Medical and Veterinary Entomology

S Vaselek, G Oguz, N Ayhan, Y Ozbel, P Kadriaj, A I Ćupina, E Velo, N Muja, D Baymak, M Alishani, S Toz, M Nalcaci, K Sherifi, R Charrel, B Alten, D Petrić
In the past decade, leishmaniasis seems to be re-emerging in Balkan countries. There are serious implications that Kosovo is a visceral leishmaniasis endemic region with autochthonous transmission; nevertheless, surveillance of vectors, reservoirs or the disease is not yet established. Gaining knowledge about sandfly vector species is a prerequisite for the development of a monitoring and control plan in the future. After a long gap in research of over 70 years, sandfly studies in Kosovo were resumed in 2014...
May 21, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N Nataraj, K Muthuraman, D Sundaram, E Ayyanar, M Ashokkumar, G Kasinathan, P Devaraju
Rickettsia are obligate intracellular pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors. The re-emergence of several rickettsioses imposes severe global health burden. In addition to the well-established rickettsial pathogens, newer rickettsial species and their pathogenic potentials are being uncovered. There are many reports of spotted and typhus fever caused by rickettsiae in India. Hence, in this study we screened the ectoparasites of pet and domestic animals for the presence of rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction...
May 20, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Y Özbel, G Oğuz, S K Arserim, Ö Erişöz Kasap, B Karaoglu, A Yilmaz, N Emanet, F Günay, S Hacioğlu, M C Demirok, S Töz, B Alten, M Nalçaci, A Özkul, K Ergünay
Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent arthropod-borne viral agent of human central nervous system infections occurring in the Mediterranean region. The main transmission route to susceptible individuals involves sandflies as vectors. Despite several reports revealing widespread TOSV activity in Turkey, vectors remained unidentified. A sandfly field survey was carried out in five provinces in Central, Southeast and Mediterranean Anatolia in 2017 to identify TOSV and related sandfly-borne phleboviruses and Leishmania parasites, with evidence for circulation in the region...
May 19, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S M Mazumdar, A Mazumdar
The preferential attraction of adult Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to specific wavelengths was studied in West Bengal, India. A total of 280 collections were made with suction light traps fitted with various colours of light emitting diodes (LEDs) placed at cattle sheds during June, August and November in 2017. In addition, the numbers that have been collected in the evening and morning were compared. Locally manufactured suction light traps fitted with ultra violet (UV), blue, green, yellow, pink, red and white LEDs were compared...
May 19, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Andreani, P Sacchetti, A Belcari
Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus, 1758), Lipoptena fortisetosa Maa, 1965, Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758, and Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart, 1840) (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are haematophagous ectoparasites that infest different mammal and bird species and occasionally attack humans. They are known for the health implications they have as vectors of pathogens to humans and animals, and for the injuries they inflict on their host's skin. This study focused on the morphological structures evolved by parasites in terms of their biology and the different environment types that they inhabit...
May 14, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Bučanović, J Kovačević, S Krčmar
The efficiency and the potential species preference for six different horsefly trap types was studied. A total of 2401 horseflies were collected during this study. The most effective trap was the modified box trap with (27.9%), followed by the Nzi trap with (24.5%), Malaise trap (Townes design 1972) with (22.5)%, canopy trap with (17.9%), modified small canopy trap with (7.0%) and Malaise trap (Townes design 1962) with (0.2%). The Nzi and Malaise trap (Townes design 1972) did not differ significantly in the number of collected horseflies...
May 11, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
R Harsha, S M Mazumdar, A Mazumdar
Relative abundance, species composition and temporal activity of Culicoides midges were studied for a period of 2 years (2012-2014) using suction ultra violet light traps at two sites located in the agriculture heartland of West Bengal, India. Surveillance in close proximity to cattle recorded predominance of five species with C oxystoma and C. peregrinus as the most dominant species followed by C. fulvus, C. innoxius and C. anophelis. The temporal activity of midges was investigated for seven consecutive nights at one site in August-September, 2012 and the predominant species was Culicoides oxystoma followed by Culicoides peregrinus...
May 1, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A F Marciano, P S Golo, C J B Coutinho-Rodrigues, M G Camargo, J Fiorotti, E Mesquita, T A Corrêa, W M S Perinotto, V R E P Bittencourt
Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Arachnida: Ixodidae) is a mandatory bloodsucking ectoparasite, and it is considered one of the main sanitary problems in livestock. In the development of new technologies for controlling ticks, Metarhizium anisopliae complex (M. anisopliae s. l.) Sorokın, 1883 (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) have been shown to be an effective and safe alternative. However, when applied in the field, abiotic factors may directly influence their microbial activity, and different oily adjuvants enhance fungal efficacy, stability and viability under environmental conditions...
April 15, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
V T de Queiroz, N C Campos, E T Nunes, A V Costa, J D Coelho, L O Trivilin, D C A de Melo, P A B Morais, I V F Martins
Essential and fixed oils have been researched as alternatives to chemical acaricides. The activity of volatile compounds from essential oils (1,8-cineole, citral and eugenol) at 1.0% (w/v) and fixed oil (castor oil) at 0.3% (w/v) dissolved in 2.0% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 0.2% (w/v) Tween 80® was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus using immersion tests. 1,8-cineole (29.0%) and castor oil (30.2%) had the highest reproductive inhibition rate. A second experiment was performed to verify the effect of the 1,8-cineole (10...
