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Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen

Manfred Vasold
In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Frank W Stahnisch
At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century in France, Marie-François-Xavier Bichat and François Magendie took quite divergent views on the epistemological and methodological importance of physiological investigations in the experimental life sciences. For Bichat, morphological physiology represented only an auxiliary science for his anatomico-pathological approach to biomedical research. Magendie's experimental physiology diverged considerably from Bichat's foregoing conception: Although the physiological endeavour had to be seen as being essentially based on the localizational work that had afore been performed in the field of pathological anatomy, Magendie sensed that the experimental approach to physiology represented an important epistemic value in itself...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Susan Splinter
The medical institutions of Nuremberg were established quite early. The Collegium medicum were already founded in 1592. Though this board held responsibility for the supervision of pharmacies, the creation of Medizinalordnungen (medical legislations) and also had advisory functions, the physicians did not succeed in winning a prominent position. The spheres of competence between the different groups of medical practitioners were not yet clearly defined. Nevertheless the daily work of the practitioner Johann Christoph Götz (1688-1733) was going smoothly due to his cooperation with other doctors, surgeons, midwives and pharmacists...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Ruth Schilling
Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Helmut Priewer, Mathias Priewer
The paper traces 18th-century outbreaks of smallpox in two communities in the Westerwald. The distances between the outbreaks are analyzed and comparisons to other outbreaks of smallpox are drawn. Furthermore the use of variolation and vaccination against smallpox is described.
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Peer Pasternack
The bibliography lists separate publications of the period 2001-2010 concerning the history of academic medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone and German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the transformation of the faculties of medicine after 1990. It also complements the previous bibliography (WmM 2001) for the publishing period 1990-2000. It registers a total of 153 separate publications (monographs, documentations, edited volumes, booklets, catalogues of exhibitions and special issues) and grey literature (not bookselling and internet publications, unpublished theses)...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Georgios Papadopoulos
Panaceas, i. e. medicines that can cure many or almost all diseases, were used throughout the history from antiquity until modern times. The paper focuses on ideas developed to explain the admirable actions of these medicines. In antiquity such actions seem to be related to the large number of ingredients as well as to the presence of materials connected to potent poisons (e. g. viper flesh). Later, with the advent of alchemy, the alchemical preparation is regarded to produce medicines with such properties, the most pregnant example being lapis philosophorum...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Ferdinand Peter Moog
Critognatus, the leader of the Celts, is mentioned only once in the extant ancient literature, namely in Caesar's description of the siege of Alesia in BG VII 77.2-78.2. Here he is portrayed as a determined patriot who wants to encounter the Roman invader bravely and at the risk of all available means. Nevertheless, crafty Caesar succeeds in stamping him by propagandistic pinches to an evil monster and cannibal. On the one hand Caesar falls back on current Roman prejudices towards the Gauls. On the other hand, the endocannibalism practised among Celts to a certain extent as a cult action seems to have played a rôle...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Florian Mildenberger
The invention of Salvarsan (Triaminotrihydroxy-arsenobenzol) in 1910 meant a revolution in the medical treatment. Chemotherapy was born and its founder Paul Ehrlich is still famous for his experimental work. In medical history mostly successes, not widespread discussions about misuse or failing of the new drug were. The Berlin doctor Heinrich Dreuw was a key figure in these debates. He and his colleagues presented evidence that Salvarsan was not an effective drug and just an expensive placebo, which helped pharmaceutical trusts earning more money...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Ekkehardt Kumbier, Kathleen Haack
The extent and boundaries of political influence are a central issue in the history of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). After 1945 socialist leaders attempted to exert political influence on education in the Soviet occupied zone and the later GDR. The Second University Reform in 1951/52 introduced a fundamental break with established university structures. One major aim was the establishment of a "new socialist intelligentsia" that was to spread the Marxist-Leninist theories at universities. Due to a lack of qualified personnel in the medical faculties, this aim was far from being reached until the end of the 1950s...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Volker Klimpel
In the first half of 20th century the architecture of hospitals in Germany changed considerable. Essential impulses for "The new construct" get out from the school of "Bauhaus" in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin. Clear lines and the principle of light, air and sun were characteristic of this style. Buildings of such hospitals and her creators in Chemnitz, Dresden, Freiberg and Zwenkau, all in Saxony, are described and illustrated exemplary.
