Ji Zhou, Hao Xiao, Zhitao Wang, Huiping Wang, Xue Liang, Zhimin Zhai, Jingfang Hong
We explored the frequency of CD14- CD10- CD45+ HLA-DR- SSC++ neutrophils (CD10- neutrophils) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and their immunologic characteristics and clinical significance. Patients with NHL who were newly diagnosed (NDP; n = 33), in remission (RMP; n = 28) and relapsed (RLP; n = 29) were included, and 47 volunteers were recruited as healthy controls (HCs). The frequency of CD10- neutrophils in the peripheral blood from HC and patients with NHL was detected...
February 15, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Morgan J McCullough, Miriya K Tune, Johnny Castillo Cabrera, Jose Torres-Castillo, Minghong He, Yongqiang Feng, Claire M Doerschuk, Hong Dang, Adriana S Beltran, Robert S Hagan, Jason R Mock
CD4+ forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential in maintaining immune tolerance and suppressing excessive immune responses. Tregs also contribute to tissue repair processes distinct from their roles in immune suppression. For these reasons, Tregs are candidates for targeted therapies for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and in diseases where tissue damage occurs. MT-2 cells, an immortalized Treg-like cell line, offer a model to study Treg biology and their therapeutic potential. In the present study, we use clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated knockdown of FOXP3 in MT-2 cells to understand the transcriptional and functional changes that occur when FOXP3 is lost and to compare MT-2 cells with primary human Tregs...
January 30, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Ryan L Kyle, Melanie Prout, Graham Le Gros, Marcus J Robinson
T helper 2 (Th2) cells stochastically express from the Il4 locus but it has not been determined whether allelic expression is linked or independent. Here, we provide evidence that alleles are independently activated and inactivated. We compared Il4 locus expression in T cells from hemizygous IL-4 reporter mice in culture and in vivo following exposure to type 2 immunogens. In culture, Il4 alleles had independent, heritable expression probabilities. Modeling showed that in co-expressors, dual allele transcription occurs for only short periods, limiting per-cell mRNA variation in individual cells within a population of Th2 cells...
January 29, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Anas Ha Abu-Humaidan, Mohammad A Ismail, Fatima M Ahmad, Sofian Al Shboul, Raghad Barham, Joud S Tadros, Ahmad Alhesa, Mohammed El-Sadoni, Moureq R Alotaibi, Nidaa A Ababneh, Tareq Saleh
Therapy-induced senescence (TIS) is a primary response to chemotherapy, contributing to untoward treatment outcomes such as evasion of immunosurveillance. Despite the established role of the complement system in the immune response to cancer, the role of complement in mediating the immune response against senescent tumor cells remains poorly understood. To explore this relationship, we exposed lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and pancreatic carcinoma (Panc-1) cell lines to sublethal doses of either etoposide or doxorubicin to trigger TIS...
January 24, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Anthony L Cunningham, Kenneth Micklethwaite
In this article, we discuss a recently published article that demonstrated a novel way of identifying viral pathogens reactivating in human cells to be used as cellular therapy, in this instance chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. The authors used search engines and databases to identify viruses able to reactivate in T cells and then tested this initially in T-cell cultures, specifically human herpesvirus 6. This virus was then shown to reactivate infrequently in vitro and in vivo in CAR T cells as a consequence of T-cell activation...
January 18, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Fatemeh Davoudi, Afshin Moradi, Habib Sadeghirad, Arutha Kulasinghe
Cancer immunotherapy has been rejuvenated by the growing understanding of the immune system's role in tumor activity over the past two decades. During cancer initiation and progression, tumor cells employ various mechanisms that resemble peripheral immune tolerance to evade the antitumor responses of the immune system. Immune checkpoint molecules are the major mechanism of immune resistance that are exploited by tumor cells to inhibit T-cell activation and suppress immune responses. The targeting of immune checkpoint pathways has led to substantial improvements in survival rates in a number of solid cancers...
