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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

A D Mihalca, I R Păstrav, A D Sándor, G Deak, C M Gherman, A Sarmaşi, J Votýpka
Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), the dog fly or dog louse fly, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite of wild and domestic carnivores in Africa and the Middle East. Outside its typically known geographic range, H. longipennis has been reported occasionally on mainly domestic dogs in Asia and southern Europe, and infrequently in other areas (central Europe and the U.S.A.). This paper presents the first report of H. longipennis in Romania and the second record of Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a potentially invasive species...
July 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N Pusterla, J Bowers, S Barnum, J A Hall
The objective of this study was to detect Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) (Lactobacillales: Streptococcaceae) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in flies collected from a farm with a documented outbreak of strangles. A total of 1856 face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae)] were collected using conventional fly traps. The flies were processed for nucleic acid purification and tested for the presence of S. equi by qPCR. A total of 10/1856 flies (0.54%) tested qPCR-positive for S...
July 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Ćakić, G Veinović, T Cerar, D Mihaljica, R Sukara, E Ružić-Sabljić, S Tomanović
Spirochetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) species complex, including the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, have been isolated from ticks, vertebrate reservoirs and humans. Previous analyses based on direct molecular detection in ticks indicated a considerable diversity of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in Serbia. The present study aimed (a) to isolate borrelia strains from Serbia; (b) to determine their genotypic characteristics; and (c) to establish a collection of viable B...
June 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M A Riddin, G J Venter, K Labuschagne, M H Villet
African horse sickness (AHS), a disease of equids caused by the AHS virus, is of major concern in South Africa. With mortality reaching up to 95% in susceptible horses and the apparent reoccurrence of cases in regions deemed non-endemic, most particularly the Eastern Cape, epidemiological research into factors contributing to the increase in the range of this economically important virus became imperative. The vectors, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are considered unable to proliferate during the unfavourable climatic conditions experienced in winter in the province, although the annual occurrence of AHS suggests that the virus has become established and that vector activity continues throughout the year...
June 7, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Depaquit, K Vongphayloth, P Siriyasatien, R Polseela, A Phumee, M Loyer, A Vol, G Varlot, N Rahola, P T Brey, I W Sutherland, J C Hertz, F Gay, N Léger
Several species of Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniases in Thailand, although little is known about their transmission. Sergentomyia gemmea has been suspected several times to transmit Leishmania martiniquensis. Some captures carried out in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic have emphasized the scarcity of Se. gemmea, comprising only 1% of the collected females. The sequencing of cytochrome B mtDNA of our specimens showed that our specimens are not grouped with other Se. gemmea previously deposited in GenBank...
June 3, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Parravani, C-A Chivers, N Bell, S Long, F Burden, R Wall
The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) is a cosmopolitan biting fly of both economic and welfare concern, primarily as a result of its painful bite, which can cause blood loss, discomfort and loss of productivity in livestock. Between June and November in 2016 and May and December in 2017, Alsynite sticky-traps were deployed at four Donkey Sanctuary sites in southwest England, which experience recurrent seasonal biting fly problems. The aim was to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the stable fly populations and the risk factors associated with abundance...
May 30, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Yan, S Liu, A C Schlink, G R Flematti, B S Brodie, B Bohman, J C Greeff, P E Vercoe, J Hu, G B Martin
To identify flystrike-related volatile compounds in wool from Merino sheep, the attractiveness of wool to Lucilia cuprina Wiedmann (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was examined. First, a selection of wool samples guided by previous knowledge of sheep lines, predicted to be more susceptible or more resistant to flystrike, was tested. The attractiveness of the 10 samples selected was not associated with field susceptibility: two samples from the more resistant line were identified as most attractive and two samples from the more susceptible line were identified as least attractive, based on the behavioural assays with gravid flies...
May 28, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Phanitchat, C Apiwathnasorn, S Sungvornyothin, Y Samung, S Dujardin, J-P Dujardin, S Sumruayphol
Wing geometry helps to identify mosquito species, even cryptic ones. On the other hand, temperature has a well-known effect on insect metric properties. Can such effects blur the taxonomic signal embedded in the wing? Two strains of Aedes albopictus (laboratory and field strain) were examined under three different rearing temperatures (26, 30 and 33 °C) using landmark- and outline-based morphometric approaches. The wings of each experimental line were compared with Aedes aegypti. Both approaches indicated similar associations between wing size and temperature...
May 24, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Chouin-Carneiro, T H Ant, C Herd, F Louis, A B Failloux, S P Sinkins
Transinfections of the maternally transmitted endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis can reduce RNA virus replication and prevent transmission by Aedes aegypti, and also have the capacity to invade wild-type populations, potentially reaching and maintaining high infection frequencies. Levels of virus transmission blocking are positively correlated with Wolbachia intracellular density. Despite reaching high densities in Ae. aegypti, transinfections of wAlbA, a strain native to Aedes albopictus, showed no blocking of Semliki Forest Virus in previous intrathoracic injection challenges...
May 23, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C M Calkins, J D Scasta, T Smith, M M Stayton, S L Lake
The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) is a blood obligate ectoparasite of bovids that causes annual losses to the U.S. beef cattle industry of over US$1.75 billion. Climate warming, the anthropogenic dispersion of bovids and the cross-breeding of beef cattle with other bovid species may facilitate novel horn fly-host interactions. In particular, hybridizing yaks [Bos grunniens (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)] with beef cows (Bos taurus) for heterosis and carcass improvements may increase the exposure of yak × beef hybrids to horn flies...
