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Developmental Neuropsychology

Samantha D Roberts, Kyla P McDonald, Ashley Danguecan, Jennifer Crosbie, Robyn Westmacott, Brendan Andrade, Nomazulu Dlamini, Tricia S Williams
The current longitudinal study examined academic outcomes of children diagnosed with secondary attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (S-ADHD) following stroke in comparison to children with stroke-only and children with developmental ADHD (D-ADHD), and explored potential predictors of progress in these groups. We followed 55 children (n = 17 S-ADHD, n = 18 stroke-only, and n = 20 D-ADHD) over approximately four years. Children with S-ADHD and D-ADHD were more likely to have a comorbid learning disability, but children with S-ADHD were more likely to have declines in their reading scores over time...
May 8, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Carter R Petty, Cassandra Svelnys, Michaela Gusman, Michelle Huezo, Ashley Malin, Rosalind J Wright
We examined the roles of maternal and child lifetime stress exposures, infant temperament (orienting/regulation, surgency/extraversion), and maternal caregiving during infancy and preschool on preschoolers' working memory and inhibitory control in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort. Working memory was predicted by infant orienting/regulation, with differential effects by the level of maternal cognitive support in infancy; maternal lifetime stress exposures exerted independent negative effects on working memory...
May 6, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara
The present study examined whether the lateral prefrontal regions played an important role in a less is more (LIM) task in young children. Preschool children were given a LIM task, and neural activation during the task was assessed using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Results revealed that children's right ventrolateral prefrontal regions were activated during the task. Specifically, stronger prefrontal activation was shown when children chose a small reward compared to when they selected the other option...
April 23, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Alma Guilbert, Sylvain Clément, Christine Moroni
Although some studies described the apparition of a rightward bias of attention with aging, no study has examined if this bias could be explained by modifications based on age in the mechanisms of attention orienting and, specially, in the cueing effects. 48 participants of different ages were tested with a spatial cueing paradigm to assess mechanisms of attention orienting. Our results suggest the appearance of specific difficulties to orient and reorient attention towards the left side of space with aging...
April 19, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Ymie J van der Zee, Marlou J G Kooiker, Marisabel Talamante Ojeda, Johan J M Pel
Visual closure is the ability to visualize a complete whole when an incomplete picture is presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the Kaufman Gestalt closure task in children with cerebral and ocular visual impairments. Looking behavior was assessed by an eye tracker system to quantify the number and duration of fixations. We found that children with visual impairments due to cerebral damage show weaker Gestalt perception and had different looking patterns than children with ocular or without visual impairments...
March 17, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Andreas J Fallgatter, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Most studies have investigated brain activation changes after the course of arithmetic learning, and the question remains whether these changes are detectable during the course of learning, i.e., before memory consolidation. Twenty-four fifth graders solved multiplication problems while ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The arithmetic training revealed reduced errors together with a power increase in theta (4-7 Hz) but not in lower alpha (8-10 Hz) or upper alpha (10-13 Hz) bands. We conclude that increases in theta power subserved a shift from slow, procedural strategies to more efficient, automated procedural and retrieval strategies, which led to more efficient performance...
March 13, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Eva Michel, Sabine Molitor, Wolfgang Schneider
The role of motor coordination and executive functions in kindergarten for reading/spelling in 1st/2nd grade was examined in the light of other domain-general predictors. N = 173 children were included in the final analyses. A structural equation model with motor coordination, fluid intelligence, age and self-concept as predictors of reading/spelling fitted well. When EF were included, motor coordination and fluid intelligence were not associated with reading/spelling performance. A final model with EF, age and self-concept fitted best...
February 27, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Amaryllis-Chryssi Malegiannaki, Eleni Aretouli, Panayiota Metallidou, Lambros Messinis, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Mary H Kosmidis
We examined the utility of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) for Greek children. Discrete and regression-based norms, controlling for demographic characteristics and intelligence, were derived from the performance of 172 children. We also assessed the ability of the TEA-Ch to differentiate children with ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C) from healthy matched peers. Children with ADHD-C displayed dysfunction in multiple attentional domains. Discriminant function analysis indicated that two subtests (Sky Search and Walk, Don't Walk) correctly classified 84...
February 20, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Natalie H Brito, William P Fifer, Dima Amso, Rachel Barr, Martha Ann Bell, Susan Calkins, Albert Flynn, Hawley E Montgomery-Downs, Lisa M Oakes, John E Richards, Larissa M Samuelson, John Colombo
The use of global, standardized instruments is conventional among clinicians and researchers interested in assessing neurocognitive development. Exclusively relying on these tests for evaluating effects may underestimate or miss specific effects on early cognition. The goal of this review is to identify alternative measures for possible inclusion in future clinical trials and interventions evaluating early neurocognitive development. The domains included for consideration are attention, memory, executive function, language, and socioemotional development...
