David P Tchouassi, Robinson O Kisero, Gilbert Rotich, Christopher Dunlap, Baldwyn Torto, Ephantus J Muturi
Accurate knowledge of blood meal hosts of different mosquito species is critical for identifying potential vectors and establishing the risk of pathogen transmission. We compared the performance of Miseq next generation sequencing approach relative to conventional Sanger sequencing approach in identification of mosquito blood meals using genetic markers targeting the 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes. We analysed the blood meals of three mosquito vector species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes simpsoni s.l...
May 15, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Ángela Valcárcel, Andrea Briones Montero, Marta Rodero, Juan González Fernández, A Sonia Olmeda, Félix Valcárcel, Carmen Cuéllar
Alpha-Gal/α-Gal is an oligosaccharide produced by non-primate mammals. Humans have developed an immune response mediated by anti-α-Gal antibodies that can trigger an allergic reaction and cause anaphylaxis. In recent years, cases of patients with delayed allergic reaction to mammalian meat have been reported worldwide. In Spain, these cases have been related to the species Ixodes ricinus L. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), whose distribution is located in the north of the country. In this work, the presence of α-Gal in water-soluble extracts from samples of salivary glands and digestive tracts of Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch (Ixodida: Ixodidae) both engorged and collected from vegetation were studied...
May 13, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Aikins Ablorde, Inge Kroidl, Andreas Wieser, Andreas A Kudom
Mosquito coil is commonly used in many African households for protection against mosquito bites. The coil usually has semi-volatile pyrethroids as an active ingredient, which usually diffuse across open space, and the cloud either kills mosquitoes that are exposed, or mosquitoes can be exposed to sublethal doses of the insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the impact of sublethal doses of mosquito coil on the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti, a major vector for dengue fever and several other arboviral diseases...
May 13, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Zeph Nelson Omondi, Ayşe Caner, Suha Kenan Arserim
Triatomines (kissing bugs) and tsetse flies (genus: Glossina) are natural vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, respectively. T. cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, while T. brucei causes African sleeping sickness disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Both triatomines and tsetse flies are host to a diverse community of gut microbiota that co-exist with the parasites in the gut. Evidence has shown that the gut microbiota of both vectors plays a key role in parasite development and transmission...
April 23, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Sedthapong Laojun, Narin Sontigun, Tanawat Chaiphongpachara
Insects geographically separated into island and mainland populations often exhibit phenotypic variations, a phenomenon known as insular conditions. These conditions can lead to rapid evolutionary changes that affect the morphological characteristics of mosquito vectors. Nevertheless, studies that specifically examine phenotype differences between island and mainland mosquito populations have been limited. In this study, wing variation in size and shape was investigated using the geometric morphometric (GM) technique in two dominant mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Armigeres subalbatus, in the Ranong and Trat archipelagos of Thailand...
April 19, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Sedthapong Laojun, Tanasak Changbunjong, Arina Abdulloh, Tanawat Chaiphongpachara
Mansonia mosquito species are recognised as a significant vector of human pathogens, primarily transmitting the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. In central Thailand, the three most prevalent Mansonia species are Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia indiana and Mansonia uniformis. This study explored the influence of seasonal changes on the phenotypic variation of these Mansonia species in central Thailand using the geometric morphometrics (GM). To ensure accurate species identification, we integrated GM techniques with DNA barcoding, examining distinctions in both phenotype and genotype among the species...
April 12, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Marina Lopes Duarte, Tatiane Aparecida Nascimento, Margareth Maria Carvalho de Queiroz
Sarcophaga (=Parasarcophaga) (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1794) is a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, as its immatures cause myiasis in humans and animals and colonize carcasses and cadavers. Therefore, investigations into the biology and morphology of this species, with a particular focus on pupae that constitute ≥50% of the developmental period for the immatures, are pertinent. Although there are biological and morphological studies of pupae, the intrapuparial development at different temperatures has not yet been analysed...
