Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Page 2

S Nava, M V Rossner, J Torrents, N Morel, N C Martinez, A J Mangold, A A Guglielmone
The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of winter-spring control strategies against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in an area highly favourable for its development in Argentina. Control schemes using three or four annual applications of synthetic acaricides were evaluated. Furthermore, the dynamics of the non-parasitic phases of R. microplus were analysed to provide a framework for the application of pasture spelling as a tool for tick control. The treatment schemes provided appropriate levels of efficacy against R...
February 7, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C L Culverwell, O P Vapalahti, R E Harbach
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected throughout Finland between 2013 and 2018 to determine species distributions. During the course of molecular identifications of specimens belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences and link-reared specimens revealed the presence of Anopheles daciae Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach (n = 37), a new country record, as well as Anopheles messeae Falleroni (n = 19) in the collections. Although the sample size is low, distinctions are apparent in the distributions of these two species, with An...
January 26, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H J Barclay, J W Hargrove, P van den Driessche
A population model for tsetse species was used to assess the optimal number and spacing of airborne sprays to reduce or eradicate a tsetse population. It was found that the optimal spray spacing was determined by the time (days) from adult emergence to the first larviposition and, for safety, spacing was assigned to that duration minus 2 days. If sprays killed all adults, then the number of sprays required for eradication is determined by a simple formula. If spray efficiency is less than 100% kill per spray, then a simulation was used to determine the optimal number, which was strongly affected by spray efficiency, mean daily temperature, pupal duration, age to first larviposition and the acceptance threshold for control, rather than eradication...
January 16, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Pérez-Cutillas, C Muñoz, J Martínez-De La Puente, J Figuerola, R Navarro, M Ortuño, L J Bernal, J Ortiz, R C Soriguer, E Berriatua
Molecular studies indicate that Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) blood feed on many vertebrate species, of which only a few are proven parasite reservoirs. Investigating sandfly vector feeding preferences is therefore important and requires taking into account the availability and accessibility of host species. In terms of the latter, it is necessary to consider the metabolic cost to the insect of reaching the host and moving on to a suitable breeding site. The present study used statistical modelling to compare the feeding patterns of Phlebotomus perniciosus (n = 150), Phlebotomus papatasi (n = 35) and Phlebotomus ariasi (n = 7) on each of an average of 30 host species in a wildlife park in Murcia, Spain...
January 13, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J M Medlock, A G C Vaux, K M Hansford, M E Pietzsch, E L Gillingham
The present study aimed to assess whether agri-environment field margins provide a habitat for the sheep/deer tick Ixodes ricinus. Field studies were conducted in arable farmland in southern England in both extant and newly constructed field margins. The presence and intensity (i.e. the mean number of nymphs per transect, excluding zeros) of questing nymphs and adult I. ricinus were compared between field margins with three adjacent habitats: woodland, hedgerow and arable land. The presence and intensity of ticks within a field margin was also compared between three ecozones: the ecotone, the margin and the crop...
January 8, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C G Spanoudis, S S Andreadis, D P Bray, M Savopoulou-Soultani, R Ignell
How Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes select and discriminate between potential avian hosts is critical for understanding the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Therefore, the present authors studied the behavioural responses of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Culex pipiens molestus (Forsskål) to headspace volatiles of three avian species [chicken and pigeon (sexes analysed separately), and magpie], presented either alone or in combination with 600 p.p.m. carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The attraction of Cx. quinquefasciatus to the headspace volatiles of both sexes of chicken, and of female pigeon, in combination with CO2 was significantly higher than that achieved by the CO2 and solvent control...
January 8, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E N I Weeks, S A Allan, S A Gezan, P E Kaufman
Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a canine tick that infests dogs throughout the world and is frequently found in homes and dog kennels. Management of this tick species is complicated by the presence of resistance to commonly utilized acaricides. Fungal formulations could provide a valuable alternative tool for management and are especially relevant indoors where detrimental environmental effects on fungal spores are of less concern. Two commercially available fungal formulations, one containing Metarhizium anisopliae and the other containing Beauveria bassiana, were compared for time to death and sporulation in nymphal ticks exposed for 60 min in treated filter paper packets...
December 26, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Alqurashi, S English, R Wall
Insects with access to finite energy resources must allocate these between maintenance and reproduction in a way that maximizes fitness. This will be influenced by a range of life-history characteristics and the environment in which any particular insect species lives. In the present study, females of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were fed diets differing in protein and carbohydrate (sucrose) content and the allocation of lipid to reproduction was quantified using a spectrophotometric method of analysis...
December 17, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E M Benitez, F Ludueña-Almeida, M Frías-Céspedes, W R Almirón, E L Estallo
Aedes aegypti is mainly found in urban environments, where human activity guarantees the permanent availability of potential larval habitats. The present study aimed to test for a possible association between Ae. aegypti infestation and land cover classes. From 23 February to 22 May 2015, immature mosquitoes (except eggs) were sampled in artificial containers identified in dwellings in Córdoba city, Argentina. The proportion of each land cover class was determined by SPOT-5 (Satellites Pour 1'Observation de la Terre or Earth-observing Satellites) image classification...
December 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D-Y Duan, H-M Zhou, T-Y Cheng
Melophagus ovinus is a type of ectoparasite infesting sheep. Data regarding the comprehensive bacterial community associated with the whole body and midgut of M. ovinus under different engorged statuses are required. Melophagus ovinus were collected from the city of Jiuquan, China. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the whole body and midgut of fully engorged female adults, or newly hatched and unfed adult female M. ovinus. The 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 hypervariable regions were sequenced using the IonS5™XL platform (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, U...
