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Human Psychopharmacology

Vera De Carlo, Benedetta Grancini, Matteo Vismara, Beatrice Benatti, Chiara Arici, Laura Cremaschi, Giovanna Cirnigliaro, Luca Degoni, Lucio Oldani, Carlotta Palazzo, Ira D Glick, Caterina Viganò, Bernardo Dell'Osso
OBJECTIVE: In patients with affective disorders, benzodiazepines (BZDs) are frequently administered at the onset, sometimes inappropriately. We sought to identify clinical variables associated with first BZD prescription in a large sample of patients with affective disorders. METHODS: Four hundred sixty patients with mood or anxiety disorders attending different psychiatric services were assessed comparing those who received BZD as first treatment (BZD w/) and those who did not (BZD w/o)...
May 1, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Sho Horikoshi, Itaru Miura, Mizue Ichinose, Shinnosuke Yamamoto, Masashi Ito, Kenya Watanabe, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Haruka Kaneko, Hirooki Yabe
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) aripiprazole augmentation in major depressive disorder. Additionally, we examined the relationship between clinical response and changes in plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels during aripiprazole augmentation. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with inadequate response to antidepressants were randomized to receive adjunctive treatment with LD (3 mg/day, n = 17) or HD (up to 12 mg/day, n = 14) aripiprazole for 6 weeks...
May 1, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Janthima Methaneethorn, Sawitree Sringam
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct a population pharmacokinetic model of lithium in Thai patients with acute mania. METHODS: Lithium concentrations from 222 acute manic patients were included in this study. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM 7.3 software. Influences of potential covariates including body size, age, renal function, and gender were evaluated through a stepwise approach. Bootstrap analysis and an external validation approach were used to evaluate the robustness and predictability of the final model...
April 26, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Lorenzo Del Fabro, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Armando D'Agostino, Paolo Brambilla
OBJECTIVE: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and has shown some degree of efficacy on negative and cognitive symptoms. We aimed to review the effects of olanzapine treatment on brain regions that are directly involved in cognitive and emotional processing. METHODS: We used the PubMed database to perform a bibliographic search on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that investigated the effects of olanzapine treatment on neural activity in patients with schizophrenia during cognitive and emotional tasks...
March 22, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Laura M Juliano, Peter G Kardel, Paul T Harrell, Christine Muench, Kathryn C Edwards
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated psychological influences on drug withdrawal symptomatology using a caffeine-based model. METHODS: Using the 2 × 2 balanced placebo design caffeine dose (given caffeinated vs decaffeinated coffee) was crossed with dose expectancy (told caffeine vs. decaf) among 87 (16-hr abstinent) regular coffee consumers in a 2-day study. RESULTS: There were effects of expectancy and pharmacology that differed depending on the measure...
March 12, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Joseph J Palamar, Austin Le
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine patterns and first mentions of reported use of new or uncommon drugs across 13 years, among nationally representative samples in the United States. METHODS: Participants (ages ≥12) in the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (2005-2017, N = 730,418) were provided opportunities to type in names of new or uncommon drugs they had ever used that were not specifically queried. We examined self-reported use across survey years and determined years of first mentions...
March 6, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Michael S Breen, Kevin G F Thomas, David S Baldwin, Gosia Lipinska
OBJECTIVE: Features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically include sleep disturbances, impaired declarative memory, and hyperarousal. This study evaluated whether these combined features may accurately delineate pathophysiological changes associated with PTSD. METHOD: We recruited a cohort of PTSD-diagnosed individuals (N = 20), trauma survivors without PTSD (TE; N = 20), and healthy controls (HC; N = 20). Analyses of between-group differences and support vector machine (SVM)-learning were applied to participant features...