April 3, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Andreas Eleftheriou, Benjamin Zeiger, Jazmin Jennings, Risa Pesapane
Geographically expanding and invading ticks are a global concern. The Asian longhorned tick (ALT, Haemaphysalis longicornis) was introduced to the mid-Atlantic US between 2010 and 2017 and recently invaded Ohio, an inland state. To date, ALTs in the US have been associated with livestock exsanguination and transmission of the agent of bovine theileriosis. To inform management, studies describing tick ecology and epidemiology of associated disease agents are critical. In this study, we described phenology, habitat and host associations, and tested for agents of medical and veterinary concern at the site of the first known established ALT population in Ohio, where pesticide treatment was applied in early fall 2021...
April 3, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Steve Feudjio Soffack, Tito Tresor Melachio Tanekou, Oumarou Farikou, Ginette Irma Kame Ngasse, Mureille Carole Tchami Mbagnia, Murielle Wondji, Charles S Wondji, Adly M M Abd-Alla, Anne Geiger, Gustave Simo, Flobert Njiokou
Vector control remains one of the best strategies to prevent the transmission of trypanosome infections in humans and livestock and, thus, a good way to achieve the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis and animal African trypanosomiasis. A key prerequisite for the success of any vector control strategy is the accurate identification and correct mapping of tsetse species. In this work, we updated the tsetse fly species identification and distribution in many geographical areas in Cameroon. Tsetse flies were captured from six localities in Cameroon, and their species were morphologically identified...
April 2, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Carlos F Garcia, Andrés Ojanguren, Analía Seoane, Hernan Iuri, Rocio Gambaro, Gabriel Molina, Aldana Laino
Scorpionism is an increasing public health problem in the world. Although no specific methodology or product is currently available for the control of those arachnids, the use of insecticides could be an effective tool. Chlorpyrifos is one of the insecticides used, but to date, whether scorpions recognise surfaces with that insecticide and how it affects their physiology and/or biochemistry is unknown. In the present study, we observed that scorpions recognise surfaces with 0.51 and 8.59 μg/cm2 of chlorpyrifos and avoid those areas...
March 30, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Joanna Werszko, Konrad Wilamowski, Olga Kraszewska, Sławomir Bakier, Anna Maria Pyziel
Among gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi) Cobb (order Strongylidae; family Trichostrongylidae) is one of pathogenic and economic importance in domestic and wild ruminants, including the European bison, Bison bonasus Linnaeus (order Cetartiodactyla; family Bovidae); a species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of Threatened Species. Carabus granulatus Linnaeus (order Coleoptera; family Carabidae) is one of the most prevalent species of ground beetle, inhabiting a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in Poland...
March 27, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Mitsuhiro Iwasa, Yumeno Shido, Shinichi Hatama
The relationship between the incidence of bovine teat papillomatosis and the activity of haematophagous flies was investigated in Japan. A total of 15,737 flies consisting of 33 species were collected by dry ice-baited mosquito net (DMN) trap and a sweep net from udders of cattle. Simulium aokii (Takahasi) of Simuliidae (black flies) was the predominant species, followed by S. tobetsuense Ono and S. iwatense (Shiraki). Simulium aokii had the highest peak in October, followed by September. Numbers of blood spots from the bites per teat in nulliparous cattle were significantly correlated with numbers of S...
March 18, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Mauricio Daniel Beranek, Octavio Giayetto, Sylvia Fischer, Adrián Diaz
Mayaro virus (MAYV; Alphavirus: Togaviridae) is an emerging pathogen in Latin America, causing fever and polyarthritis. Sporadic outbreaks of MAYV have occurred in the region, with reported human cases being imported to Europe and North America. Although primarily a risk for those residing in the Amazon basin's tropical forests, recent reports highlight that urbanization would increase the risk of MAYV transmission in Latin America. Urban emergence depends on human susceptibility and the ability of mosquitos like Aedes aegypti  (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit MAYV...
