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Immunology and Cell Biology

Aarthi Rajesh, Lyn Wise, Merilyn Hibma
Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermal immune cells of myeloid origin. Although these cells were primarily thought to play a defensive role in the skin, evidence now indicates a diverse range of LC-mediated effects including relay of viral antigens in herpes simplex infection, recruitment of eosinophils in atopic dermatitis, and promotion of a Th17 response in Candida infection. LCs may have a protective or suppressive function in pathologies of the skin, with differing functions being driven by the skin milieu...
April 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Lihong Chen, Lina Zhang, Zhu Zhu, Wubing He, Lingyun Gao, Wenmin Zhang, Jingfeng Liu, Aimin Huang
Acute rejection is the major determinant for the long-term survival of donor liver after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic potential of IL-10-FasL-overexpressing immature dendritic cells (imDCs) to induce local immunosuppression in liver grafts. ImDCs derived from donors were transfected by lentiviral vectors expressing human (h)IL-10 and/or hFasL gene, and the expressions of surface molecules and the ability to induce T-cell proliferation were measured. ImDCs were intraperitoneally injected to recipient rats as a model of LT to examine the rejection grade (Banff rejection activity index, RAI), liver functions (ALT, AST and TBIL) and post-transplant survival...
April 12, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
N J Geraghty, D Watson, R Sluyter
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy for a number of haematological malignancies, but is limited by the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD39 and CD73 form an ecto-enzymatic pathway that hydrolyses extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine, which respectively exacerbate or alleviate disease in allogeneic mouse models of GVHD. The current study aimed to explore the role of the CD39/CD73 pathway and adenosine receptor (AR) blockade in a humanised mouse model of GVHD...
April 7, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Adrian Liston, Stephanie Humblet-Baron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jie Liu, Brenna J Hill, Sam Darko, Kaimei Song, Máire F Quigley, Tedi E Asher, Yohei Morita, Hui Y Greenaway, Vanessa Venturi, Daniel C Douek, Miles P Davenport, David A Price, Mario Roederer
The peripheral maturation of human CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells has not been well described. In this study, we identified four major subsets of NKT cells in adults, distinguished by the expression of CD4, CD8, and CCR5. Phenotypic analysis suggested a hierarchical pattern of differentiation, whereby immature CD4+ CD8- CCR5- cells progressed to an intermediate CD4+ CD8- CCR5+ stage, which remained less differentiated than the CD4- CD8- and CD4- CD8+ subsets, both of which expressed CCR5. This interpretation was supported by functional data, including clonogenic potential and cytokine secretion profiles, as well as T cell receptor (TCR) excision circle analysis...
March 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Simone Nüssing, Hui-Fern Koay, Sneha Sant, Thomas Loudovaris, Stuart I Mannering, Martha Lappas, Yves D Udekem, Igor E Konstantinov, Stuart P Berzins, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Stephen J Turner, E Bridie Clemens, Dale I Godfrey, Thi Ho Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Special AT-rich binding protein-1 (SATB1) is a global chromatin organizer capable of activating or repressing gene transcription in mice and humans. The role of SATB1 is pivotal for T-cell development, with SATB1-knockout mice being neonatally lethal, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Moreover, SATB1 is dysregulated in T-cell lymphoma and proposed to suppress transcription of the Pdcd1 gene, encoding the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Thus, SATB1 expression in T-cell subsets across different tissue compartments in humans is of potential importance for targeting PD-1...
February 25, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Tapio Lönnberg, Michael Jt Stubbington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Petra Zimmermann, Kirsten P Perrett, Fiona Rm van der Klis, Nigel Curtis
It is proposed that measles-containing vaccines have immunomodulatory effects which include a reduction in all-cause childhood mortality. The antibody response to heterologous vaccines provides a means to explore these immunomodulatory effects. This is the first study to investigate the influence of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine on the persistence of antibodies to a broad range of heterologous infant vaccinations given in the first year of life. In total, 319 children were included in the study. All infants received routine vaccinations at 6 weeks, 4 and 6 months of age...
February 21, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
George Caputa, Lea J Flachsmann, Alanna M Cameron
Macrophages are a critical component of the innate immune response, and compose the first response to perturbations in tissue homeostasis. Their unique ability to dynamically integrate diverse stimuli underlies their important role in the healing response from first insult to re-establishment of tissue homeostasis. While the roles of macrophages in tissue repair have been well-described in vitro and in vivo, the influence of cellular metabolism on macrophage function during tissue repair remains an unexplored area of immunometabolism...