January 16, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jia Yi Hee, Benjamin Cai, Ranjeny Thomas
Immunology research holds significant potential for enhanced inclusivity at the beginning of the science literacy journey, but persistent challenges stem from limited awareness that improvement is needed in this field. At the 2023 Monash Sensory Science Exhibition, we had the opportunity to present several tactile posters, using simple materials, for visually impaired participants to showcase our research on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis as a result of immune tolerance breakdown and liposome-based tolerogenic immunotherapy...
January 12, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Adrian Liston
Immunology & Cell Biology celebrated its 100-year birthday as a journal with an editorial workshop focused on how we can improve the author experience. In our renewed editorial policies, we articulate our editorial focus on the quality of the scientific question and the robustness of the conclusions, including a new "scoop protection" policy to live our values. The journal is dedicated to maintaining its relationship with reviewers, enabling rapid quality peer review, but is also opening new lines of submission with expedited cross-platform assessment of reviews and incorporation into the Review Commons submission pipeline...
January 11, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Łukasz Suprewicz, Magdalena Zakrzewska, Sławomir Okła, Katarzyna Głuszek, Alicja Sadzyńska, Piotr Deptuła, Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Robert Bucki
Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein primarily recognized for its intracellular role in maintaining cellular structure, has recently garnered increased attention and emerged as a pivotal extracellular player in immune regulation and host-pathogen interactions. While the functions of extracellular vimentin were initially overshadowed by its cytoskeletal role, accumulating evidence now highlights its significance in diverse physiological and pathological events. This review explores the multifaceted role of extracellular vimentin in modulating immune responses and orchestrating interactions between host cells and pathogens...
January 11, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Alejandro Díaz Rueda, Irepan Salvador-Martínez, Ismael Sospedra-Arrufat, Ana Alcaina-Caro, Ana Fernández-Miñán, Ana M Burgos-Ruiz, Ildefonso Cases, Alberto Mohedano, Juan J Tena, Holger Heyn, Javier Lopez-Rios, Gretel Nusspaumer
The cellular complexity of the endochondral bone underlies its essential and pleiotropic roles during organismal life. While the adult bone has received significant attention, we still lack a deep understanding of the perinatal bone cellulome. Here, we have profiled the full composition of the murine endochondral bone at the single-cell level during the transition from fetal to newborn life and in comparison with the adult tissue, with particular emphasis on the mesenchymal compartment. The perinatal bone contains different fibroblastic clusters with blastema-like characteristics in organizing and supporting skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and hematopoiesis...
January 7, 2024: Immunology and Cell Biology
Els N Meeusen, Kevin J Fahey, Paul R Wood
This Commentary article reviews the history of veterinary immunology in Australia from the 1980s and discusses the key people and areas of research during this period.
December 22, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Lee M Henneken, Tiing Jen Loh, Laura Ciacchi, Lisa Ciacchi, Jia-Jia Lim, Hugh H Reid, Jason A Tye-Din
As part of the Monash Sensory Science Exhibition, our team guided participants through a multisensory journey unraveling coeliac disease development and pathology. Through tactile and sensory exhibits, we showed how benign dietary gluten can be transformed into a harmful entity for the 1 in 70 Australians with this illness. In contrast to the common misconception of coeliac disease as a food allergy, our exhibits revealed its closer association with autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, involving genetic susceptibility linked to specific human leukocyte antigens, crucial antigen-specific T- and B-cell responses and autoantibody production...
December 18, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Melissa Biemond, David Vremec, Daniel Hd Gray, Philip D Hodgkin, Susanne Heinzel
Programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor on T cells shown to restrain T-cell proliferation. PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade has emerged as a highly promising approach in cancer treatment. Much of our understanding of the function of PD-1 is derived from in vitro T-cell activation assays. Here we set out to further investigate how T cells integrate inhibitory signals such as PD-1 in vitro using the PD-1 agonist, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) fusion protein (PD-L1.Fc), coimmobilized alongside anti-CD3 agonist monoclonal antibody (mAb) on plates to deliver PD-1 signals to wild-type and PD-1-/- CD8+ T cells...