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Jochen Haas
Some time ago, the author published some hypotheses regarding the etymological roots of the name Sarmanna which appears in an early Christian epitaph, which may be as old as the 5th century A.D. In this paper, some of these hypotheses will be elaborated upon, based on additional evidence in support of its eastern germanic origin which suggests close semantic links to medica, Sarmanna's profession. This kind of semantic connection seems to be unique among known ancient epitaphs. It thus offers important sociological and historical evidence for processes of acculturation and assimilation also in the medical realm at the transition from late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages...
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Verena Abraham
The Danish professor, surgeon, medical superintendent, researcher and writer of fictional literature Erik Amdrup is one of the inventors of the parietal cell vagotomy. He carried out many internationally acclaimed research projects about the surgical treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer. At the same time he witnessed the changes in the conditions at the Danish hospitals. He used his professional experiences in his prose and his memoirs. They give an insight into the younger Danish history of medicine.
2011: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Kathrin Zedlitz
Pica, or the intentional consumption of things commonly considered as inedible, is a very old phenomenon. Between the 16th and 18th centuries it aroused widespread popular interest. It also was the subject of numerous medical treaties and intensive scientific research. At that time cravings for substances like chalk, soil or paper were discussed as a medical condition typically affecting young girls and pregnant women. Contemporary doctors developed theories about the disease and its genesis. Their publications reflect the commonly accepted medical knowledge of that time, religious beliefs and prevailing ideas as to possible therapies...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Manfred Vasold
In 1897 the municipality of Nuremberg founded a large hospital in the northern part of the town. That hospital was partly destroyed by air-attacks in World War II but rebuilt rather quickly after 1945, and in 1958 it owned the same capacities, as far as hospital-beds were concerned, as before the war (1939). The older buildings of that hospital were modernized after 1960, and many new ones with much better facilities for the in-patients were added. After the war Nuremberg's population grew but slowly from 430,000 (1958) to roughly half a million after 1971...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Tobias Winnerling
Garlic (Allium sativum) is depicted in the Early Modern Era as having a vast range of medical applicability. Based on herbals I collocate those ascribed medical effects between the 16th and 18th centuries to show that in this period--and up to the beginning of the 19th century--the powers of garlic in these descriptions slowly fade out until they eclipse totally, leaving it without medical value. Both the inital and the concluding findings are not correspondant with the modern empirical state of knowledge. This can be explained by three interwoven developments: the secularisation of the natural sciences in the wake of the Scientific Revolution, the altered asthetical perception of odours and new practices of social differentiation...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Philipp Teichfischer
Since a few decades one can recognize a continuous boom of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM). Against this background in the present manuscript the conceptual, historical and methodical requirements of the so-called Apitherapy, which has been in an institutionalization process since approximately four decades ago, are investigated. As one result of these investigations the bee venom therapy is here characterized as the real root of this relative new stream within the natural medicine. Its history and theory will be exposed in detail in a following article...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Christiane Schlaps
This paper deals with some medical topics which were mentioned or discussed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and can thus be found in the dictionary which lists and explains all the words he used, the Goethe Dictionary. The author makes a case for the use of this primarily literary and linguistic work e. g. as source material for historians of medicine and shows some of its possible uses.
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Gerhard Scharbert
Taking Johannes Müller's still little examined school education in then French Koblenz at its starting point, this paper argues that Miiller's pre-academic training in the applied sciences as well as in the old languages--which Müller saw as a basic essential for the philosophically educated naturalist--had a profound impact on the scientific-philosophical views he put forward in his Dissertatio inauguralis physiologica sistens commentarios de phoronomia animalium published in 1822. The Dissertatio was influenced, in particular, by the work of Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808) and can be read as a physiological application of French Enlightenment sensualist philosophy...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
Ortrun Riha, Thomas Schmuck
Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research...
2010: Würzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen
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