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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

E J Norris, A D Gross, L C Bartholomay, J R Coats
Pyrethroid resistance is a significant threat to agricultural, urban and public health pest control activities. Because economic incentives for the production of novel active ingredients for the control of public health pests are lacking, this field is particularly affected by the potential failure of pyrethroid-based insecticides brought about by increasing pyrethroid resistance. As a result, innovative approaches are desperately needed to overcome insecticide resistance, particularly in mosquitoes that transmit deadly and debilitating pathogens...
May 17, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M A Riddin, G J Venter, K Labuschagne, M H Villet
An upsurge in African horse sickness (AHS) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, from 2006 led to an epidemiological reassessment of the disease there. Light trapping surveys carried out near horses, donkeys and zebras in 2014-2016 collected 39 species of Culicoides midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) that are potential vectors of AHS. To establish if these midges fed on equids, DNA sequences were obtained from the gut contents of 52 female midges (35 freshly blood-fed, 13 gravid and four parous), representing 11 species collected across 11 sites...
May 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T W R Möhlmann, A M Bekendam, I van Kemenade, U Wennergren, G Favia, W Takken, C J M Koenraadt
Culicoides species from the Obsoletus group are important vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus. This group consists of several species that cannot easily be identified using morphological characteristics. Therefore, limited information is available about their distribution and habitat preferences. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the species composition of the Obsoletus group in three habitat types at climatically different latitudes across Europe. Traps were placed in three habitat types in three countries at different latitudes...
April 29, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D R Gustafsson, L Lei, K Luo, X Chu, X Zhao, Q Zhang, F Zou
In total, 366 birds representing 55 species in 24 families and eight orders, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) in two high-altitude localities in Yunnan Province, China. In Ailaoshan, almost all of the birds examined were resident passeriforms, of which 36% were parasitized by chewing lice. In Jinshanyakou, most birds were on migration, and included both passerine and non-passerine birds. Of the passerine birds caught in Jinshanyakou, only one bird (0.7%) was parasitized by chewing lice...
April 29, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Ghosh, T Mullapudi, S Bomanna, B K Tyagi, V Ravi, A Desai
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The present study investigated vector competence for CHIKV in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes found in Madurai, South India. The role of receptor proteins on midguts contributing to permissiveness of CHIKV to Aedes spp. mosquitoes was also undertaken. Mosquitoes were orally infected with CHIKV DRDE-06. Infection of midguts and dissemination to heads was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay at different time points. A plaque assay was performed from mosquito homogenates at different time points to study CHIKV replication...
March 26, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Jiang, L Yang, J R Bloomquist
Spatial repellents are an essential tool for personal protection against mosquitoes that bite and transmit disease pathogens to humans. Current repellent screening methods, such as olfactometers and alternative choice tests, are complex systems that require a relatively large quantity of compound (mg). The present study validates a high-throughput spatial repellent screening method using a glass tube that has the ends covered with netting, in addition to treated filters and plastic end caps. The apparatus occupies relatively little space, is easy to decontaminate, and requires small amounts of compound (μg)...
March 25, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M F Martínez, M S Santini, M M Kowalewski, O D Salomón
Multiple species of Phlebotominae are vectors of Leishmania (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae), which causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). To describe the Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) related to the environments of black and gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya (Humbodlt, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae), potential vectors were sampled in different landscapes and vertical strata of sleeping trees. Phlebotomine captured between December 2011 and March 2012 (2365 individuals) belonged to eight species, of which Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (61...
March 20, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
O S Moraes, B F Cardoso, T A Pacheco, A Z L Pinto, M S Carvalho, R C Hahn, T C T Burlamaqui, L F Oliveira, R S Oliveira, J M Vasconcelos, P S Lemos, M R T Nunes, R D Slhessarenko
New species of insect-specific viruses (ISV) have been reported worldwide. In the present study, the complete genome of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and partial sequences of other ISVs in Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 females (n = 3425) sampled in 200 urban areas census tracts of Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, were identified via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for a NS5 region of flaviviruses, nucleotide and high-throughput sequencing, and viral isolation in C6/36 cells. CxFV was detected in 16 of 403 mosquito pools; sequences found in the study presented a high similarity with isolates from São Paulo, Brazil and other countries in Latin American that belong to genotype II, supporting the geographical influence on CxFV evolution...
March 19, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Heylen, O Schmidt, H Dautel, L Gern, H Kampen, J Newton, J Gray
Determination of the ratios of natural stable isotopes (13 C/12 C and 15 N/14 N) in unfed Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults, which, in their previous stage, fed on captive wild rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus and Myodes glareolus), wild birds (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus) or domestic ruminants (Ovis aries and Bos taurus), demonstrated that it is possible to identify each host category with confidence. First, the tick-blood spacing, which is the difference between values obtained from ticks and the blood of hosts that they had fed on in the previous stage, was consistent (152 spacings investigated from 15 host individuals in total)...
March 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Cicuttin, M N De Salvo, J Sanchez, C Cañón, M Lareschi
Bartonella are facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, transmitted mainly by hematophagous arthropods, and the rodents act as a natural reservoir. Different species of Bartonella associated with rodents have been implicated as causing human disease. Studies from Argentina are scarce and no Bartonella from fleas have been reported previously. The present study investigated the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas associated with sigmodontine rodents in four localities of the Santa Cruz Province, Argentina...
