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Zoological Science

Débora da Silva, Mônica Cassel, Mahmoud Mehanna, Adelina Ferreira, Mary Anne Heidi Dolder
The follicular development and reproductive characteristics of four species of oviparous lizards in the Tropidurus torquatus group were anatomically and histologically evaluated. We measured specimens, recorded the number of follicles and eggs, and removed the right ovary of each individual, which we processed according to histological routine and photo-documented. For all species, ovaries were divided into a cortical germinal bed, where oogonia and stage I oocytes are located, and a medullar stroma, where the remaining follicular developmental stages occur...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Ryo Kitta, Yumi Yamahama, Takayuki Yamamoto, Keisuke Mase, Hiroshi Sawada
To clarify the molecular mechanism of prevention of entry into diapause in Bombyx mori by HCl treatment, we biochemically analyzed mitochondrial Ca2+ -dependent solute carrier protein (MCSC) in diapause eggs treated with HCl solution. Our previous studies revealed that HCl treatment causes Ca2+ to efflux from diapause eggs. Therefore, we attempted to analyze MCSC, which is known to associate with Ca2+ . The isolated cDNA of B. mori MCSC (BmMCSC) had an open reading flame (ORF) of 667 amino acid residues, and the ORF contained two EF-hand calcium-binding domains and three characteristic features of the mitochondrial solute carrier superfamily...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Euichi Hirose, Kei Nakayama, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akatsuki Nawata, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
The infection caused by a kinetoplastid flagellate, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, in an ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, results in softening of the tunic, and finally death. This disease is usually recognized using palpation of the softening tunic, and A. hoyamushi infection is detectable using microscopy or PCR amplification of specific gene fragments. The present study is the first quantitative evaluation of the symptoms of soft tunic syndrome by measuring the amount of bending (bending) and the peak force required to pierce the tunic (force)...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Tatsuya Ueki, Kanae Koike, Ikuko Fukuba, Nobuo Yamaguchi
Most ascidian species settle on underwater substrates during a short free-swimming tadpole larval period. During this process, "rapid adhesion" occurs on adhesive papillae located at the anterior region of the cephalenteron. Settled and transformed ascidians subsequently expand the attachment area by "slow adhesion" with ampullae. In the present study, we attempted to identify the ultrastructures related to the adhesion process and adhesive materials in the ascidian tunic and to elucidate the biological function of vanadium in adhesion...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Janusz Kloskowski
Most research on non-consumptive predator effects on amphibian larvae has been conducted in laboratory or mesocosm designs. Here, Pelobates fuscus and Hyla orientalis tadpoles were separately exposed to non-lethal (free-moving, but with tied mouthparts) common carp Cyprinus carpio for one week in enclosures placed in a pond densely stocked with fish. Tadpoles exposed to nonlethal fish did not differ in mortality, body mass, or, except for deeper tail fin depth in P. fuscus, morphological plasticity from controls kept in a fishless pond...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Emi Arai, Masaru Hasegawa, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Shosuke Ito
Pheomelanin-based plumage pigmentation has been suggested to be an honest signal of individual quality to conspecifics. It has been hypothesized that oxidative stress is an important agent linking pheomelanic pigmentation to individual quality. Using the Asian barn swallow Hirundo rustica gutturalis, a wild passerine, we tested whether the pheomelanin pigmentation in the red throat patch of adult males, a sexually selected trait, is associated with the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione (RGSH/GSSG) as an indicator of current oxidative balance during the early breeding season...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Ryo Kutsuma, Takahide Sasai, Takushi Kishida
Fully aquatic adaptation generally leads amniotes to change sensory modalities drastically. Terrestrial snakes rely heavily on chemical cues to locate and recognize prey, but little is known about how sea snakes find prey fishes underwater. Sea snakes of the genus Hydrophis are fish-eating marine elapids which adapted from land to water approximately 5-10 million years ago. Here, using two species of captive Hydrophis snakes, we show that they can recognize and discriminate their preferred fish species solely by using olfactory cues...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Adalgisa Fernanda Cabral, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Vívian Campos de Oliveira, Roberto da Gama Alves, Marta D'Agosto
Although epibiont ciliates make up a significant part of the biomass in aquatic ecosystems and may cause perceptible alterations in the population dynamics of their hosts, studies on the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that control the abundance of these microorganisms are scarce in literature. In the present study, we investigated the colonization site and intensity of rhabdostylid epibiont upon chironomid larvae and assessed the influence of organic pollution and chironomid communities on the prevalence and abundance of epibiont ciliates at five sampling stations (two in rural areas and three in urban areas) along a neotropical urban stream over a period of 12 months...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Praveena Rajasegaran, Nursyafiqah Shazali, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan
Bats play crucial ecological and economic roles. However, this group of mammals is largely threatened due to anthropogenic activities inside or around their caves. In the present study, we investigate the effects of cave microclimate and physiological parameters on bat roost preference in Fairy Cave Nature Reserve (Fairy Cave NR). The microclimate and physiological parameters including temperature (°C), relative humidity (RH), light intensity (lux), air flow, passage dimension (m), roost height (m) and distance of roost from nearest entrance (m) were measured...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Akihiro Yoshikawa, Ryutaro Goto, Akira Asakura
Ergaea walshi, a gastropod with a markedly flat shell, often lives inside empty snail shells occupied by hermit crabs. We investigated its lifestyle, shell growth pattern, and habitat preference for host hermit crabs and host snail shells. Four hundred sixteen snail shells, including 363 shells with hermit crabs and 53 empty shells, were collected from intertidal zones of sandy and muddy flats around Kii Peninsula, Japan. The specimens comprised seven hermit crab species occupying 24 shell species; E. walshi was harbored in 13...