December 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Ravasi, D Parrondo Monton, V Guidi, E Flacio
Epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue fever are becoming more frequent around the world. In Switzerland, autochthonous cases have not been reported so far, although the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in urban areas of southern Switzerland increases the risk of indigenous transmissions subsequent to imported cases. In 2018, the potential risk of an outbreak of arboviral diseases was assessed in five municipalities of southern Switzerland. The population abundance of Ae...
December 4, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L Liu, X-M He, L-L Feng, D-Y Duan, Y Zhan, T-Y Cheng
The heat shock protein 70 (HSPA) family and their genes have been studied in ticks and are considered as possible antigen candidates for the development of anti-tick vaccines. However, knowledge about their members, structure and function in ticks is incomplete. Based on our transcriptomic data, the full length of four HSPA genes in Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of HSPA2A, HSPA2B, HSPA5 and HSPA9 was 1920, 1911, 1983 and 2088 bp in length, respectively...
December 4, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T M Arme, R P Lia, G Annoscia, E Casalino, M Pombi, D Otranto
Knowledge of the effects that Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infection has on the survival of its vector Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae) is scarce. The present study aimed to: (a) assess the rate of infection between experimentally infected (EI) and not experimentally infected (NEI) flies and (b) determine how T. callipaeda infection may affect the survival of P. variegata. In addition, fat composition was evaluated in flies that died during overwintering. Molecular analysis showed that T...
November 26, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Bongiorno, L Meyer, A Evans, N Lekouch, R Bianchi, C Khoury, R Chiummo, E Thomas, L Gradoni
Dogs are the reservoir host of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Both subclinically-infected and sick animals can be infectious to competent phlebotomine vectors. The degree and duration of insecticidal efficacy of an oral dose of fluralaner (Bravecto®; Merck Animal Health) was determined in dogs exposed to bites of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae), a main Mediterranean vector of VL. Twelve dogs allocated to two groups of six animals each were included in a parallel-group designed, negative-controlled, randomized, blinded, single-centre efficacy study...
November 26, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Villar, G M Klafke, A Rodríguez-Durán, F Bossio, R Miller, A A Pérez de León, J A Cortés-Vecino, J J Chaparro-Gutiérrez
Intensive use of chemical acaricides for the control of cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) has led to the development of multiple acaricide resistance in Colombia. The present study aimed to characterize, using toxicological bioassays and molecular biology techniques, the resistance profile of a tick strain isolated from the Arauca state, Northeast Colombia. Commercial acaricides were used in adult immersion tests to determine its in vitro efficacies. Deltamethrin showed very low activity (4-7.3%), a mixture of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos had intermediate efficacy (64-75...
November 19, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Salvetti, A Bianchi, M Marangi, A Barlaam, S Giacomelli, I Bertoletti, L Roy, A Giangaspero
Deer keds (Lipoptena spp.) are blood-sucking ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and also accidentally of humans. In Europe, five Lipoptena spp. have been recorded, although the lack of specific taxonomic keys has often led to mistaken identification or to missing data. The present study aimed to develop an identification key of the European species and also to identify Lipoptena spp. found on wild ungulates in northern Italy. In total, 390 hippoboscids were collected from Rupicapra rupicapra, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries musimon in an Alpine area of Italy...
November 1, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Ross N Cuthbert, Neil E Coughlan, Jaimie T A Dick, Amanda Callaghan
Duckweeds, such as Lemna minor Linnaeus (Alismatales: Lemnaceae), are common in aquatic habitats and have been suggested to reduce larval mosquito survivorship via mechanical and chemical effects. Furthermore, pond dyes are used increasingly in aquatic habitats to enhance their aesthetics, although they have been shown to attract mosquito oviposition. The present study examined the coupled effects of L. minor and black pond dye on the oviposition selectivity of Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in a series of laboratory choice tests...
October 22, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L M Hernández-Triana, V A Brugman, P Pramual, E Barrero, N I Nikolova, I Ruiz-Arrondo, A Kaiser, A Krüger, S Lumley, H C Osório, A Ignjatović-Ćupina, D Petrić, M Laure Setier-Rio, R Bødker, N Johnson
In mainland Europe, the mosquito species Culex modestus Ficalbi (1890) is a bridge vector for West Nile virus (WNV) from its natural bird-mosquito cycle to mammals. The present study assessed the genetic diversity of Cx. modestus, as well as related Culex species, using the mitochondrial COI DNA barcoding region and compared this with the population structure across Europe. A haplotype network was mapped to determine genealogical relationships among specimens. The intraspecific genetic diversity within individual Culex species was below 2%, whereas the interspecific genetic divergence varied from 2...
October 11, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Werszko, T Szewczyk, Ż Steiner-Bogdaszewska, P Wróblewski, G Karbowiak, Z Laskowski
Trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum have been isolated from many mammalian hosts around the world. They are usually non-pathogenic, although they may confuse the parasitological diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Additionally, Trypanosoma theileri has been associated with disease in cattle. Megatrypanum trypanosomes are considered to be transmitted by different arthropods, including tabanids. However, little is known about the potential vectors of Megatrypanum trypanosomes in different parts of the world. The present study reports on the detection of Megatrypanum trypanosomes in Heamatopota pluvialis, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus maculicornis and Tabanus distinguendus in Poland...
September 30, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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