Andrea da Costa, Heitor Franco de Andrade
Experimental toxoplasmosis is an excellent model for adaptive immune response. Gamma-irradiated tachyzoites or soluble tachyzoite antigen extracts (STag) induce protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in mice. Scavenger receptors recognize irradiated proteins, promote their entry into cells, and lead to antigen presentation. CD36 is a specific scavenger receptor involved in intracellular transport of free fatty acid (FFA), cellular recycling, and intracellular trafficking in lipid rafts outside the lysosomal pathways...
March 29, 2023: Parasitology Research
Juan C Garcia-R, Anthony B Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, An Pas, David T S Hayman
New Zealand's endemic reptile fauna is highly threatened and pathogens causing infectious diseases may be a significant risk to already endangered species. Here, we investigate Cryptosporidium infection in captive endemic New Zealand reptiles. We found two mammal-related Cryptosporidium species (C. hominis and C. parvum) and six subtypes from three gp60 families (Ib, Ig and IIa) in 12 individuals of captive endemic Tuatara, Otago and Grand skinks, and Jewelled and Rough geckos...
March 24, 2023: Parasitology Research
Eliningaya J Kweka, Lucille J Lyaruu, Violet Temba, Shandala Msangi, Johnson O Ouma, Wycliffe Karanja, Aneth M Mahande, Yousif E Himeidan
Despite high levels of pyrethroid resistance reported in malaria vectors, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) still play a key role in controlling malaria transmission. This study tested the efficacy of MiraNet®, a pyrethroid-based LN against a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis in northern Tanzania. DuraNet® was used as a positive control in this evaluation. Standard WHO laboratory bioefficacy evaluations of MiraNet and DuraNet that were unwashed or had been washed 20 times indicated optimal knockdown and mortality for both net types against a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s...
March 23, 2023: Parasitology Research
Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Katja V Goller, Michael Faulde, Silke Ruhl, Sabine Sauer, Mathias Schlegel, Jens P Teifke, Rainer G Ulrich, Claudia Wylezich
Small mammals are an important reservoir for causative agents of numerous infectious diseases, including zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The occurrence of these pathogens represents a regional but permanent threat for humans and animals in general and might especially weaken military personnel and companion animals in abroad missions. In our study, small mammals collected in military camps in Afghanistan (Feyzabad, Mazar-e Sharif, and Kunduz) were investigated for the presence of apicomplexans using histopathology and molecular methods...
March 22, 2023: Parasitology Research
Mustafa Alsarraf, Dorota Dwużnik-Szarek, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Julia Mierzejewska, Agnieszka Kloch, Kamila Kot, Korneliusz Kurek, Sabina Nowak, Robert W Mysłajek, Izabella Myśliwy, Marcin Popiołek, Anna Rodo, Mohammed Alsarraf, Katarzyna Tołkacz, Mariia Topolnytska, Dagmara Wężyk, Anna Bajer
Dirofilaria repens is an expanding vector-borne zoonotic parasite of canines and other carnivores. Sub-clinically infected dogs constitute the most important reservoir of the parasite and the source of infection for its mosquito vectors. However, occurrence of D. repens infection in wild animals may contribute to the transmission of the parasite to humans and may explain the endemicity of filariae in newly invaded regions. The aim of the current study was to determine the occurrence of D. repens in 511 blood and spleen samples from seven species of wild carnivores (wolves, red foxes, Eurasian badgers, raccoons, raccoon dogs, stone martens, and pine martens) from different regions of Poland by means of a PCR protocol targeting the 12S rDNA gene...
March 20, 2023: Parasitology Research
Daniel Parejo-Pulido, Carlos Mora-Rubio, Alfonso Marzal, Sergio Magallanes
The knowledge of the diversity and geographic distribution of parasite species is the first step towards understanding processes of global epidemiology and species conservation. Despite recent increases in research on haemosporidian and haemogregarine parasites of reptiles and amphibians, we still know little about their diversity and parasite-host interactions, especially in the Iberian Peninsula, where a few studies have been conducted. In this study, the haemosporidian and haemogregarine diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the parasites in southwestern Iberian amphibians and reptiles were assessed using PCR approaches on blood samples of 145 individuals from five amphibian and 13 reptile species...