March 12, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Schott, U A Souza, B Dall'Agnol, A Webster, R Doyle, F Peters, M Favarini, F Mazim, A O Rosa, M M A Jardim, T C Trigo, J Reck
Fleas are insects with a worldwide distribution that have been implicated in the transmission of several pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and Bartonella spp. (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) in fleas from free-ranging crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) (Carnivora: Canidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Fleas were collected manually from animals and used for the molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp...
March 8, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Yan, Z Qiu, T Zhang, Y Li, W Wang, M Li, Z Yu, J Liu
The soft tick Argas japonicus mainly infests birds and can cause human dermatitis; however, no pathogen has been identified from this tick species in China. In the present study, the microbiota in A. japonicus collected from an epidemic community was explored, and some putative Rickettsia pathogens were further characterized. The results obtained indicated that bacteria in A. japonicus were mainly ascribed to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the male A. japonicus harboured more diverse bacteria than the females and nymphs...
March 6, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H Naeem, M Oneeb, K Ashraf, M I Rashid, M M Nazir, S Tabassum
Anopheles subpictus s.l. Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) is a malaria vector in South Asia, where insecticides are the mainstay for vector control interventions. Information on any variation in metabolic enzyme levels in mosquitoes is helpful with respect to adapting alternative strategies for vector control. The scarce data on the biochemical basis of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors of Pakistan limit the available information for vector control interventions within the country. The insecticide susceptibility status and its biochemical basis against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (4%), deltamethrin (0...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L M S Maia, M C F Bezerra, M C S Costa, E M Souza, M E B Oliveira, A L M Ribeiro, R D Miyazaki, R D Slhessarenko
Vertical transmission to progeny ensures the maintenance of arboviruses in their natural vectors. This mechanism is largely reported for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Few studies have addressed this mechanism for Zika virus (ZIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV) and other arboviruses. The present study investigated the natural infection rate by arboviruses in 4490 Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and 296 Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) reared from eggs collected with ovitraps in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, from February to July, 2017...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C De Liberato, A Magliano, G L Autorino, M Di Domenico, M Sala, F Baldacchino
Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) is a disease with an almost worldwide distribution, with several outbreaks having been reported recently in European countries. In Italy, two regions, Lazio and Abruzzo, are considered as endemic areas for this disease. In nature, the EIA virus is mechanically transmitted by biting flies such as tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae), although few studies have investigated the epidemiological implications. In the present study, several sites characterized by different levels of EIA prevalence were sampled...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Baines, M Becker, S Hart
Impacts of sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus on livestock, gamebirds and wildlife are of concern across Europe. The present study describes livestock and tick management by 36 farmers from three upland sites of conservation importance in North Wales, where farmers consider that ticks have increased during the last 25 years. Sheep, average densities of 2.0 animals per ha were treated with pour-on acaricides in spring, again in July, and also when removed from the moor in autumn. Given acaricide efficacy rates, sheep were susceptible to tick bites for half the period on the moor...
February 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A P Gutierrez, L Ponti, P A Arias
Before its eradication from North America, the subtropical-tropical new world screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) invaded southwestern temperate areas of the U.S.A., where it caused myiasis in wildlife and livestock. Outbreaks of the fly occurred during years when adult migrants were carried northward on North American monsoon winds from the northern areas of Mexico and south Texas. We deconstruct, retrospectively, the biology and the effect of weather on the eradication of the fly in North America...
February 13, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Bitencourth, M Amorim, S V de Oliveira, C M Voloch, G S Gazêta
Amblyomma ovale (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Koch, 1844 is widely-reported in the neotropical region and is the main vector in the epidemic cycle of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest, a bioagent of a milder variety of spotted fever (SF). Because species with wide geographical distributions are known to exhibit variations that influence their vectorial capacity, the present study aimed to analyze genetic diversity and rickettsia infection of A. ovale collected during the investigation and surveillance of SF cases in the Cerrado and Atlantic rainforest (ARF) Brazilian biomes...
February 11, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
B Bilbija, M Auer, P Široký
An indoor terrarium population of Amblyomma geoemydae was established subsequent to the import of a single yellow-marginated box turtle Cuora flavomarginata. This indoor tick population revealed an unexpected resistance against de-ticking trials, with persistence between 2010 and 2015, when the ticks were successfully eliminated. Ticks were collected from the bodies and shells of turtles, as well as from terraria soil. Species diagnosis of ticks was carried out according to distinguishable morphological characters and supported by molecular analysis using DNA-barcoding...
February 11, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Zurita, R Callejón, Á M García-Sánchez, M Urdapilleta, M Lareschi, C Cutillas
The human flea Pulex irritans Linnaeus, 1758 (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is one of the most studied species together with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, 1835, because they have a cosmopolitan distribution and are closely related to humans. The present study aimed to carry out a comparative morphometric and molecular study of two different populations of P. irritans (Spain and Argentina). Accordingly, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 of rDNA and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) mtDNA genes of these taxa were sequenced...
February 9, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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