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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Anirban Biswas
The present systematic review synthesizes the diverse documentation of research on the occurrence of arsenic in soil-water systems and the human and animal bio-availability scenarios related to food chain contamination by arsenic. Humans and animals may drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater in addition to consuming foods that have been grown in arsenic-contaminated groundwater and soils. Rice grain is a potential arsenic carrier and the staple food in many parts of the world, particularly in Southeast Asian countries...
April 30, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kartik Dhar, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Kannan Krishnan, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of hazardous organic contaminants that are widely distributed in nature, and many of them are potentially toxic to humans and other living organisms. Biodegradation is the major route of detoxification and removal of PAHs from the environment. Aerobic biodegradation of PAHs has been the subject of extensive research; however, reports on anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs are so far limited. Microbial degradation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions is difficult because of the slow growth rate of anaerobes and low energy yield in the metabolic processes...
April 24, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Youzhi Li, Qiaoqiao Zhou, Bo Ren, Jia Luo, Jinrui Yuan, Xiaohui Ding, Hualin Bian, Xin Yao
Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn...
April 24, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Shagun Bali, Kanika Khanna, Saroj Arora, Anket Sharma, Renu Bhardwaj
Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic metal for all living forms including plants. It enters plants through roots from soil or soil solution. It is considered as one of the most eminent examples of anthropogenic environmental pollutant added in environment through mining and smelting of lead ores, coal burning, waste from battery industries, leaded paints, metal plating, and automobile exhaust. Uptake of Pb in plants is a nonselective process and is driven by H+ /ATPases. Translocation of Pb metal ions occurs by apoplastic movement resulting in deposition of metal ions in the endodermis and is further transported by symplastic movement...
March 22, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
David L Haskins, Robert M Gogal, Tracey D Tuberville
Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that has been reported in many wildlife species worldwide. The organic form of Hg bioaccumulates in higher trophic levels, and thus, long-lived predators are at risk for higher Hg exposure. Although ecological risk assessments for contaminants such as Hg include pertinent receptor species, snakes are rarely considered, despite their high trophic status and potential to accumulate high levels of Hg. Our current knowledge of these reptiles suggests that snakes may be useful novel biomarkers to monitor contaminated environments...
March 17, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Gaurav Saxena, Diane Purchase, Sikandar I Mulla, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Ram Naresh Bharagava
Environmental contamination due to heavy metals (HMs) is of serious ecotoxicological concern worldwide because of their increasing use at industries. Due to non-biodegradable and persistent nature, HMs cause serious soil/water pollution and severe health hazards in living beings upon exposure. HMs can be genotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic in nature even at low concentration. They may also act as endocrine disruptors and induce developmental as well as neurological disorders, and thus, their removal from our natural environment is crucial for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites...
February 27, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Herman Eijsackers, Adriaan Reinecke, Sophié Reinecke, Mark Maboeta
In recent times there has been remarkable development in the field of soil ecotoxicology and risk assessment (RA) models. It is, however, debatable if these RA models are robust representatives for worldwide relevance. In order to investigate this, the current overview aims to address heavy metal threats to soil life in southern Africa by investigating present knowledge and consequences for RA using research in southern Africa as a case. To this end, the focus is on southern African soils, soil life and living conditions...
February 27, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ramya Narendrula-Kotha, Gabriel Theriault, Melanie Mehes-Smith, Kersey Kalubi, Kabwe Nkongolo
Metals are major abiotic stressors of many organisms, but their toxicity in plants is not as studied as in microorganisms and animals. Likewise, research in plant responses to metal contamination is sketchy. Candidate genes associated with metal resistance in plants have been recently discovered and characterized. Some mechanisms of plant adaptation to metal stressors have been now decrypted. New knowledge on microbial reaction to metal contamination and the relationship between bacterial, archaeal, and fungal resistance to metals has broadened our understanding of metal homeostasis in living organisms...
February 7, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John Iwan Jones, John F Murphy, Adrian L Collins, Kate L Spencer, Philip S Rainbow, Amanda Arnold, James L Pretty, Arabella M L Moorhouse, Victor Aguilera, Paul Edwards, Fred Parsonage, Hugh Potter, Paul Whitehouse
Metal-rich sediments have the potential to impair life in freshwater streams and rivers and, thereby, to inhibit recovery of ecological conditions after any remediation of mine water discharges. Sediments remain metal-rich over long time periods and have long-term potential ecotoxicological interactions with local biota, unless the sediments themselves are physically removed or replaced by less metal-rich sediment. Laboratory-derived environmental quality standards are difficult to apply to the field situation, as many complicating factors exist in the real world...
