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Epidemiology and Infection

F Sampedro, S J Wells, J B Bender, C W Hedberg
Salmonella spp. continue to be a leading cause of foodborne morbidity worldwide. To assess the risk of foodborne disease, current national regulatory schemes focus on prevalence estimates of Salmonella and other pathogens. The role of pathogen quantification as a risk management measure and its impact on public health is not well understood. To address this information gap, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the impact of pathogen enumeration strategies on public health after consumption of contaminated ground turkey in the USA...
December 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S Harding, J Greig, M Mascarenhas, I Young, L A Waddell
Urbanisation and climate change are altering the pattern of California serogroup viruses in North America. As La Crosse virus (LACV) is the most pathogenic of the California serogroup, it is important to identify changes in distribution, transmission and pathogenesis. A scoping review (ScR) was prioritised to summarise the global evidence on LACV. A comprehensive search strategy was used, identified references were screened for relevance and relevant articles were characterised. Each step was conducted by two independent reviewers using pre-tested forms...
December 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
B Bett, J Lindahl, R Sang, M Wainaina, S Kairu-Wanyoike, S Bukachi, I Njeru, J Karanja, E Ontiri, M Kariuki Njenga, D Wright, G M Warimwe, D Grace
We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J P Haran, E Wilsterman, T Zeoli, M Goulding, E McLendon, M A Clark
The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure...
December 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D L Wang, X F Zhang, H Jin, X Q Cheng, C X Duan, X C Wang, C J Bao, M H Zhou, T Ahmad
Rabies is one of the major public health problems in China, and the mortality rate of rabies remains the highest among all notifiable infectious diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccination rate and risk factors for human rabies in mainland China. The PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical and Wanfang databases were searched for articles on rabies vaccination status (published between 2007 and 2017)...
December 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J L Hardstaff, H E Clough, J P Harris, J A Lowther, D N Lees, S J O'Brien
Norovirus (NoV) is the greatest cause of infectious intestinal disease in the UK. The burden associated with foodborne outbreaks is underestimated in part because data are dispersed across different organisations. Each looks at outbreaks through a different lens. To estimate the burden of NoV from seafood including shellfish we used a capture-recapture technique using datasets from three different organisations currently involved in collecting information on outbreaks. The number of outbreaks of NoV related to seafood including shellfish in England was estimated for the period of 2004-2011...
December 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S Leopardi, P Priori, B Zecchin, G Poglayen, K Trevisiol, D Lelli, S Zoppi, M T Scicluna, N D'Avino, E Schiavon, H Bourhy, J Serra-Cobo, F Mutinelli, D Scaravelli, P De Benedictis
The wide geographical distribution and genetic diversity of bat-associated lyssaviruses (LYSVs) across Europe suggest that similar viruses may also be harboured in Italian insectivorous bats. Indeed, bats were first included within the passive national surveillance programme for rabies in wildlife in the 1980s, while active surveillance has been performed since 2008. The active surveillance strategies implemented allowed us to detect neutralizing antibodies directed towards European bat 1 lyssavirus in six out of the nine maternity colonies object of the study across the whole country...