March 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Manuel J Ruiz, Lorenza S Colzato, María Teresa Bajo, Daniela Paolieri
OBJECTIVE: The correct production of speech depends on the effective use of inhibitory control. Cocaine abuse has been linked to impaired inhibition in the verbal and nonverbal domains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible impairment of the inhibitory control process engaged in the production of language among chronic cocaine users, both in rehabilitation and recreational contexts. METHOD: Researchers obtained an index of semantic interference from a picture-word task performed by chronic cocaine users in rehabilitation (Experiment 1) and recreational cocaine polydrug users (Experiment 2)...
February 14, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Carlos De Las Cuevas, Mariano Motuca, Trino Baptista, Alejandro G Villasante-Tezanos, Jose de Leon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether or not cultural differences influence beliefs about the necessity of taking prescribed psychiatric drugs and concern about their adverse effects in psychiatric outpatients in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,372 adult psychiatric outpatients using 2,438 psychotropic drugs and was designed to assess outpatients' beliefs about their prescribed medication. Patients completed sociodemographic, clinical questionnaires, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire Specific Scale and registered scores ranging from 1 to 5 on each of two subscales: concern and necessity...
January 30, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Soleiman Mohammadzadeh, Tina Kaveh Ahangari, Fayegh Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity disorder and attention deficit are common neurological disorders in children and adolescents. The symptoms of hyperactivity are decreased in adults, and attention deficit is more noticeable. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of memantine on adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind clinical trial study, 40 patients aged 18 to 45 years with ADHD were selected on the basis on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria, and randomly assigned memantine or placebo...
January 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Vlasios Brakoulias, Vladan Starcevic, Umberto Albert, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Brenda E Bailey, Amparo Belloch, Tania Borda, Liliana Dell'Osso, Jason A Elias, Martha J Falkenstein, Ygor A Ferrao, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Lena Jelinek, Leto Kalogeraki, Brian Kay, Luana D Laurito, Christine Lochner, Giuseppe Maina, Donatella Marazziti, Andrew Martin, Hisato Matsunaga, Euripedes C Miguel, Pedro Morgado, Irakis Mourikis, Massimo Pasquini, Rodrigo Perez Rivera, Sriramya Potluri, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Brian C Riemann, Maria Conceição do Rosario, Roseli G Shavitt, Dan J Stein, Kirupumani Viswasam, Zhen Wang, Naomi A Fineberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterise international trends in the use of psychotropic medication, psychological therapies, and novel therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on the characteristics of their samples. Consistency of summary statistics across countries was evaluated. RESULTS: The study surveyed 19 expert centres from 15 countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) providing a total sample of 7,340 participants...
January 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Anastasia Levchenko, Natalya Vyalova, Ivan V Pozhidaev, Anastasiia S Boiko, Diana Z Osmanova, Olga Yu Fedorenko, Arkadiy V Semke, Nikolay A Bokhan, Bob Wilffert, Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
OBJECTIVE: AKT1 and GSK3B take part in one of the intracellular cascades activated by the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2). This receptor is antagonized by antipsychotics and plays a role in the pathogenesis of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD). The present study investigated association of several polymorphisms in the two candidate genes, AKT1 and GSK3B, with TD in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: DNA samples from 449 patients from several Siberian regions (Russia) were genotyped, and the results were analyzed using chi-squared tests and analyses of variance...
January 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Rainer Schneider, Nick Singer, Tim Singer
OBJECTIVE: According to a series of recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews, aromatherapy has shown to be effective in treating patients with different medical conditions. However, many of the clinical studies are of rather low methodological quality. Moreover, there is much conceptual ambiguity with regard to what aromatherapy actually constitutes. METHOD: In this paper, we discuss the conditions under which aromatherapy is most likely to be of medical value by outlining the workings of the olfactory system and the necessary requirements of odors to be therapeutic...