January 23, 2019: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
James E Woodrow, Kate A Gibson, James N Seiber
Pesticides and other toxicants released into the environment can contaminate air, water, soil, and biota. This review focuses on sources, exposures, fate, analysis, and trends. The potential for exposures due to atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides and related contaminants may pose risks to humans and wildlife. Emissions of chemicals to air are related to physicochemical properties (e.g., vapor pressure and chemical stability). Experimental design and computer-based modeling, as related to emissions and dispersion of pesticides along transects downwind from release sources, will be discussed using the example of pesticide volatilization and drift in California agriculture that results in the transport and deposition downwind to the Sierra Nevada mountains, where much work has been done to refine exposure data for use in risk assessment and management...
December 8, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lamidi W B Olaniyan, Omobola O Okoh, Noxolo T Mkwetshana, Anthony I Okoh
4-tert-Octylphenol is a degradation product of non-ionic surfactants alkylphenol polyethoxylates as well as raw material for a number of industrial applications. It is a multimedia compound having been detected in all environmental compartments such as indoor air and surface waters. The pollutant is biodegradable, but certain degradation products are more toxic than the parent compound. Newer removal techniques from environmental waters have been presented, but they still require development for large-scale applications...
November 21, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sam Lekamge, Andrew S Ball, Ravi Shukla, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry yielding many benefits to society. However, aquatic environments are at risk as increasing amounts of nanoparticles (NPs) are contaminating waterbodies causing adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this review, the impacts of environmental exposure to NPs, the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of NPs and the surrounding environment on toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity together with NP bioaccumulation and trophic transfer are assessed with a focus on their impacts on bacteria, algae and daphnids...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jorge Vizuete, Marcos Pérez-López, María Prado Míguez-Santiyán, David Hernández-Moreno
Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and arsenic (As) are metals or metalloids of high concern because of their effects on the environment and, specially, their potential toxicity on the animals inhabiting there. Due to their relevance, these elements have been object of several biomonitoring studies in different animal species around the world. Birds are widespread and, as species, are able to supply specific and relevant information about the regions where they live, being useful as bioindicators, as long as they are not birds with a strong migratory character...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Asok K Dasmahapatra, Thabitha P S Dasari, Paul B Tchounwou
Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-based nanoparticles (GPNs) constitute one of the most promising types of nanomaterials used in biomedical research. GPNs have been used as polymeric conduits for nerve regeneration and carriers for targeted drug delivery and in the treatment of cancer via photothermal therapy. Moreover, they have been used as tracers to study the distribution of bioactive compounds used in healthcare. Due to their extensive use, GPN released into s environment would probably pose a threat to living organisms and ultimately to human health...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Svetlana V Azarovа, Tatiana V Usmanova, Antonina M Mezhibor
The exploitation of mineral deposits is followed by the formation of huge amounts of wastes, which have strong negative impacts on the surrounding environment. This paper presents the results of the compilation of data on general environmental problems in sites of waste disposal from mining and ore processing in Russia, based on the analysis of published data and own research. The own research of the authors relates to the estimation of the environmental hazards of mining waste using geochemical investigations and biotesting, as well as the development of the classification of technogenic mineral resources counting the reasons of the accumulation of precious components in them and findings on their environmental impact...
November 8, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Thomas Schupp, Hans Allmendinger, Christian Boegi, Bart T A Bossuyt, Bjoern Hidding, Summer Shen, Bernard Tury, Robert J West
Methylene-4,4'-dianiline (MDA, CAS-No. 101-77-9) is a high production volume intermediate that is mainly processed to diisocyanates and finally polyurethanes. This review summarizes available data concerning the environmental behavior. When released into the environment, MDA distributes into water and subsequently sediment and soil compartments; the air is of little relevance, owed to the low vapor pressure and short atmospheric half-life, which renders MDA non-critical for long-range transport. Biodegradation data present a diverged picture; in some tests, MDA is not readily biodegradable or even not inherent biodegradable; in other tests, MDA turned out to be readily biodegradable (but failing the 10-d window)...
June 24, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jun-Kit Wan, Wan-Loy Chu, Yih-Yih Kok, Choy-Sin Lee
Plastics, with their many useful physical and chemical properties, are widely used in various industries and activities of daily living. Yet, the insidious effects of plastics, particularly long-term effects on aquatic organisms, are not properly understood. Plastics have been shown to degrade to micro- and nanosize particles known as microplastics and nanoplastics, respectively. These minute particles have been shown to cause various adverse effects on aquatic organisms, ranging from growth inhibition, developmental delay and altered feeding behaviour in aquatic animals to decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and induction of oxidative stress in microalgae...
June 6, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rosanne J Michielsen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, John R Parsons, Michiel H S Kraak
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls...
March 13, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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