December 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
I S Rasmussen, L H Mortensen, T G Krause, A-M Nybo Andersen
It has been reported that foetal death follows a seasonal pattern. Influenza virus infection has been postulated as one possible contributor to this seasonal variation. This ecological study explored the temporal association between the influenza activity and the frequency of foetal death. Time series analysis was conducted using weekly influenza-like illness consultation proportions from the Danish sentinel surveillance system and weekly proportions of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths from hospital registers from 1994 to 2009...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Taito Kitano
The mumps vaccine is not included in the national immunisation programme (NIP) of approximately 80 countries including Japan. To investigate the vaccine's cost-effectiveness, we developed a dynamic transmission model for routine one- and two-dose mumps vaccination programs in Japan. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared with a current programme over a projected 50-year period. We created a Japanese population model and performed dynamic simulation to estimate the number of patients enrolled in the current programme, the routine one-dose programme, and the routine two-dose programme over the next 50 years using the Berkeley Madonna program...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A M Efunshile, O Ezeanosike, O N I Onyekachi, M I Ugwu, B König, L J Robertson
Although the impact of diarrhoeal disease on paediatric health in Nigeria has decreased in recent years, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is recognised as an important aetiological agent, but information on the contribution of intestinal protozoa to watery diarrhoea in this age group in Nigeria is scarce. In this cross-sectional study, faecal samples from children admitted to healthcare centres in Abakaliki, Nigeria with acute watery diarrhoea (N = 199) and faecal samples from age-matched controls (N = 37) were examined for Cryptosporidium and Giardia using immunofluorescent antibody testing and molecular methods...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Y Liang, H Y Zhai, Z J Li, X Jin, Y Chen, S P Chen
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens in Beijing, China, is rarely reported. In this study, 34 911 symptomatic outpatients with suspected genital infections who attended outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital were included to investigate the updated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a decrease trend (UU, CT, NG and HSV) in male and an increase trend (UU, CT and NG) in female were observed during the period...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K Jalava, A Kauppinen, H Al-Hello, S Räsänen
A gastrointestinal outbreak was reported among 154 diners who attended a Christmas buffet on the 9 and 10 December 2016. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Faecal samples, water, ice and an air ventilation device were tested for indicators and routine pathogens. Altogether 26% (24/91) fulfilled the case definition of having typical viral gastrointestinal symptoms. Norovirus genogroup I was detected in faecal samples from three cases. One of these cases tested positive also for sapovirus and had a family member testing positive for both norovirus and sapovirus...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M C Rota, A Bella, M G Caporali, A Nicolau, V Drasar, M L Ricci, M Scaturro, M Gumá, S Crespi
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires' Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster definition: 'two or more cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) who stayed at, or visited, the same commercial accommodation site 2-10 days before onset of illness and whose onset is within the same 2-year period' with a new cluster definition, i...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J Plutzer, K Kelen, E Varga, I Kucsera, G Reusz, A J Szabó, Á Fehér, R M Chalmers
In June 2015, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis with 35 cases (23 probable and 12 laboratory-confirmed) occurred among 191 attendees of a residential rehabilitation holiday for paediatric organ transplant patients (n = 49) and their families at a hotel in Somogy county, Hungary. The overall attack rate was 18%. Most of the cases were transplanted children who experienced severe acute disease and required adjustment to their tacrolimus immunosuppression. A retrospective case-control study suggested an association between recreational water exposures and illness: cases were seven times more likely than controls to have swum in the children's pool (odds ratio 7...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Amee R Manges, Paul Thuras, Stephen Porter, James R Johnson
Among 469 US military veterans with an Escherichia coli clinical isolate (2012-2013), we explored healthcare and non-healthcare risk factors for having E. coli sequence type 131 and its H30 subclone (ST131-H30). Overall, 66 (14%) isolates were ST131; 51 (77%) of these were ST131-H30. After adjustment for healthcare-associated factors, ST131 remained positively associated with medical lines and nursing home residence. After adjustment for environmental factors, ST131 remained associated with wild animal contact (positive), meat consumption (negative) and pet cat exposure (negative)...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M F Mukanyangezi, O Manzi, G Tobin, S Rulisa, E Bienvenu, D Giglio
Here we wanted to assess whether sexual risk behaviour differs dependent by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status by following 100 HIV- and 137 HIV+ women recruited at two university teaching hospitals in Rwanda. Women were tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs; trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis B and C) and for reproductive tract infections (RTIs; candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis (BV)) and were interviewed at baseline and 9 months later. BV was the most prevalent infection, while syphilis was the most common STI with a 9-month incidence of 10...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
P G Sekwadi, K G Ravhuhali, A Mosam, V Essel, G M Ntshoe, A M Shonhiwa, K McCarthy, J Mans, M B Taylor, N A Page, N Govender
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Norman Noah, Fiona G Hutton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Alberto J Alaniz, Mario A Carvajal, Antonella Bacigalupo, Pedro E Cattan
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Recent scientific evidence on Culex quinquefasciatus has suggested its potential as a vector for ZIKV, which may change the current risk zones. We aimed to quantify the world population potentially exposed to ZIKV in a spatially explicit way, considering the primary vector (A. aegypti) and the potential vector (C. quinquefasciatus). Our model combined species distribution modelling of mosquito species with spatially explicit human population data to estimate ZIKV exposure risk...
November 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yun-Ju Lai, Yu-Yen Chen, Hsin-Hui Huang, Ming-Chung Ko, Chu-Chieh Chen, Yung-Feng Yen
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART...
December 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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