Journals Reviews of Environmental Conta...

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Esperanza Gil-Jiménez, Manuela de Lucas, Miguel Ferrer
Metalliferous mining, a major source of metals and metalloids, has severe potential environmental impacts. However, the number of papers published in international peer-reviewed journals seems to be low regarding its effects in terrestrial wildlife. To the best of our knowledge, our review is the first on this topic. We used 186 studies published in scientific journals concerning metalliferous mining or mining spill pollution and their effects on terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. We identified the working status of the mine complexes studied, the different biomarkers of exposure and effect used, and the studied taxa...
November 2, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kiyun Park, Ihn-Sil Kwak
In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic invertebrates are influenced continuously by both physical stress and xenobiotics. Chironomids (Diptera; Chironomidae), or non-biting midges, are the most diverse and abundant invertebrates in freshwater habitats. They are a fundamental link in food chains of aquatic ecosystems. Chironomid larvae tolerate stress factors in their environments via various physiological processes. At the molecular level, environmental pollutants induce multi-level gene responses in Chironomus that regulate cellular protection through the activation of defense processes...
October 19, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cassandra Johannessen, Shegufa Shetranjiwalla
With the continued growth in plastic production, its ubiquitous use and insufficient waste management and disposal, the increased levels of plastics in the environment have led to growing ecological concerns. The breakdown of these plastic macromolecules to smaller micro and nanosized particles and their detection in the aerial, aquatic, marine and terrestrial environments has been reviewed extensively, especially for thermoplastics. However, the formation of micro and nanoplastics has typically been explained as a physical abrasion process, largely overlooking the underlying chemical structure-morphology correlations to the degradation mechanisms of the plastics...
October 16, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Julie C Anderson, Sarah C Marteinson, Ryan S Prosser
Pesticides can enter aquatic environments via direct application, via overspray or drift during application, or by runoff or leaching from fields during rain events, where they can have unintended effects on non-target aquatic biota. As such, Fisheries and Oceans Canada identified a need to prioritize current-use pesticides based on potential risks towards fish, their prey species, and habitats in Canada. A literature review was conducted to: (1) Identify current-use pesticides of concern for Canadian marine and freshwater environments based on use and environmental presence in Canada, (2) Outline current knowledge on the biological effects of the pesticides of concern, and (3) Identify general data gaps specific to biological effects of pesticides on aquatic species...
October 10, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jianyang Guo, Hongchen Wu, Zhiqi Zhao, Jingfu Wang, Haiqing Liao
Endemic fluorosis in Guizhou Province, Southwest China was firstly reported by Lyth in 1946 and was extensively concerned since the early 1980s. Initially, the pathological cause of endemic fluorosis in Guizhou Province was instinctively ascribed to the drinking water. However, increasing evidences pointed that the major exposure route of fluorine for the local residents is via the roasted foodstuffs, especially the roasted pepper and corn. Source of fluorine in roasted foodstuffs was once blamed on the local coal and subsequently imputed to clay mixed in the coal...
October 10, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Samaneh J Porzani, Stella T Lima, James S Metcalf, Bahareh Nowruzi
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are increasing and becoming a worldwide concern as many bloom-forming cyanobacterial species can produce toxic metabolites named cyanotoxins. These include microcystins, saxitoxins, anatoxins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsins, which can adversely affect humans, animals, and the environment. Different methods to assess these classes of compounds in vitro and in vivo include biological, biochemical, molecular, and physicochemical techniques. Furthermore, toxic effects not attributable to known cyanotoxins can be observed when assessing bloom material...
October 9, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Atousa Janzadeh, Michael R Hamblin, Narges Janzadeh, Hossein Arzani, MahsaTashakori-Miyanroudi, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Fatemeh Ramezani
Despite the increasing use of silver nanoparticles in medical sciences, published studies on their interaction with nerve cells and evaluation of risks are dispersed. This systematic review and meta-analysis could be used to devise safety guidelines for the use of silver nanoparticles in industry and medicine to reduce adverse effects on the CNS.After extensive searches, the full text of 30 related studies was reviewed and data mining completed. Data were analyzed by calculating the mean of different ratios between treated and untreated groups...
October 9, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lijuan Xiong, Bin Zhou, Hong Liu, Lu Cai
Cadmium (Cd) has been widely studied as an environmental pollutant for many years. Numerous studies have reported that Cd exposure causes damage to the heart, liver, kidneys, and thyroid in vivo. The emerging evidence suggests that Cd exposure induces damage on male reproductive system, which is related to oxidative stress, inflammation, steroidogenesis disruption, and epigenetics. Current preclinical animal studies have confirmed a large number of proteins and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the pathological process of Cd-induced male reproductive damage and potential measures for prophylaxis and treatment, which primarily include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and essential ion supplement...
October 8, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rosa Acevedo-Barrios, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Perchlorate is a persistent pollutant, generated via natural and anthropogenic processes, that possesses a high potential for endocrine disruption in humans and biota. It inhibits iodine fixation, a major reason for eliminating this pollutant from ecosystems. Remediation of perchlorate can be achieved with various physicochemical treatments, especially at low concentrations. However, microbiological approaches using microorganisms, such as those from the genera Dechloromonas, Serratia, Propionivibrio, Wolinella, and Azospirillum, are promising when perchlorate pollution is extensive...
October 7, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Abdellah Zinedine, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbes, Samir Abbès, Abdelrhafour Tantaoui-Elaraki
Aflatoxins are the most harmful mycotoxins causing health problems to human and animal. Many acute aflatoxin outbreaks have been reported in Africa, especially in Kenya and Tanzania. When ingested, aflatoxin B1 is converted by hydroxylation in the liver into aflatoxin M1, which is excreted in milk of dairy females and in urine of exposed populations. This review aims to highlight the AFM1 studies carried out in African regions (North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southern Africa), particularly AFM1 occurrence in milk and dairy products, and in human biological fluids (breast milk, serum, and urine) of the populations exposed...