December 2018: Zoological Science
Naoki Mito, Kazuhiko Ohshima, Osamu Saitoh
The Japanese clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) is a lentic-breeding species distributed throughout western Japan. Threats, such as habitat loss, have led to it being categorized as a vulnerable species. To explore the phylogeographic features and population differentiation among clouded salamanders in Shiga prefecture, we analyzed sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. DNA samples were collected from 29 distinct breeding sites, and 53 cytochrome b haplotypes were identified. On the basis of comparison of the composition and frequency of haplotypes in each breeding site, salamanders in each habitat appeared to have distinct characteristics...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Shinri Tomioka, Keiichi Kakui, Hiroshi Kajihara
Capitellids have emerged as monophyletic in most but not all recent molecular phylogenies, indicating that more extensive taxon sampling is necessary. In addition, monophyly of most or all capitellid genera was questionable, as some diagnostic characters vary ontogenetically within individuals. We tested the monophyly of Capitellidae and eight capitellid genera using phylogenetic analyses of combined 18S, 28S, H3, and COI gene sequences from 36 putative capitellid species. In our trees, Capitellidae formed a monophyletic sister group to Echiura, and Capitella was also monophyletic, separated by a long branch from other capitellids...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Natsumi Maruoka, Hajime Ohtsuki, Wataru Makino, Jotaro Urabe
We examined the morphology of Daphnia individuals maintained in our laboratory for several years, originally collected in Lake Inbanuma, Chiba, Japan. We determined partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rRNA genes from specimens in the cultured material. These animals are morphologically similar to D. obtusa Kurz, 1874 , but genetically distinct from this species. Our detailed observation shows that the morphological characteristics in the female and male individuals of our material are highly congruent with those of D...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Hyun-Ju Yoon, Eun-Jin Joo, Dong-Soo Ha, Hyung-Kyu Nam, Jongmin Yoon
Some seabirds commonly use artificially reclaimed lands, which are frequently located next to mainland environments, for breeding. Nest predation risk caused by birds or mammals from the mainland has negative influence on fitness-related costs and distribution of seabirds. Here, we sought to link potential factors, specifically those related to nest predation and nest environment, with breeding performance and colony movements of the Saunders's gull (Saundersilarus saundersi), a vulnerable species, on a large reclaimed area (1350 ha) in Incheon in Republic of Korea...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Xiao-Yan Zhang, Zhu-Qin Huang, Tiao Ning, Xiao-Han Xiang, Chun-Qing Li, Shan-Yuan Chen, Heng Xiao
The fish genus Sinocyclocheilus contains many different species that inhabit diverse natural environments, such as surface water layer, cave, or intermediate. As a result of these different habitats there are some differences in their sensory systems. Microscopic and submicroscopic structures of olfactory systems in six representative species of Sinocyclocheilus were studied, including one surface-dwelling species (S. grahami), two intermediate species (S. jii and S. macrophthalmus) and three cave-dwelling species (S...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Takafumi Nakano, Ko Tomikawa
The systematic status of the stygobitic amphipod, Paramoera relicta Uéno, 1971, was revisited based on morphological examination of the paratypes, and molecular phylogenetic analyses using a newly collected specimen from its type locality. The paratypes clearly showed that this species does not possess the "sinusoid" antennal sinus in the head, which was erroneously described in the original description of this species; P. relicta is unquestionably classified within the genus Paramoera Miers, 1875 ...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Toshio Okazaki
Male peacock (Pavo cristatus) tail feathers have an eyespot pattern with an inconspicuous black or dark blue center surrounded by brilliant, structural colors, such as blue, light brown, and yellow-green. Under ultraviolet A (UVA), the central part of the eyespot reflects UVA better than the surrounding parts. Herein, I examined various areas of eyespots on paraffin sections of feathers using an optical microscope, and characterized positional relationships between barbs and barbules. These analyses confirmed that barbules in the central part of the eyespot are in a horizontal position with respect to the barb, and that light transmission from the central part is less than that from the other parts...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Kiichiro Taniguchi, Akihiko Kokuryo, Takao Imano, Hideki Nakagoshi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
The adult male accessory gland in insects is an internal reproductive organ analogous to the mammalian prostate, and secretes various components in the seminal fluid. Products of the accessory gland in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are known to control reproductive behaviors in mated females, such as food uptake, oviposition rate, and rejection of re-mating with other males, all of which increase male reproductive capacity. Production of larger amounts of accessory gland products is thus thought to result in higher male reproductive success...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Chong-Rui Wang, Wen-Wen Suo, Xiang-Rong Huang, Fu-Chu Liao, Zhi-Qiang Liang, Li-Na Du
A new species of pachychilid freshwater gastropod, Sulcospira hunanensis sp. nov., is described from Hunan Province, China, based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters, including elongated shell with eight to nine whorls, spiral whorls with ribs, and stomach with outer and inner crescentic pads not connected to each other. Sulcospira hunanensis sp. nov. is the first confirmed report of this genus from Hunan Province, China...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Yosuke Amaike, Yoshinori Nishita, Kohji Uraguchi, Ryuichi Masuda
To assess the genetic diversity of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, we examined genotypes of exon 2 of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB1 gene for 232 individuals and identified 17 novel alleles. The subpopulation in the Southern area was genetically differentiated from those in all other areas on Hokkaido, suggesting isolation in southern Hokkaido. In addition, the Southern subpopulation is lower in genetic diversity than the other subpopulations, possibly resulting from purifying selection and/or a recent bottleneck...
October 2018: Zoological Science
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