February 19, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Stuart G Tangye, Giorgia Bucciol, Jose Martin de Las Casas, Bethany Pillay, Cindy S Ma, Leen Moens, Isabelle Meyts
Inherited defects in genes encoding for proteins that are involved in the assembly and dynamics of the actin skeleton have increasingly been identified in patients presenting with primary immunodeficiencies. In this review, we summarize a subset of the recently described conditions, emphasizing the clinical features as well as the immunophenotype and pathophysiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 18, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Xuanxuan Jing, Jin Peng, Yu Dou, Jintang Sun, Chao Ma, Qingjie Wang, Lin Zhang, Xia Luo, Beihua Kong, Yun Zhang, Lijie Wang, Xun Qu
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) exert tumor-promoting effects. There have been reports that Estrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed on the infiltrating macrophages of endometriosis, ovarian cancer and lung cancer. However, the role of ERs in macrophages is not well characterized. In this study, we first identified that ERα expression on the macrophages of human endometrial cancer was positively correlated with cancer progression. Conditioned medium from selective ERα agonist-treated M2 macrophages induced the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial cancer cells...
February 18, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Franz Puttur, Lisa G Gregory, Clare M Lloyd
The lungs present a challenging immunological dilemma for the host. Anatomically positioned at the environmental interface, they are constantly exposed to antigens, pollutants and microbes, while simultaneously facilitating vital gas exchange. Remarkably, the lungs maintain a functionally healthy state, ignoring harmless inhaled proteins, adapting to toxic environmental insults and limiting immune responses to allergens and pathogenic microbes. This functional strategy of environmental adaptation maintains immune defense, reduces tissue damage, and promotes and sustains lung immune tolerance...
February 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Tian Sun, Richard L Ferrero, Stephen E Girardin, Jennifer L Gommerman, Dana J Philpott
The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family plays an important role in innate immunity. CIITA and NLRC5 are unusual members of the NLR family that instead of recognizing pathogen-associated or damage-associated molecular patterns, form enhanceosomes with adaptor molecules and modulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and MHC class I expression, respectively. While NLRC5 has been shown to play a role during intracellular pathogen infection and tumor cell immune evasion, its role in regulating antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses at the intestinal mucosa has not been investigated...
February 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Sang Yong Kim, Meera G Nair
Macrophages are critically involved in wound healing, from dampening inflammation to clearing cell debris and coordinating tissue repair. Within the wound, the complexity of macrophage function is increasingly recognized, with adverse outcomes when macrophages are inappropriately activated, such as in fibrosis or chronic non-healing wounds. Recent advances in in vivo and translational wound models, macrophage-specific deletions and new technologies to distinguish macrophage subsets, have uncovered the vast spectrum of macrophage activation and effector functions...
February 11, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Tiffany Bouchery, Nicola Harris
Immune cells are rapidly recruited to a site of injury or infection. Although the importance of phagocytic immune cells in clearing bacteria has long been appreciated, the advent of technologies allowing more depth analysis of cellular function, such as intravital microscopy and the use of genetically modified animal models, has allowed much deeper insight into the complex roles of these cells play during tissue repair. Many immune cells contribute to the repair process; however, this review will concentrate on the involvement of the phagocytes, namely macrophages and neutrophils, with a particular focus on our more recent understanding of how interactions between these two cell types impact on the final outcome of tissue repair...
February 2, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Zoltán Bánki, Lisette Krabbendam, Dominik Klaver, Tianqi Leng, Simon Kruis, Hema Mehta, Brigitte Müllauer, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Heribert Stoiber, Christian B Willberg, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant human T cell subset with anti-microbial properties. They can respond to bacteria presented via antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages, which present bacterially derived ligands from the riboflavin synthesis pathway on MR1. Moreover, MAIT cells are also highly responsive to cytokines which enhance and even substitute for TCR-mediated signaling. The mechanisms leading to an efficient presentation of bacteria to MAIT cells by APCs have not been fully elucidated...
January 29, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Anne C La Flamme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Calvin D'Eall, Robert A Pon, Martin A Rossotti, Natalie Krahn, Maureen Spearman, Deborah Callaghan, Henk van Faassen, Greg Hussack, Jörg Stetefeld, Michael Butler, Yves Durocher, Jianbing Zhang, Kevin A Henry, Jamshid Tanha
Human IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies can mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and engineering of the antibody Fc (point mutation; defucosylation) has been shown to affect ADCC activity by modulating affinity for FcRγIIIa. In the absence of a CH 1 domain, many camelid heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) naturally bear very long and flexible hinge regions connecting their VH H and CH 2 domains. To better understand the influence of hinge length and structure on HCAb ADCC, we produced a series of hinge-engineered epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific chimeric camelid VH H-human Fc antibodies and characterized their affinities for recombinant EGFR and FcRγIIIa, their binding to EGFR-positive tumor cells, and their ability to elicit ADCC...
January 25, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Trauma or infection can result in tissue damage, which needs to be repaired in a well-orchestrated manner to restore tissue function and homeostasis. Lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (termed eicosanoids) play central and versatile roles in the regulation of tissue repair. Here, I summarize the current state-of the-art regarding the functional activities of eicosanoids in tissue repair responses during homeostasis and disease. I also describe how eicosanoids are produced during tissue damage and repair in a time-, cell- and tissue-dependent fashion...
January 24, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Tiffany Bouchery, Nicola Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
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