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Epilepsy Research

Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Barbara Castellotti, Raffaella Milanesi, Francesca Ragona, Elena Freri, Laura Canafoglia, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlo Ferrarese, Stefania Magri, Franco Taroni, Cinzia Costa, Angelo Labate, Antonio Gambardella, Roberta Solazzi, Anna Binda, Ilaria Rivolta, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Sara Casciato, Ludovico D'Incerti, Andrea Barbuti, Dario DiFrancesco, Tiziana Granata, Cinzia Gellera
The Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the Central Nervous Systems, where they are responsible for the Ih current. Together with specific accessory proteins, these channels finely regulate neuronal excitability and discharge activity. In the last few years, a substantial body of evidence has been gathered showing that modifications of Ih can play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. However, the extent to which HCN dysfunction is spread among the epileptic population is still unknown...
April 8, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Xin Li, Huifang Yang, Jiaqing Yan, Xingran Wang, Yi Yuan, Xiaoli Li
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy. Recent studies have demonstrated that ultrasound stimulation can inhibit spontaneous recurrent seizures and improve behavioral outcomes for rodents with TLE. However, the exact underlying mechanism for inhibition of TLE via ultrasound stimulation remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) and low-intensity continuous ultrasound stimulation (LICUS) and concurrent local field potentials (LFPs) in the CA3 field of the hippocampus were recorded in the kainite-induced mouse model of TLE...
April 4, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Yaohua Cao, Xin He, Lina Zhao, Yuwen He, Sen Wang, Tiantian Zhang, Jie Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) as adjunctive treatment in children (0-18 years) with focal-onset seizures (FOS) with a larger dataset. METHODS: A pooled analysis would be performed for prospective clinical trials and a meta-analysis for controlled studies. Retrospectives studies were also summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Thirty-one articles (1763 patients) were identified, eighteen prospective self-controlled studies and thirteen retrospective studies...
April 3, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Steve Chung, Saurabh R Sinha, Aashit Shah, John M Stern, Hailong Cheng, JungAh Jung, Todd Grinnell, David Blum
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy in adults with focal seizures (FS). METHODS: Study 050 was a long-term, multicenter, open-label (OL) safety extension of two conversion-to-ESL monotherapy studies in adults with refractory FS. After participating in Study 045 or 046, patients started on ESL 1600 mg once daily (QD) (or 1200 mg if they previously had a dose reduction), and could adjust the dose 400 mg/week to a dose between 800-2400 mg QD...
March 29, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Luca Bartolini, William H Theodore, Steven Jacobson, William D Gaillard
Infection with Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been associated with different epilepsy syndromes, including febrile seizures and status epilepticus, acute symptomatic seizures secondary to encephalitis and temporal lobe epilepsy. This neurotropic DNA virus is ubiquitous and primary infection occurs in up to 80% of children by age two years. While two viral variants have been identified, HHV-6B is the one that has been primarily linked to disease in humans, including epilepsy. After initial viremia, the virus can establish chronic latency in brain tissue, peripherally in tonsils and salivary glands and infect several different cell lines by binding to the complement regulator CD-46...
March 29, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Roberto Caraballo, Sebastián Silva, Lucas Beltran, Agustin Calvo, Ricardo Caballero
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze patients whose only manifestation of epilepsy were generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) during childhood and discuss its validity as separate syndrome of childhood. METHODS: We included children with at least two unprovoked GTCS between 3 and 11 years of age, no other seizure types at diagnosis, normal psychomotor development and neurological examination, an EEG with normal background and paroxysms of generalized spikes and waves with a frequency 2...
March 27, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Nikola Šutulović, Željko Grubač, Sonja Šuvakov, Đurđa Jovanović, Nela Puškaš, Đuro Macut, Aleksandra Rašić Marković, Tatjana Simić, Olivera Stanojlović, Dragan Hrnčić
Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a result of interplay between psychological, immune, neurological and genetic factors, manifested by variety of urological, as well as brain-related symptoms. However, its relation with brain excitability has not been addressed. herefore, our aim was to assess susceptibility to seizures in rats with CP/CPPS. We induced CP/CPPS in adult rats by intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan. Sham operated rats served as controls (0.9% NaCl, Sham). On day 7 upon injection, rats were treated with lindane (4 mg/kg) and observed for convulsive behavior (seizure incidence, latency and severity) and EEG manifestations (number and duration of ictal periods)...
