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Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Page 2

D Schott, U A Souza, B Dall'Agnol, A Webster, R Doyle, F Peters, M Favarini, F Mazim, A O Rosa, M M A Jardim, T C Trigo, J Reck
Fleas are insects with a worldwide distribution that have been implicated in the transmission of several pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and Bartonella spp. (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) in fleas from free-ranging crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) (Carnivora: Canidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Fleas were collected manually from animals and used for the molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp...
March 8, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Yan, Z Qiu, T Zhang, Y Li, W Wang, M Li, Z Yu, J Liu
The soft tick Argas japonicus mainly infests birds and can cause human dermatitis; however, no pathogen has been identified from this tick species in China. In the present study, the microbiota in A. japonicus collected from an epidemic community was explored, and some putative Rickettsia pathogens were further characterized. The results obtained indicated that bacteria in A. japonicus were mainly ascribed to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the male A. japonicus harboured more diverse bacteria than the females and nymphs...
March 6, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H Naeem, M Oneeb, K Ashraf, M I Rashid, M M Nazir, S Tabassum
Anopheles subpictus s.l. Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) is a malaria vector in South Asia, where insecticides are the mainstay for vector control interventions. Information on any variation in metabolic enzyme levels in mosquitoes is helpful with respect to adapting alternative strategies for vector control. The scarce data on the biochemical basis of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors of Pakistan limit the available information for vector control interventions within the country. The insecticide susceptibility status and its biochemical basis against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (4%), deltamethrin (0...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L M S Maia, M C F Bezerra, M C S Costa, E M Souza, M E B Oliveira, A L M Ribeiro, R D Miyazaki, R D Slhessarenko
Vertical transmission to progeny ensures the maintenance of arboviruses in their natural vectors. This mechanism is largely reported for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Few studies have addressed this mechanism for Zika virus (ZIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV) and other arboviruses. The present study investigated the natural infection rate by arboviruses in 4490 Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and 296 Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) reared from eggs collected with ovitraps in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, from February to July, 2017...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C De Liberato, A Magliano, G L Autorino, M Di Domenico, M Sala, F Baldacchino
Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) is a disease with an almost worldwide distribution, with several outbreaks having been reported recently in European countries. In Italy, two regions, Lazio and Abruzzo, are considered as endemic areas for this disease. In nature, the EIA virus is mechanically transmitted by biting flies such as tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae), although few studies have investigated the epidemiological implications. In the present study, several sites characterized by different levels of EIA prevalence were sampled...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Baines, M Becker, S Hart
Impacts of sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus on livestock, gamebirds and wildlife are of concern across Europe. The present study describes livestock and tick management by 36 farmers from three upland sites of conservation importance in North Wales, where farmers consider that ticks have increased during the last 25 years. Sheep, average densities of 2.0 animals per ha were treated with pour-on acaricides in spring, again in July, and also when removed from the moor in autumn. Given acaricide efficacy rates, sheep were susceptible to tick bites for half the period on the moor...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A P Gutierrez, L Ponti, P A Arias
Before its eradication from North America, the subtropical-tropical new world screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) invaded southwestern temperate areas of the U.S.A., where it caused myiasis in wildlife and livestock. Outbreaks of the fly occurred during years when adult migrants were carried northward on North American monsoon winds from the northern areas of Mexico and south Texas. We deconstruct, retrospectively, the biology and the effect of weather on the eradication of the fly in North America...
February 13, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Bitencourth, M Amorim, S V de Oliveira, C M Voloch, G S Gazêta
Amblyomma ovale (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Koch, 1844 is widely-reported in the neotropical region and is the main vector in the epidemic cycle of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest, a bioagent of a milder variety of spotted fever (SF). Because species with wide geographical distributions are known to exhibit variations that influence their vectorial capacity, the present study aimed to analyze genetic diversity and rickettsia infection of A. ovale collected during the investigation and surveillance of SF cases in the Cerrado and Atlantic rainforest (ARF) Brazilian biomes...
February 11, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
B Bilbija, M Auer, P Široký
An indoor terrarium population of Amblyomma geoemydae was established subsequent to the import of a single yellow-marginated box turtle Cuora flavomarginata. This indoor tick population revealed an unexpected resistance against de-ticking trials, with persistence between 2010 and 2015, when the ticks were successfully eliminated. Ticks were collected from the bodies and shells of turtles, as well as from terraria soil. Species diagnosis of ticks was carried out according to distinguishable morphological characters and supported by molecular analysis using DNA-barcoding...
February 11, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Zurita, R Callejón, Á M García-Sánchez, M Urdapilleta, M Lareschi, C Cutillas
The human flea Pulex irritans Linnaeus, 1758 (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is one of the most studied species together with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, 1835, because they have a cosmopolitan distribution and are closely related to humans. The present study aimed to carry out a comparative morphometric and molecular study of two different populations of P. irritans (Spain and Argentina). Accordingly, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 of rDNA and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) mtDNA genes of these taxa were sequenced...
February 9, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C D Schenkel, T Kamber, F Schaffner, A Mathis, C Silaghi
Invasive Aedes mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) are of public health concern in Europe because they are either recognized or potential vectors of pathogens. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and simple method for amplifying DNA with high specificity and efficiency, with the technique having potential for application in the field, including in high-throughput format. Specific LAMP assays based on rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 or 2 sequences, considering intraspecies variability at these loci, were developed for Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus and the indigenous Aedes geniculatus...