March 15, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Prapti Das, Subhajit Das, Abhirup Saha, Debayan Raha, Dhiraj Saha
Aedes albopictus is highly prevalent in the northern part of West Bengal and is considered to be responsible for the recent dengue outbreaks in this region. Control of this vector is largely relied on the use of synthetic pyrethroids, which can lead to the development of resistance. In the present study, larvae of three wild Ae. albopictus populations from the dengue-endemic regions were screened for deltamethrin resistance, and the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) was investigated in deltamethrin exposed and unexposed larvae...
March 13, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Samuel Kelava, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Renfu Shao, Alexander W Gofton, Ben J Mans, Ernest J M Teo, Gerrut Norval, Dayana Barker, Ryo Nakao, Stephen C Barker
We used entire mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences (14.5-15 kbp) to resolve the phylogeny of the four main lineages of the Haematobothrion ticks: Alloceraea, Archaeocroton, Bothriocroton and Haemaphysalis. In our phylogenetic trees, Alloceraea was the sister to Archaeocroton sphenodonti, a tick of an archetypal reptile, the tuatara, from New Zealand, to the exclusion of the rest of the species of Haemaphysalis. The mt genomes of all four of the Alloceraea species that have been sequenced so far had a substantial insert, 132-312 bp, between the tRNA-Glu (E) gene and the nad1 gene in their mt genomes...
March 12, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Christopher M Jones, Grant L Hughes, Sylvester Coleman, Rosie Fellows, Richard S Quilliam
Microplastics (plastic particles <5 mm) permeate aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and constitute a hazard to animal life. Although much research has been conducted on the effects of microplastics on marine and benthic organisms, less consideration has been given to insects, especially those adapted to urban environments. Here, we provide a perspective on the potential consequences of exposure to microplastics within typical larval habitat on mosquito biology. Mosquitoes represent an ideal organism in which to explore the biological effects of microplastics on terrestrial insects, not least because of their importance as an infectious disease vector...
March 12, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Federico Gabriel Galassi, Maria Ines Picollo, Paola González-Audino
The human head lice Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) are strict, obligate human ectoparasites that spends their entire life cycle in the host and cause skin irritation and derived infections. Despite the health-related importance, few studies have evaluated the chemical communication among these insects. Here, we evaluate the response of lice of both sexes to cuticular extracts using two solvents of different polarity (hexane and methanol). Cuticular extracts that elicited an attraction response towards head lice were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the cuticular lipid profile...
March 1, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Zafer Sakaci, Sengul Talay, Kamil Erguler, Adil Korkmaz, Deniz Sirin, Aylin Er, Bulent Alten, Sirri Kar
This study aims to determine the phenological characteristics of thermal responses in the larvae of a Culex pipiens complex field population at the individual level under the influence of thermal regime of its habitat. The analysis is based on a structured population model quantifying the thermal responses of development time and survival under variable conditions and characterising the variety between the larvae (interindividual variety). During the study performed in Turkish Thrace on a monthly basis between May 2021 and June 2022, a total of 3744 larvae were reared as peer larval cohorts and 2330 larvae as siblings in artificial containers to be fully exposed to the natural thermal condition that was recorded hourly...
February 13, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Dimitri W Wangrawa, Joel O Odero, Francesco Baldini, Fredros Okumu, Athanase Badolo
There has been significant progress in malaria control in the last 2 decades, with a decline in mortality and morbidity. However, these gains are jeopardised by insecticide resistance, which negatively impacts the core interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). While most malaria control and research efforts are still focused on Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes, Anopheles funestus remains an important vector in many countries and, in some cases, contributes to most of the local transmission...
February 2, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Kruawan Chotelersak, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, Yudthana Samung, Tanawat Chaiphongpachara, Jean-Pierre Dujardin, Suchada Sumruayphol
Fleas in the genus Ctenocephalides serve as biological vectors or intermediate hosts of microorganisms such as bacteria, rickettsia, protozoa and helminths. Ctenocephalides felis has a worldwide distribution, while C. orientis has long been considered as a subspecies of C. felis in Asia. To help the morphological recognition of these two species and further explore their differences, we used the geometric morphometric approach applied to the head. Both sexes were examined. Five anatomical landmarks of the head were used, and to capture the curvature of the front head, 10 semilandmarks were added...
January 31, 2024: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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