March 22, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Khalid M Alkharfy, Abdul Ahad, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea, Altaf Khan, Naushad Ali
Dietary supplements, herbal medicines, and other foods may affect the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of carbamazepine (CBZ), which may possibly lead to potential drug-drug/herb-drug interactions, as CBZ has a narrow therapeutic window. Sinapic acid (SA) is a bioactive phytoconstituent used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of epilepsy. This study determined the effects of SA on the pharmacokinetics of CBZ and proposed a possible interaction mechanism in twenty-four male wistar rats (180-210 g)...
March 22, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Yu-Chi Wang, Sanjeet S Grewal, Erik H Middlebrooks, Gregory A Worrell, Matt Stead, Brian N Lundstrom, Jeffrey W Britton, Min-Hsien Wu, Jamie J Van Gompel
PURPOSE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising treatment for refractory epilepsy; however, it remains challenging to successfully target the ANT. The results of Medtronic Registry for Epilepsy (MORE) supported a frontal transventricular(TV) compared to frontal extraventricular (EV) lead trajectory for ANT DBS may have better coverage of the ANT. Here we report the safety and targeting efficacy of a novel, posterior parietal extraventricular (PEV) approach to the ANT...
March 19, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Rebecca A Pope, Pamela J Thompson, Khadija Rantell, Jason Stretton, Mary-Anne Wright, Jacqueline Foong
OBJECTIVE: Predictors of psychiatric outcome following TLE surgery have proved elusive and represent a current challenge in the practice of TLE surgery. This prospective study investigated whether frontal lobe dysfunction is predictive of poorer psychiatric outcomes. METHODS: Forty-nine unilateral TLE surgical patients were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively...
March 19, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Cesar Santana-Gomez, Pedro Andrade, Matthew R Hudson, Tomi Paananen, Robert Ciszek, Gregory Smith, Idrish Ali, Brian K Rundle, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Riikka Immonen, Noora Puhakka, Nigel Jones, Rhys D Brady, Piero Perucca, Sandy R Shultz, Asla Pitkänen, Terence J O'Brien, Richard Staba
Studies of chronic epilepsy show pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs) are associated with brain areas capable of generating epileptic seizures. Only a few of these studies have focused on HFOs during the development of epilepsy, but results suggest pathological HFOs could be a biomarker of epileptogenesis. The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy" (EpiBioS4Rx) is a multi-center project designed to identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and evaluate treatments that could modify or prevent the development of post-traumatic epilepsy...
March 15, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Pınar Haznedar, Özlem Doğan, Pelin Albayrak, Gökçen Öz Tunçer, Serap Teber, Gülhis Deda, F Tuba Eminoglu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between anti-epileptic usage and oxidative damage has not yet been clearly understood. In our study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters, carnitine levels, liver function tests (LFT) and their relationship in epileptic children treated with valproic acid or levetiracetam. METHOD: LFTs, serum free carnitine and oxidative damage markers and their relations with each other were determined in patients who are on valproic acid or levetiracetam treatment at least for 6 months...
March 15, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Siyan Wang, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious, life-threatening condition requiring immediate care to prevent neuronal injury and long-term functional deficits. SE is modeled in rodents by systemic injection of chemoconvulsants such as pilocarpine, which induces EEG and behavioral activities similar to what seen in humans. Combined injection of diazepam and ketamine is commonly used to terminate SE in rodents but, to date, no study has analysed the EEG activity and behavior during SE and after diazepam + ketamine administration...
March 11, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Meir Bialer, Svein I Johannessen, Matthias J Koepp, René H Levy, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, H Steve White
The Fourteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIV) took place in Madrid, Spain from May 13th to 16th 2018. Again, presentations on new medical devices and neuromodulation and discussions on device-related regulatory aspects were included in the programme. The virtual special issue on "neuromodulation" summarises the presentations focusing firstly, on the pre-clinical developments and the difficulties of clinical trial designs for neuromodulatory therapies, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and Brain-Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS), and the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) as a potential screening tool for determining the efficacy of neuromodulatory treatments in individual patients; secondly, on wearable devices for seizure monitoring through indices of peripheral sympathetic nervous activity, the use of such devices in combination with biofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy, and its potential for improving epilepsy specialist services, particularly in remote areas...