March 18, 2023: Parasitology Research
Nigus Abebe Shumuye, Li Li, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Sayed Ajmal Qurishi, Wen-Hui Li, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Yan-Tao Wu, Yao-Dong Wu, Sheng-Zhi Gao, Fu-Heng Zhang, Xue-Qi Tian, Wen-Jun Tian, Yong Fu, Xie-Zhong Wang, Yong-Hong Pan, Fang Zhan, Lin-Sheng Zhang, Ming-Kuan Guo, Wen-Dong Li, Bao-Quan Fu, Hong-Bin Yan, Wan-Zhong Jia
The identification of additional Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) complex species/genotypes in recent years raises the possibility that there might be more variation among this species in China than is currently understood. The aim of this study was to explore intra- and inter-species variation and population structure of Echinococcus species isolated from sheep in three areas of Western China. Of the isolates, 317, 322, and 326 were successfully amplified and sequenced for cox1, nad1, and nad5 genes, respectively...
March 18, 2023: Parasitology Research
Lidiany Doreto Cavalcanti, Élida Jerônimo Gouveia, Gabriela Michelan, Atsler Luana Lehun, João Otávio Santos Silva, Wagner Toshio Hasuike, Márcia Regina Russo, Ricardo Massato Takemoto
The components that mold the structure of parasitic fauna are used as objects of study in an attempt to find patterns in their distribution. It is known that phylogeny (represented by specificity), host ecological traits (for example, feeding habits, position of the water column, reproductive strategies, body size, and age), and the environment affect the distribution and occurrence of parasites. In tropical regions, digeneans show high diversity, and the species Dadaytrema oxycephala is known to parasitize a wide range of host species...
March 17, 2023: Parasitology Research
Mariah O M Vecchi, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Karla Bitencourth, Maurício B Vecchi, Maria Alice S Alves
Ticks (Ixodida) are ecologically important ectoparasites that may impact human health and economic activities. Parasitoid wasps are natural enemies of ticks and a potential option for its biological control. In the present study, we recorded parasitism of the nymphs of the tick Amblyomma nodosum by the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri. The ticks, in turn, were parasitizing white-bearded manakins, Manacus manacus (Passeriformes: Pipridae) in the União Biological Reserve, one of the last major remnants of lowland rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil...
March 16, 2023: Parasitology Research
Norberto de Souza Fernandes, Marcelo Vidigal Caliari, Fabricio Marcos Silva Oliveira, Alexandre Batista Costa Neto, Isabela Aurora Rodrigues, Cinthia Furst, Adriana Oliveira Costa
Species of the genus Acanthamoeba are free-living protozoans that occasionally act as parasites, causing a severe, progressive corneal infection termed Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The variable pathogenic potential among Acanthamoeba lineages has been shown by in vitro assays, but little is known about the behavior of different strains in animal models of AK. This work aimed to evaluate the infectivity of Acanthamoeba from distinct morphological groups and genotypes in a rat model of AK and apply an immunohistochemical technique for histological characterization of the lesions...
March 16, 2023: Parasitology Research
Zeinab R Hassan, Kareman M Zekry, Elham Adel Heikal, Hanan F Ibrahim, Seham K Khirala, Samar M Abd El-Hamid, Doaa R Amin, Nora Seliem, Gehad N Abd El-Aal, Mohammad M Alkherkhisy, Salwa A Abd Elhamid, Emad A Mahgoub, Mahmoud E N Hefny, Ghada H El Nady, Mohamed S Badr
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a significantly increased incidence rate across the world over the past few years. Toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are globally prevalent and have been associated with diverse neurological and psychiatric disorders. A few studies have demonstrated the role of toxoplasmosis and CMV as potential etiological factors for autism. Accordingly, this study was performed to estimate the relationship between toxoplasmosis and CMV infection in children with autism as well as to assess their impact on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score...
March 14, 2023: Parasitology Research
Diego Alexander Rojas-Ortega, Saúl Rojas-Hernández, María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza, Modesto Gómez-López, Jennifer Viridiana Sánchez-Camacho, Erika Rosales-Cruz, María Maricela Carrasco Yépez
Different mechanisms of the host immune response against the primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the mouse protection model have been described. It has been proposed that antibodies opsonize Naegleria fowleri trophozoites; subsequently, the polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) surround the trophozoites to avoid the infection. FcγRs activate signaling pathways of adapter proteins such as Syk and Hck on PMNs to promote different effector cell functions which are induced by the Fc portion of the antibody-antigen complexes...
March 13, 2023: Parasitology Research
Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo Ribeiro, Matheus Dias Cordeiro, Patricia Barizon Cepeda, Jaqueline Rodrigues Almeida Valim, Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca, Bruna de Azevedo Baêta
The in vitro feeding of ticks facilitates the conduction of studies involving the intrinsic vector-pathogen relationship, susceptibility tests, and resistance to acaricides, in addition to mimicking the use of experimental hosts. The objective of this study was to establish an in vitro feeding system using silicone membranes to supply various diets to the species Ornithodoros rostratus. Each experimental group included 130 first-instar O. rostratus nymphs. The groups were divided according to the diet provided: citrated rabbit blood, citrated bovine blood, bovine blood with antibiotics, and defibrinated bovine blood...