December 9, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Victor Peperzak, Jonathan M Coquet
Associate Professor Victor Peperzak from the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht in the Netherlands discusses the opportunities and challenges of building a research group in the Netherlands. Victor highlights the scientific strengths of UMC Utrecht in juxtaposition with other universities and centers around the Netherlands, and highlights the collaborative nature of the Dutch research scene.
December 6, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Maneesha Kunnathattil, Pedapudi Rahul, Tom Skaria
Reducing the activity of cytokines and leukocyte extravasation is an emerging therapeutic strategy to limit tissue-damaging inflammatory responses and restore immune homeostasis in inflammatory diseases. Proteoglycans embedded in the vascular endothelial glycocalyx, which regulate the activity of cytokines to restrict the inflammatory response in physiological conditions, are proteolytically cleaved in inflammatory diseases. Here we critically review the potential of proteolytically shed, soluble vascular endothelial glycocalyx proteoglycans to modulate pathological inflammatory responses...
November 20, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Runqiu Song, Jingran Ye, Shanzou Chung, C Chris Meyer, Corinne Déchelette, Anthony W Purcell, Asolina Braun
Scientific outreach activities play an important role in disseminating knowledge, connecting the general public to research and breaking down scientific skepticism barriers. However, the vision-impaired community is often disadvantaged when the most common audio-visual approach of scientific communication is applied. Here we integrated tactile clues in the scientific communication of immune processes involved in the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. We fostered the involvement of the vision-impaired community through interactive experiences, including tactile scientific origami art, a haptic poster and wood-carved molecular models...
November 20, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Nicholas S Wilson, Nicholas D Huntington
The advent and clinical success of immune checkpoint inhibitors Ipilimumab, Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab has had a seismic impact on our drug discovery focus and rationale. Novel extrinsic targets that enhance immune responses to cancer are actively being pursued, while tumor intrinsic targets that render cancer cells more sensitive to the immune system have joined traditional intrinsic targets (e.g. directly cytotoxic) in the drug discovery pipeline. The phosphatase PTPN2 (TC-PTP) and its paralog PTPN1 (PTP-1B) are negative regulators of several cytokine signaling pathways and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
November 19, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jeremy Ky Yap, Stefan Emming, Kate Schroder
The biology of the NACHT domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) and pyrin domain-containing 1 (NLRP1) inflammasome has perplexed researchers since this inflammasome was first described about two decades ago. The identification of oxidized thioredoxin 1 (TRX1) as a suppressor of NLRP1 recently linked cellular redox homeostasis to NLRP1 inflammasome signaling. Now, Zhang et al. present a molecular structure of TRX1-bound NLRP1 with unprecedented detail. This structure gives key insight into regulatory mechanisms governing NLRP1 activation and offers enormous potential for structure-based anti-inflammatory drug design...
November 10, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Joanna R Kirman, Robert Weinkove, Jessica G Borger
In the unique landscape of immunology research in New Zealand, this article explores the collaborative networks spanning the two main islands, through a conversation with Associate Professor Joanna Kirman and Dr Robert Weinkove. The discussions delve into their dynamic collaborations with countries such as Asia, Australia and the United States, from their laboratories at the University of Otago and the Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, respectively, provides insight into the translational research landscape of New Zealand, and the integration of Māori culture into all aspects of scientific research and clinical practise...
November 3, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jack Polmear, Liam Kealy, Hui Xu, Kim L Good-Jacobson
Immunology for all: Most scientific communication has historically been limited to visual imagery and the written or spoken word, often in the form of dense articles obscured by jargon. Clear communication of science is vital to enable the public to engage with important scientific discoveries and to limit medical distrust. However, scientific communication is often executed in a way which neglects people with blindness, low vision and diverse needs. Our aim for the exhibit at the Monash Sensory Science Exhibition on Autoimmunity 2023 at Monash University was to develop novel, tactile and informative models to help better communicate the scientific principles that underpin autoimmune disease and immunology...
October 31, 2023: Immunology and Cell Biology
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