March 11, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Elie Bou Assi, Sandy Rihana, Dang K Nguyen, Mohamad Sawan
Recognition of insular epilepsy may sometimes be challenging due to the rapid speed at which insular seizures can spread throughout the cortex via extensive connections to surrounding cortices. The spectrum weighted adaptive directed transfer function, a multivariate causality-based effective connectivity measure, was applied to intracranial electroencephalography recordings to identify generators of seizure activity. A non-parametric test based on surrogate data testing was used to validate statistical significance of causal relations...
March 11, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Jean Pierre Oses, Alexandre Pastoris Müller, Nathan Ryzewski Strogulski, Julia D Moreira, Ana Elisa Böhmer, Gisele Hansel, Randhall Bruce Carteri, João Vicente Busnello, Afonso Kopczynski, Marcelo Salimen Rodolphi, Diogo Onofre Souza, Luis Valmor Portela
Generalized seizures trigger excessive neuronal firing that imposes large demands on the brain glucose/lactate availability and utilization, which synchronization requires an integral mitochondrial oxidative capability. We investigated whether a single convulsive crisis affects brain glucose/lactate availability and mitochondrial energy production. Adult male Wistar rats received a single injection of pentylentetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glucose and lactate, mitochondrial respirometry, [14 C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, glycogen content and cell viability in hippocampus were measured...
March 11, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Chian-Ru Chern, Chian-Jiang Chern, Jana Velíšková, Libor Velíšek
Epileptic spasms during infancy (infantile spasms) represent a serious treatment and social problem despite their rare occurrence. Current treatments include hormonal therapy (adrenocorticotropin-ACTH or corticosteroids) or vigabatrin (per se or in the combination). These treatments are partially effective and with potentially significant adverse effects. Thus, the search for new effective drugs is warranted. We tested efficacy of a novel fusion peptide AQB-565 developed by Aequus Biopharma in a model of infantile spasms consisting of prenatal exposure to betamethasone and repeated postnatal trigger of spasms with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)...
March 11, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Piero Perucca, Emilio Perucca
The last decade saw impressive advances not only in the discovery of gene mutations causing epilepsy, but also in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of the disease. Increasing evidence is emerging that understanding these mechanisms is relevant for selection of the most appropriate treatment in the affected individual(s). The present article discusses the therapeutic implications of epilepsy-causing variants affecting a broad range of targets, from ion channels to genes controlling cellular metabolism and cell signaling pathways...
March 4, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Soo Young Lyu, Sang Ook Nam, Yun-Jin Lee, Geena Kim, Young A Kim, Juhyun Kong, Ara Ko, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate cardiac electrical and autonomic function, the longitudinal changes, and the associated risk factors in children with Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: Twenty-four children with DS (11 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 7.2 ± 2.9 years) and 21 control subjects (9 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 8.2 ± 3.0 years) were enrolled in this study. P dispersion, QTc and QTc dispersion, and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated using standard electrocardiography and 24-hr Holter monitoring at the initial and follow-up study of the 6-12 months intervals...
February 28, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Giulia Regalia, Francesco Onorati, Matteo Lai, Chiara Caborni, Rosalind W Picard
Wearable automated seizure detection devices offer a high potential to improve seizure management, through continuous ambulatory monitoring, accurate seizure counts, and real-time alerts for prompt intervention. More importantly, these devices can be a life-saving help for people with a higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), especially in case of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The Embrace and E4 wristbands (Empatica) are the first commercially available multimodal wristbands that were designed to sense the physiological hallmarks of ongoing GTCS: while Embrace only embeds a machine learning-based detection algorithm, both E4 and Embrace devices are equipped with motion (accelerometers, ACC) and electrodermal activity (EDA) sensors and both the devices received medical clearance (E4 from EU CE, Embrace from EU CE and US FDA)...
February 27, 2019: Epilepsy Research
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