February 8, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Díaz, S Remesar, J M Venzal, M E Vázquez-López, G Fernández, C López, P Díez-Baños, P Morrondo, R Panadero
Ixodes ricinus, comprising the predominant tick species in Europe, can transmit important human pathogens, including Borreliella spp., the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis. One hundred and seventy five roe deer hunted in two areas (plateau and mountain) of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined for the presence of ticks; all roe deer were infested by I. ricinus. Nymphs (n = 1000), males (n = 1449) and females (n = 1000) of I. ricinus were analysed in pools of up to 10 ticks to detect both Borreliella and Borrelia DNA...
February 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P O Odeniran, E T Macleod, I O Ademola, S C Welburn
The interactions of host, vector and parasite in bovine trypanosomiasis transmission cycles in southwest Nigeria are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) species infection prevalences and bloodmeal sources were determined in transmitting vectors of the genera Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae), Tabanus (Diptera: Tabanidae) and Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae) collected using Nzi traps in cattle settlements in southwest Nigeria. Sequenced cytochrome B mitochondrial DNA segments obtained from vector digestive tracts identified bloodmeal sources from eight host species, namely human, cattle, hippopotamus, giraffe, gazelle, spotted hyena, long-tailed rat and one unidentified species...
February 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Nava, J R Toffaletti, N Morel, A A Guglielmone, A J Mangold
This work was performed to test the efficacy of winter-spring control strategies against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) infestations on cattle in the area ecologically most favourable for the development of this tick in Argentina. Two control schemes using three and four annual applications of acaricides, respectively, were evaluated. Animals in Group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0, fluazuron on day 34, and fipronil on day 85. Animals in Group 2 were treated with ivermectin 3...
January 22, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Sharif, P Jacquiet, F Prevot, C Grisez, I Raymond-Letron, M O Semin, A Geffré, C Trumel, M Franc, É Bouhsira, E Liénard
Cattle besnoitiosis caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Eucoccidiorida: Sarcocystidae) is a re-emerging disease in Europe. Its mechanical transmission by biting flies has not been investigated since the 1960s. The aim of this study was to re-examine the ability of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit virulent B. besnoiti bradyzoites from chronically infected cows to susceptible rabbits. Three batches of 300 stable flies were allowed to take an interrupted bloodmeal on chronically infected cows, followed by an immediate bloodmeal on three rabbits (Group B)...
January 21, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J T Magalhães-Junior, A de A Oliva-Filho, H O Novais, P R R Mesquita, F M Rodrigues, M C Pinto, S M Barrouin-Melo
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the primary vector of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the Americas. Studies have been carried out to identify new alternatives for monitoring and controlling this sandfly species, particularly with the use of chemical baits. The attractiveness of odours emitted by foxes and alcohols found in some plants has already been demonstrated in laboratory tests with Lu. longipalpis. However, no studies have evaluated the responses of these insects to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by dogs...
January 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Y A Derua, S C Kahindi, F W Mosha, E J Kweka, H E Atieli, G Zhou, M-C Lee, A K Githeko, G Yan
The microbial larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) are well known for their efficacy and safety in mosquito control. In order to assess their potential value in future mosquito control strategies in western Kenya, the current study tested the susceptibility of five populations of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), collected from five diverse ecological sites in this area, to Bti and Bs under laboratory conditions...
January 9, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Arias-Robledo, J R Stevens, R Wall
Calliphorid blowflies perform an essential ecosystem service in the consumption, recycling and dispersion of carrion nutrients and are considered amongst the most important functional groups in an ecosystem. Some species are of economic importance as facultative agents of livestock myiasis. The interspecific ecological differences that facilitate coexistence within the blowfly community are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to quantify differences in habitat use by calliphorid species. Thirty traps were distributed among three habitats at two sites in southwest England for collections made during March-August 2016...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S A Zanzani, E Pintore, E Olivieri, N Columbano, A Scanu, V Melosu, E Sanna Passino, G Careddu, A L Gazzonis, M T Manfredi, G Garippa
The Sardinian coloured donkey Equus asinus (Perissodactyla: Equidae) and its albino colour morph represent the wildlife species most typical of the island of Asinara. This Mediterranean island represents a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases; however, knowledge of the tick fauna on Asinara is scarce. A total of 106 Sardinian donkeys were inspected for tick infestation from June to November 2015. All ticks found were collected, classified by stage and sex, and identified to species level. The level of infestation of each donkey was determined; both the overall tick infestation and infestations of each detected species were classified on a scale of 1-3 to give an infestation score (IS)...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S S Sahu, T Sonia, S Dash, K Gunasekaran, P Jambulingam
Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been reported in different districts of Odisha state (east central India) since 1992. During 2016, a major outbreak of JE and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) occurred in the Malkangiri district of Odisha, causing 103 deaths in children, of which 37 were caused by JE and 66 by AES. Information on insecticide resistance in JE vectors is important for the selection of appropriate insecticides for use in vector control. The present study was designed to determine the resistance status of three important vectors of JE, Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex bitaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion and deltamethrin in three districts of Odisha state affected by JE...
December 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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