March 10, 2023: Parasitology Research
Sumnil Marwaha, Basanti Brar, Vinod Kumar Jain, Rachna Poonia, Minakshi Prasad
Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease that causes enormous losses in the dairy industry. There are several species of Theileria that can infect bovines. Generally, more than one species are prevalent in any geographical area; thus, chances of co-infections are high. Differentiation of these species may not be possible by microscopic examination or serological tests. Therefore, in this study, a multiplex PCR assay was standardized and evaluated for rapid and simultaneous differential detection of two species of Theileria viz...
March 10, 2023: Parasitology Research
Miaomiao Zhang, Junchen Zhang, Jingjing Sun, Shuying Zhu, Huiyan Xu, Xiaoying Li, Longxain Zhang, Junqiang Li
Blastocystis sp. is a common protist that colonizes the intestinal tract in both humans and animals worldwide. A total of 666 fecal samples of Rex rabbits were collected from 12 farms in three administrative regions in Henan, China. Blastocystis sp. was screened and subtyped by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal DNA. The results indicated that 31 (4.7%, 31/666) rabbits were positive for Blastocystis sp. across three farms (25.0%, 3/12). The infection rate of Blastocystis sp. in Rex rabbits was highest in Jiyuan at 9...
March 10, 2023: Parasitology Research
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett
Despite the extensive information on the effects of habitat alteration on the structure of helminth communities in small mammals, the evidence is still inconclusive. A systematic review was carried out using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guideline to compile and synthesize available literature on the influence of habitat alteration on the structure of helminth communities in small mammals. The aim of this review was to describe the variation in infection rates of helminth species associated with habitat alteration and to discuss the theoretical framework that may explain such changes in relation to parasite, host, and environmental features...
March 10, 2023: Parasitology Research
L Perles, W T G Barreto, G C de Macedo, A C Calchi, M Bezerra-Santos, J A Mendoza-Roldan, D Otranto, H M Herrera, D M Barros-Battesti, R Z Machado, M R André
Procyonids are reservoirs of many zoonotic infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens. The role of coatis (Nasua nasua) in the epidemiology of piroplasmids and Rickettsia has not been fully addressed in Brazil. To molecularly study these agents in coatis and associated ticks, animals were sampled in two urban areas in Midwestern Brazil. Blood (n = 163) and tick (n = 248) DNA samples were screened by PCR assays targeting the 18S rRNA and gltA genes of piroplasmids and Rickettsia spp...
March 9, 2023: Parasitology Research
Arsalan Said, Irfan Khattak, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Christine M Budke, Guilherme G Verocai
Human toxocariasis is a highly prevalent zoonosis worldwide but is underreported in most countries. This study was conducted to evaluate Toxocara canis seropositivity in different exposure sub-groups located in the Mardan, Swabi, and Nowshera districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Northwest Pakistan. A total of 400 blood samples were collected from males 15 years of age and older with no animals, with livestock, with dogs and/or cats living in the house, and from butchers and veterinarians or para-veterinarians...
March 9, 2023: Parasitology Research
Olukayode James Adelaja, Adedayo Olatubosun Oduola, Adeolu Taiwo Ande, Oyindamola Olajumoke Abiodun, Abisayo Ruth Adelaja
Despite increasing reports and concerns about the development of resistance to public-health insecticides in malaria vectors, significant progress has been made in the search for alternative strategies to disrupt the disease transmission cycle by targeting insect vectors and thus sustaining vector management. The use of insecticidal plants is a strategy that can be employed and this study investigates the toxicity potential of insecticidal plant oils shortlisted in an ethnobotanical survey on Anopheles gambiae larvae and adult stages...
March 9, 2023: Parasitology Research
Aleksandar Jurišić, Aleksandra Ignjatović Ćupina, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Sara Savić, Ivana Ivanović, Mihaela Kavran, Dragan Žikić, Maja Meseldžija, Milica Dudić
The aim of the study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy of two different acaricides against mobile stages of hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Haemaphysalis punctata in their natural habitats. The study was conducted during 2020 and 2021 at localities populated by I. ricinus as the predominant species, at which the presence of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia lusitaniae was confirmed. During the first investigation year, a combination of two pyrethroids, permethrin, and tetramethrin, with an insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (trade name: Perme Plus®) was tested...
March 8, 2023: Parasitology Research
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