March 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Catherine E Barrett, Julie A Kable, Teresa E Madsen, Chia-Chun Hsu, Claire D Coles
Oxygenated (HBO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HBR) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to determine if PFC activity during a cognitive inhibition task distinguishes children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, n = 26) from both typically developing controls (n = 19) and a contrast group of children with other neurobehavioral problems (n = 14). Despite showing evidence of increased PFC activity in the non-inhibitory condition relative to controls, children in the PAE group displayed reduced PFC HBO and increased HBR relative to both other groups in the inhibitory condition, suggesting reduced PFC activity but increased oxygen consumption without sufficient oxygen replacement...
January 20, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Lloyd Flaro, Fern S Baldwin, Jaspreet Rai, Laszlo A Erdodi
OBJECTIVE: To replicate previous research on Conners' Continuous Performance Test - Second Edition subscales as performance validity tests (PVTs) in children. METHOD: Classification accuracy for the Omissions (OMI), Hit Reaction Time (HRT), and Perseverations (PER) subscales was computed for 414 children and adolescents. RESULTS: Overall, OMI, HRT, and PER demonstrated good specificity but low and variable sensitivity across cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that OMI, HRT, and PER can function as embedded PVTs in mixed clinical samples of children, although their clinical utility is limited by their low sensitivity...
January 15, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kate Cockcroft, Robyn Milligan
Not much is known about the structure of working memory in atypical development. We undertook a detailed comparison of the functional organization of working memory in HIV-infected (n = 95; Mage  = 7.42 years), and HIV-exposed (n = 86; Mage  = 7.36 years) children, together with an uninfected, unexposed typically developing comparison group (n = 92; Mage  = 7.05 years). Participants were in their first year of formal education. Within-group comparisons of five models showed that a four-factor model with separate verbal and visuospatial storage and processing accounted for the typically developing group, while working memory was structurally undifferentiated in the HIV-affected groups...
January 9, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Erik N Ringdahl, Megan L Becker, Julia E Hussey, Nicholas S Thaler, Sally J Vogel, Chad Cross, Joan Mayfield, Daniel N Allen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous patterns of neuropsychological impairment. This study investigated heterogeneity in executive function (EF) using the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) to evaluate 121 children and adolescents with TBI and 121 matched normal controls. The TBI group performed approximately two standard deviations below controls. Cluster analyses indicated that a three-cluster solution best classified the TBI group and a four-cluster solution best classified controls...
December 27, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Carlos Burneo-Garcés, Francisco Cruz-Quintana, Miguel Pérez-García, Manuel Fernández-Alcántara, Ahmed Fasfous, Mª Nieves Pérez-Marfil
The socioeconomic status (SES) of parents has a crucial influence on the cognitive development of children, but it is not clear whether this effect varies as a function of the children's age. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of children aged 7, 9, and 11 years of parents with extremely low SES in a developing country (Ecuador). Participating children were divided between a medium-SES group and a low-SES group. Statistically significant differences were observed as a function of SES group and age in verbal memory, language, and executive function, observing wider between-group differences among the 11-year-olds...
December 11, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Grant L Iverson, Philip Schatz
ImPACT® Pediatric is an examiner-administered iOS-based battery of neuropsychological tests designed to measure neurocognitive functioning in children ages 5-11. This study documented Multivariate Base Rates (prevalence of low scores when multiple test scores are considered simultaneously) in the ImPACT® Pediatric standardization sample (N = 892). In the total sample, it was common for children to obtain at least one low factor score using the 25th percentile [T 43; base rate (BR) = 54.2%], 16th percentile (T40, BR = 38...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lyndsey Juliane Chong, Alexandria Meyer
Despite growing evidence that an elevated error-related negativity (ERN) is a risk marker for anxiety, it is unclear what psychological construct underlies this association. To address this gap, we devised a 9-item self-report scale for assessing error sensitivity (i.e. the fear of making mistakes) in children. The Child Error Sensitivity Index was administered to 97 children ages 5-7 years old and demonstrated good internal reliability and convergent validity. The Child Error Sensitivity Index related to the ERN, and the relationship between the ERN and child anxiety symptoms was mediated by scores on the Child Error Sensitivity Index...
November 8, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Anita Puhr, Ellen Ruud, Vicki Anderson, Bernt Johan Due-Tønnesen, Anne-Britt Skarbø, Arnstein Finset, Stein Andersson
Long-term executive function (EF), psychological and emotional difficulties, and fatigue among adult survivors of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are sparsely studied. One hundred and fourteen adult PBT survivors, 89 PBT survivor informants, and a healthy control group completed questionnaires assessing these domains. Significant differences between PBT survivors and controls were found on all self-reported measures, most strongly on measures reflecting EF. Patients reported significantly more difficulties with metacognitive aspects of EF compared to behavioral aspects...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Russell A Barkley, Mariellen Fischer
No studies have examined if time reproduction deficits exist in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. We followed 131 ADHD and 71 community control (CC) cases for 20+ years to young adulthood at which time they were given a time reproduction task. The ADHD group made smaller time reproductions and showed greater variability of errors at the longer durations compared to CC cases, whether ADHD was still present or not at follow-up. Nonverbal working memory and design fluency tests were related to timing errors while anxiety and depression were not...
October 30, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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