April 6, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
I Ronai, D M Tufts, M A Diuk-Wasser
The Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) was reported for the first time in the U.S.A. in 2017 and has now spread across 12 states. The potential of this invasive tick vector to transmit pathogens will be determined through its association to hosts, such as the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), which is the primary reservoir for the causative agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and other zoonotic pathogens. Larval H. longicornis were placed on P. leucopus; 65% of the larvae (n = 40) moved off the host within a short period of time, and none engorged...
April 6, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Montenegro, L Martinez, K Tay, T Hernandez, D Noriega, L Barbosa, J Muñoz, H Mateus, J Daza, A Teherán, J D Ramírez
In the past decade, new strategies have been developed to control the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito vector, as well as a broad range of arboviral agents. Vector control surveillance programmes in Puerto Rico and Australia have implemented the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (AGO), which has had an impact on vector density and, consequently, the epidemiology of arboviral infections. Colombia intends to establish the AGO as a new tool for the surveillance and control of the A...
March 31, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L N Domingues, G D Solis, K G Bendele, L D Foil, A A Perez de Leon, F D Guerrero
In horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (Linnaeus, 1758), target site resistance to pyrethroids can be diagnosed by an allele-specific PCR that genotypes individual flies at both the super-kdr (skdr) and the knock down resistance (kdr) associated loci. When this technique uses genomic DNA as template, modifications, such as alternative RNA splicing and RNA editing are not specifically detected. Alternative splicing at the skdr locus has been reported in Dipterans; thus, the genomic DNA-based allele-specific PCR may not accurately reflect the frequency of the skdr mutation in horn fly field populations...
March 31, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T R Curtis, M Shi, X Qiao
Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the U.S.A. In this study, adult ticks were observed on public trails exhibiting increasing levels of terrain complexity with a potential host nearby. The goal of this study was to (a) examine the extent to which adult ticks may actively search (vs. sit-and-wait) for a nearby host, (b) determine whether or not ticks could locate the position of the host in natural conditions and (c) determine the role of terrain complexity on the distances ticks travelled in a short period of time (30 min)...
March 30, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J W Hargrove
Age-dependent mortality changes in haematophagous insects are difficult to measure but are important determinants of population dynamics and vectorial capacity. A Markov process was used to model age-dependent changes in wing fray in tsetse (Glossina spp), calibrated using published mark-recapture data for male G. m. morsitans in Tanzania. The model was applied to female G. m. morsitans, captured in Zimbabwe using a vehicle-mounted electric net and subjected to ovarian dissection and wing fray analysis. Rates of fray increased significantly with age in males but not females, where the rate was constant for ovarian categories 0-3...
March 28, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
B Z Tobar, W D Lapsley, W L Swain, D A Jaffe, A Aguilar Setien, G Galvez-Romero, C Obregon-Morales, J I Olave-Leyva, B B Chomel
Bartonella sp. infection is quite common in free-roaming dogs in many tropical countries. However, limited information is available of the presence of these pathogens in Mexico. The present study looked at prevalence of Bartonella exposure and/or infection in dogs and their fleas in Central Mexico. Blood samples were collected from 31 stray dogs in August 2014 at the municipal pound, Tulancingo, Mexico, as well as fleas on 26 of them. Bartonella seropositivity was 46.9%, including 35.5% for Bartonella henselae, 45% for Bartonella clarridgeiae and 32...
March 16, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Lilja, D Eklöf, T G T Jaenson, A Lindström, O Terenius
Four species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have previously been recorded in Sweden. A recent addition to the complex is Anopheles daciae, which is considered to be closely related to, but distinct from Anopheles messeae. The original designation of An. daciae was based on five genetic differences (161, 165, 167, 362 and 382) in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 of the ribosomal RNA. Further studies have shown that only two nucleotide differences (362 and 382) robustly separate the species...
March 11, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Kamber, L L Koekemoer, A Mathis
Species of the genus Anopheles vary with regard to their vector capacity for Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, and their accurate identification is often required. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid, simple and low-cost method for specific DNA amplification. Primers for LAMP assays specific for the Anopheles funestus group and Anopheles gambiae complex species as well as for the species Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, An. gambiae s.s/Anopheles coluzzii (major vectors) and Anopheles rivulorum (minor vector) were designed targeting specific genome or rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions...
March 10, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Tirosh-Levy, A Steinman, A Einhorn, D A Apanaskevich, K Y Mumcuoglu, Y Gottlieb
Theileria equi Mehlhorn and Schein, 1998 (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) is an important tick-borne pathogen of horses that is highly endemic in many parts of the world, including Israel. The present study evaluated the potential roles of five hard tick species [Hyalomma excavatum Koch, 1844; Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev 1936; Rhipicephalus annulatus Say, 1821; Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann, 1897) (all: Ixodida: Ixodidae)], previously found to infest horses in Israel, in acting as vectors for piroplasmosis...
February 27, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Daoudi, S Boussaa, M Hafidi, A Boumezzough
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a common vector-borne systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). In Morocco the situation is complex: many sandfly species have been collected in areas in which the disease is endemic, but only Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis (Diptera: Psychodidae) have been confirmed to have vectorial roles. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the potential distribution of L. infantum and its vectors in Morocco, using ecological niche modelling...
February 26, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
R Rowbottom, S Carver, L A Barmuta, P Weinstein, G R Allen
Saltmarsh breeding mosquitoes are an important source of vectors for arboviral transmission. In southern Australia, the most prominent vector borne disease, Ross River virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) (RRV), is transmitted by the saltmarsh mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson). However, the factors driving the abundance of this mosquito within and among saltmarshes are poorly understood. To predict the abundance of this mosquito within saltmarshes, the environmental conditions and aquatic invertebrate ecology of three temperate saltmarshes habitats were monitored over two seasons...
February 20, 2020: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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