May 20, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E J Norris, A D Gross, L C Bartholomay, J R Coats
Pyrethroid resistance is a significant threat to agricultural, urban and public health pest control activities. Because economic incentives for the production of novel active ingredients for the control of public health pests are lacking, this field is particularly affected by the potential failure of pyrethroid-based insecticides brought about by increasing pyrethroid resistance. As a result, innovative approaches are desperately needed to overcome insecticide resistance, particularly in mosquitoes that transmit deadly and debilitating pathogens...
May 17, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M A Riddin, G J Venter, K Labuschagne, M H Villet
An upsurge in African horse sickness (AHS) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, from 2006 led to an epidemiological reassessment of the disease there. Light trapping surveys carried out near horses, donkeys and zebras in 2014-2016 collected 39 species of Culicoides midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) that are potential vectors of AHS. To establish if these midges fed on equids, DNA sequences were obtained from the gut contents of 52 female midges (35 freshly blood-fed, 13 gravid and four parous), representing 11 species collected across 11 sites...
May 16, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T W R Möhlmann, A M Bekendam, I van Kemenade, U Wennergren, G Favia, W Takken, C J M Koenraadt
Culicoides species from the Obsoletus group are important vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus. This group consists of several species that cannot easily be identified using morphological characteristics. Therefore, limited information is available about their distribution and habitat preferences. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the species composition of the Obsoletus group in three habitat types at climatically different latitudes across Europe. Traps were placed in three habitat types in three countries at different latitudes...
April 29, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D R Gustafsson, L Lei, K Luo, X Chu, X Zhao, Q Zhang, F Zou
In total, 366 birds representing 55 species in 24 families and eight orders, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) in two high-altitude localities in Yunnan Province, China. In Ailaoshan, almost all of the birds examined were resident passeriforms, of which 36% were parasitized by chewing lice. In Jinshanyakou, most birds were on migration, and included both passerine and non-passerine birds. Of the passerine birds caught in Jinshanyakou, only one bird (0.7%) was parasitized by chewing lice...
April 29, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Ghosh, T Mullapudi, S Bomanna, B K Tyagi, V Ravi, A Desai
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The present study investigated vector competence for CHIKV in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes found in Madurai, South India. The role of receptor proteins on midguts contributing to permissiveness of CHIKV to Aedes spp. mosquitoes was also undertaken. Mosquitoes were orally infected with CHIKV DRDE-06. Infection of midguts and dissemination to heads was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay at different time points. A plaque assay was performed from mosquito homogenates at different time points to study CHIKV replication...
March 26, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Jiang, L Yang, J R Bloomquist
Spatial repellents are an essential tool for personal protection against mosquitoes that bite and transmit disease pathogens to humans. Current repellent screening methods, such as olfactometers and alternative choice tests, are complex systems that require a relatively large quantity of compound (mg). The present study validates a high-throughput spatial repellent screening method using a glass tube that has the ends covered with netting, in addition to treated filters and plastic end caps. The apparatus occupies relatively little space, is easy to decontaminate, and requires small amounts of compound (μg)...
March 25, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M F Martínez, M S Santini, M M Kowalewski, O D Salomón
Multiple species of Phlebotominae are vectors of Leishmania (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae), which causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). To describe the Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) related to the environments of black and gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya (Humbodlt, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae), potential vectors were sampled in different landscapes and vertical strata of sleeping trees. Phlebotomine captured between December 2011 and March 2012 (2365 individuals) belonged to eight species, of which Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (61...
March 20, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
O S Moraes, B F Cardoso, T A Pacheco, A Z L Pinto, M S Carvalho, R C Hahn, T C T Burlamaqui, L F Oliveira, R S Oliveira, J M Vasconcelos, P S Lemos, M R T Nunes, R D Slhessarenko
New species of insect-specific viruses (ISV) have been reported worldwide. In the present study, the complete genome of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and partial sequences of other ISVs in Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 females (n = 3425) sampled in 200 urban areas census tracts of Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, were identified via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for a NS5 region of flaviviruses, nucleotide and high-throughput sequencing, and viral isolation in C6/36 cells. CxFV was detected in 16 of 403 mosquito pools; sequences found in the study presented a high similarity with isolates from São Paulo, Brazil and other countries in Latin American that belong to genotype II, supporting the geographical influence on CxFV evolution...
March 19, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Heylen, O Schmidt, H Dautel, L Gern, H Kampen, J Newton, J Gray
Determination of the ratios of natural stable isotopes (13 C/12 C and 15 N/14 N) in unfed Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults, which, in their previous stage, fed on captive wild rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus and Myodes glareolus), wild birds (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus) or domestic ruminants (Ovis aries and Bos taurus), demonstrated that it is possible to identify each host category with confidence. First, the tick-blood spacing, which is the difference between values obtained from ticks and the blood of hosts that they had fed on in the previous stage, was consistent (152 spacings investigated from 15 host individuals in total)...
March 18, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Cicuttin, M N De Salvo, J Sanchez, C Cañón, M Lareschi
Bartonella are facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, transmitted mainly by hematophagous arthropods, and the rodents act as a natural reservoir. Different species of Bartonella associated with rodents have been implicated as causing human disease. Studies from Argentina are scarce and no Bartonella from fleas have been reported previously. The present study investigated the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas associated with sigmodontine rodents in four localities of the Santa Cruz Province, Argentina...
March 12, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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