October 7, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ved Prakash, Sadasivam Anbumani
The growing production of cosmetic products such as organic UV filters (OUVFs) in recent years has raised concern regarding their safety to human and environmental health. The inability of wastewater treatment plants in removing these chemical entities and their high octanol-water partition coefficient values tend to result in the persistence of OUVFs in several environmental matrices, leading these to be categorized as "emerging environmental contaminants" because of their unknown risk. Besides aquatic ecosystem contamination, the application of sludge disposal equally threatens terrestrial biota...
September 24, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Femi F Oloye, Oluwabunmi P Femi-Oloye, Jonathan K Challis, Paul D Jones, John P Giesy
Safeners are a group of chemicals applied with herbicides to protect crop plants from potential adverse effects of agricultural products used to kill weeds in monocotyledonous crops. Various routes of dissipation of safeners from their point of applications were evaluated. Despite the large numbers of safeners (over 18) commercially available and the relatively large quantities (~2 × 106  kg/year) used, there is little information on their mobility and fate in the environment and occurrence in various environmental matrices...
September 17, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Marco Vighi, Javier Bayo, Francisca Fernández-Piñas, Jesús Gago, May Gómez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Alicia Herrera, Junkal Landaburu, Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo, Antonio-Román Muñoz, Andreu Rico, Cristina Romera-Castillo, Lucía Viñas, Roberto Rosal
Plastic litter dispersed in the different environmental compartments represents one of the most concerning problems associated with human activities. Specifically, plastic particles in the micro and nano size scale are ubiquitous and represent a threat to human health and the environment. In the last few decades, a huge amount of research has been devoted to evaluate several aspects of micro/nano-plastic contamination: origin and emissions, presence in different compartments, environmental fate, effects on human health and the environment, transfer in the food web and the role of associated chemicals and microorganisms...
September 7, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Herman Eijsackers, Mark Maboeta
The concept of Ecotoxicological Species Sensitivity Distributions, as used in EU and US, to derive environmental standards for contaminants, starts from the assumption that by protecting the majority of species (95% confidence interval) all species will be protected. Nevertheless, 5% of the species outside the confidence interval might become harmed; half of it being the most sensitive for the particular compound tested. With respect to protection of rare endemic species it is not clear, however, if contamination is a driving factor for endemicity...
September 5, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jose Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Ryan S Prosser, Stephen O Duke, Keith R Solomon
The chemical and biological properties of glyphosate are key to understanding its fate in the environment and potential risks to non-target organisms. Glyphosate is polar and water soluble and therefore does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or accumulate to high levels in the environment. It sorbs strongly to particles in soil and sediments and this reduces bioavailability so that exposures to non-target organisms in the environment are acute and decrease with half-lives in the order of hours to a few days. The target site for glyphosate is not known to be expressed in animals, which reduces the probability of toxicity and small risks...
June 10, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yuanhang Li, Xiaofeng Gong
Dissolved organic matter (DOM), a type of mixture containing complex structures and interactions, has important effects on environmental processes such as the complexation and interface reactions of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR), a key process of soil biogeochemical cycle, is closely related to the migration and transformation of heavy metals and causes the release of DOM by carbon-ferrihydrite associations. This chapter considers the structural properties and characterization techniques of DOM and its interaction with microbial dissimilated iron...
May 13, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Brim Stevy Ondon, Shengnan Li, Qixing Zhou, Fengxiang Li
Soil is an essential part of our ecosystem and plays a crucial role as a nutrient source, provides habitat for plants and other organisms. Overuse of antibiotics has accelerated the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARB and ARGs are recognized as emerging environmental contaminants causing soil pollution and serious risks to public health. ARB and ARGs are discharged into soils through several pathways. Application of manure in agriculture is one of the primary sources of ARB and ARGs dissemination in the soil...
May 5, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yousoon Baek, Lucas K Bobadilla, Darci A Giacomini, Jacob S Montgomery, Brent P Murphy, Patrick J Tranel
Widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops and concomitant reliance on glyphosate for weed control set an unprecedented stage for the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. There are now 48 weed species that have evolved glyphosate resistance. Diverse glyphosate-resistance mechanisms have evolved, including single, double, and triple amino acid substitutions in the target-site gene, duplication of the gene encoding the target site, and others that are rare or nonexistent for evolved resistance to other herbicides...
May 2, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Edwin Prem Kumar Gilbert, Lydia Edwin
The lure of increased productivity and crop yield has caused the imprudent use of pesticides in great quantity that has unfavorably affected environmental health. Pesticides are chemicals intended for avoiding, eliminating, and mitigating any pests that affect the crop. Lack of awareness, improper management, and negligent disposal of pesticide containers have led to the permeation of pesticide residues into the food chain and other environmental pathways, leading to environmental degradation. Sufficient steps must be undertaken at various levels to monitor and ensure judicious use of pesticides...
May 2, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yujuan Yang, Kuiyu Meng, Min Chen, Shuyu Xie, Dongmei Chen
Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are widely used as industrial raw materials due to their unique hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. However, because of accidental exposure to products containing FTOHs or with the widespread use of FTOHs, they tend to contaminate the water and the soil. There are reports demonstrating that FTOHs can cause various harmful effects in animals and humans (for example, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine-disrupting activity, and developmental and reproductive toxicities)...
April 19, 2021: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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