December 7, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Efthymios Hadjis, Molly Hyde, Joelle Choueiry, Natalia Jaworska, Renee Nelson, Sara de la Salle, Dylan Smith, Rob Aidelbaum, Verner Knott
OBJECTIVE: The effects of GABA modulating drugs and nicotine, the prototypical nicotinic cholinergic agonist, on attention have been investigated using subcomponents of the P300 event-related potentials (ERP), which index involuntary (P3a) and voluntary attention (P3b). However, investigations into how such pharmacologic effects interact with genetic features in the GABA system remain unclear. This study examined the moderating effects of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7557793) in the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) gene, which is implicated in the conversion of glutamate to GABA, on P300-indices of auditory attentional processing; the influence of nicotine administration was also assessed...
November 29, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Masakazu Hatano, Hiroyuki Kamei, Ippei Takeuchi, Kaori Tozawa, Shinya Makino, Manako Hanya, Shigeki Yamada, Nakao Iwata
OBJECTIVE: Long-acting injectable (LAI) aripiprazole is recommended to be combined with oral aripiprazole for 2 weeks after its introduction. However, we often experience patients who require more than 2 weeks of combined use. Therefore, differences in combination periods need to be examined. METHODS: This was a case-control study. We surveyed prescription profiles for oral aripiprazole administration in conjunction with LAI aripiprazole introduction and assessed the clinical course during a 12-week follow-up period...
November 27, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Marco Calabrò, Chiara Fabbri, Concetta Crisafulli, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni, Siegfried Kasper, Antonina Sidoti, Elvira Velardi, Joseph Zohar, Alzbeta Juven-Wetzler, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Robin von Rotz, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
OBJECTIVE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous GHB-/GABA-B receptor agonist and a narcolepsy treatment. However, GHB is also abused for its prohedonic effects. On a neuronal level, it was shown that GHB increases regional cerebral blood flow in limbic areas such as the right anterior insula (rAI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We aimed to further explore the association between the subjective and neuronal signatures of GHB. METHOD: We assessed subjective effects and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of an rAI- and an ACC-seed in 19 healthy male subjects after GHB (35 mg/kg p...
November 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Yoshiyuki Tsuruta, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Masahiro Banno, Naoko Kawano, Kunihiro Kohmura, Seiko Miyata, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Yukihiro Noda, Akiko Noda, Shuji Iritani, Norio Ozaki
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of hypnotics on prefrontal cortex activity in healthy subjects using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. METHODS: Eighteen healthy males received acute doses of ramelteon (8 mg), triazolam (0.125 mg), or placebo in a predetermined randomization schedule, with a washout period of more than 1 week. All subjects performed a verbal fluency task during NIRS assessments at baseline and at 1 and 4 hr post-dose...
November 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Michael S Zastrozhin, Aleksandr S Sorokin, Tatyana V Agibalova, Elena A Grishina, Anastasiya Р Antonenko, Ilya N Rozochkin, Denis V Duzhev, Valentine Y Skryabin, Tatyana E Galaktionova, Ilya V Barna, Anna V Orlova, Albert D Aguzarov, Ludmila M Savchenko, Evgeny A Bryun, Dmitry A Sychev
INTRODUCTION: Although pharmacogenetic tests provide the information on a genotype and the predicted phenotype, these tests themselves do not provide the interpretation of data for a physician. There are currently approximately two dozen pharmacogenomic clinical decision support systems used in psychiatry. Implementation of clinical decision support systems capable of forming recommendations on drug and dose selection according to the results of pharmacogenetic testing is an urgent task...
October 25, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Patrick C Dolder, Elizabeth B de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Natasha L Mason, Nadia R P W Hutten, Stefan W Toennes, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers, Kim P C Kuypers
OBJECTIVES: 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a novel psychoactive substance with a pharmacological profile and reported subjective effects (e.g., empathy) intermediate between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine. Studies have shown that MDMA and amphetamine increase emotional empathy without affecting cognitive empathy; MDMA simultaneously leads to elevated levels of oxytocin, unrelated to its behavioral effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the reported enhancement of empathy by 4-FA, to assess its effects on oxytocin, and to test potential associations between both...
October 25, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
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