, of which 37 were caused by JE and 66 by AES. Information on insecticide resistance in JE vectors is important for the selection of appropriate insecticides for use in vector control. The present study was designed to determine the resistance status of three important vectors of JE, Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex bitaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion and deltamethrin in three districts of Odisha state affected by JE...
December 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Zurita, R Djeghar, R Callejón, C Cutillas, P Parola, M Laroche
Flea identification is a significant issue because some species are considered as important vectors of several human pathogens that have emerged or re-emerged recently, such as Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) and Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been evaluated in recent years for the identification of multicellular organisms, including arthropods. A preliminary study corroborated the usefulness of this technique for the rapid identification of fleas, creating a preliminary database containing the spectra of five species of flea...
December 5, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J M Medlock, K M Hansford, A G C Vaux, B Cull, M E Pietzsch, E L Gillingham, N Johnson, L P Phipps
The red sheep tick, Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae), has been reported as present in the U.K. for more than a century; however, very little has been written about its distribution. In recent years, numbers of detections of this tick species reported to the Public Health England (PHE) Tick Surveillance Scheme have increased. This rise in the number of records may be attributable to increased tick surveillance activities or to the increased distribution of this species of tick in parts of England. This paper reviews published reports of H...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J A Martínez-Ibarra, Y Grant-Guillén, B Nogueda-Torres, M E Villagrán-Herrera, J A de Diego-Cabrera, R Bustos-Saldaña
Chagas disease is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Latin America, including Mexico. Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a Mexican triatomine vector that is commonly associated with hens and rabbits. The biological parameters of two cohorts fed on hens (H) and on rabbits (R) were evaluated. The median lifecycles of the two cohorts were 198 days (H) and 180 days (R). Moreover, mortality was around 30% in both cohorts. Time lapse for beginning of feeding was 0...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Brustolin, C Santamaria, S Napp, M Verdún, R Rivas, N Pujol, S Talavera, N Busquets
Dengue virus (DENV) has re-emerged in Europe driven by the geographic expansion of the mosquito species Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and the introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers. In the present study, the vector competence (VC) of Ae. albopictus collected in Catalonia (northeast Spain) was evaluated for two different DENV strains, DENV-1 and DENV-2, the serotypes responsible for all outbreaks of dengue that have occurred in Europe. Mosquitoes were reared under environmental conditions mimicking the mean temperature and humidity recorded in July on the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Sanchez, M Lareschi, J Salazar-Bravo, S L Gardner
The flea genus Neotyphloceras Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) includes five species and two subspecies distributed from Venezuela to southern Chile and Argentina. Only Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan has been registered in Bolivia. The present study examines species of Neotyphloceras collected in Bolivian localities in the Departments of La Paz, Cochabamba and Tarija, and describes the morphology of the modified abdominal segments in males and females of Neotyphloceras rosenbergi Rothschild on the basis of type material and specimens collected from Tarija...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E L Estallo, F Sangermano, M Grech, F Ludueña-Almeida, M Frías-Cespedes, M Ainete, W Almirón, T Livdahl
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is an urban mosquito involved in the transmission of numerous viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In Argentina, Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue virus and has been involved in several outbreaks in regions ranging from northern to central Argentina since 2009. In order to evaluate areas of potential vector-borne disease transmission in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, the present study aimed to identify the environmental, socioeconomic and demographic factors driving the distribution of Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Wiggins, B Eastmond, B W Alto
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus present in Central and South America that causes arthralgia and febrile illness. Domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of MAYV that may allow for transmission to humans in urban settings. The present paper assesses susceptibility to infection, disseminated infection and transmission potential in Florida Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for MAYV. Oral infection was significantly higher in Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T T C Minuzzi-Souza, L R Silva, L Hagström, M Hecht, N Nitz, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
The identification of bloodmeal sources in triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is important in understanding vector-host associations and in measuring the risk for Chagas' disease transmission. The bloodmeal sources of triatomines infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) caught in houses in central Brazil (Goiás State and the Federal District) were investigated during 2012-2014. Mitochondrial cytochrome b amplicons were used to identify bloodmeals through high-resolution melting and DNA sequencing...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K H Toe, P Müller, A Badolo, A Traore, N Sagnon, R K Dabiré, H Ranson
Malaria control is dependent on the use of longlasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) containing pyrethroids. A new generation of LLINs containing both pyrethroids and the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) has been developed in response to increasing pyrethroid resistance in African malaria vectors, but questions remain about the performance of these nets in areas where levels of pyrethroid resistance are very high. This study was conducted in two settings in southwest Burkina Faso, Vallée du Kou 5 and Tengrela, where Anopheles gambiae s...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
I B Machado, K Bitencourth, K M Cardoso, S V Oliveira, M Santalucia, S F F Marques, M Amorim, G S GazêTa
The Brazilian state of Goiás, untouched by spotted fever (SF) until 2012, has subsequently reported cases of the disease in several regions. This study aimed to survey the diversity of potential vectors and rickettsia in areas of Goiás under environmental surveillance or case investigation for SF. Collected specimens were assayed with molecular biology technology using DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of fragments of the genes gltA, ompA, ompB and sca4 to detect rickettsia in ticks and fleas. Amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit II and 16S rRNA was performed to assist tick identification...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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