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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Kevin John, Karthik Gunasekaran, Thomas Alex Kodiatte, Ramya Iyyadurai
Botryomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection that manifests clinically as tumours or plaques that are often ulcerated and have discharging sinuses draining small white-coloured granules. Therefore, they closely mimic mycetoma or other fungal infections. It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It can present as cutaneous or visceral disease. The cutaneous form can invade deep tissue leading to extensive destruction and disfigurement. A 31-year-old female presented with progressive swelling of her right foot over a period of 8 years...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Vasant Nagvekar, Chandrasekar H Pranatharthi, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Ramamurthy Anand, Vidya Devarajan, Mandayam Thirunarayan, Anil Tarigopula
Invasive aspergillosis remains a problem in solid organs and haematopoietic stem cell transplants. We report a case of 12-year-old female with primary hyperoxaluria with regular haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease. She underwent a combined liver and renal transplantation which got infected by aspergillosis. In this case study, it is speculated that the most likely source of Aspergillus was contaminated preservative solution (perfusate), resulting in infection within the donor kidney and subsequent systemic infection in the recipient...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jyoti Rawre, Mamta Rai, Divya Namdeo, Rojaleen Das, Neena Khanna, Lalit Dar, Benu Dhawan
We report a case of mucocutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 39-year-old female with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who presented with a perigenital ulcer. The patient was receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) for 3 months before presentation. Scraping from the perigenital ulcer was positive for HSV-2 and Treponema pallidum using polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The extent and duration of the lesions led us to consider the possibility of coinfection with CMV...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Rahul Garg, G Siddaramappa Chandrashekhar, Tushar Shaw, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Cryptococcus gattii predominantly causes central nervous system and pulmonary infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with substantial morbidity. We report a case of rapidly fatal meningitis by C. gattii in an HIV-non-infected man with CD4 lymphopenia who tested negative for cryptococcal antigen. This case may serve as an alert to its wider occurrence and less explored risk factors.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Monika Soni, Chandrakanta Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta
Nowadays, dengue infection creates a major problem across the country. The vector species carrying dengue infection has progressively started to developed resistance against most of the currently used insecticides. Hence, a study was carried out in dengue-endemic areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh to find the current situation of insecticide susceptibility status of dengue vectors. Based on the previous history of dengue incidence, Aedes mosquitoes were collected from Dibrugarh, Kamrup, Sivasagar, Tezpur and Tinsukia districts in Assam and Pasighat district in Arunachal Pradesh to test the insecticide resistance status through bioassay and molecular methods...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh, Sumeeta Khurana, Abhishek Mewara, Rakesh Sehgal, Ankita Singh
Toxocariasis is a neglected soil-transmitted helminthic infection caused by either Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati where humans get infected by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs, and the definitive hosts are dogs and cats. This study aims to analyse the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Toxocara-infected patients and assessment of response to standard treatment with review of literature. The clinical details of patients with Toxocara serology positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA in 5 years (2013-2017) were retrospectively analysed...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Muksedur Rahman, Ajanta Sharma, Saurav Patgiri, Ezaz Hussain, Amrit Kumar Borah, Lahari Saikia
Dengue has become endemic in India with outbreaks caused by all the four serotypes occurring almost every year. Dengue cases have been increasing alarmingly in Assam also. This study aimed to identify the dengue serotypes circulating in Assam. Clinically suspected dengue fever cases were included in the study. Viral RNA was extracted using QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was done for serotyping. The frequency of dengue was 25.23% with a peak during the period from September (22...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
K P Athira, K Vanathy, Rajendra Kulkarni, Rahul Dhodapkar
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a cause of concern while screening the blood donors to prevent transfusion-related transmission of infection. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of OBI using total anti-HBc by ELISA and DNA detection by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples included were negative for HBs Ag by ELISA. Out of 1102 samples tested, 156 were positive for total anti-hepatitis B core antigen and 52/156 by real-time PCR. Overall, the prevalence was found to be 4...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Manisha Biswal, Kamran Zaman, Vikas Suri, Harshith Rao, Abhay Kumar, Gaurav Kapur, Navneet Sharma, Ashish Bhalla, M Jayashree
Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi presents as an acute febrile illness with a varied presentation from mild illness to fatal disease in the absence of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on eschar sample acts a rapid diagnostic tool in the early stage of scrub typhus when blood is negative. A total of eight patients from whom both whole blood and eschar samples were collected and tested by nested PCR targeting 56 kDa trichostatin A (TSA) gene to detect O...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mehmet Burak Selek, Orhan Baylan, Ergenekon Karagöz, Mustafa Özyurt
Purpose: Identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is very important in the selection of antiviral treatment, dose adjustment of antiviral agents, determining the treatment duration and following-up of treatment response. We aimed to determine the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes in chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) patients. Materials and Methods: We have included 106 CHC patients who were positive in the anti-HCV and HCV-RNA tests performed in our hospital during the 16-month period...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Asma Husein Roohani, Nazish Fatima, Mohammad Shameem, Haris Manzoor Khan, Parvez Anwar Khan, Anees Akhtar
Introduction: Invasive fungal infections are increasingly common in the nosocomial setting. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups immunocompetent and immunocompromised that is, patients with significant neutropenia <500 neutrophils/μl for longer than 10 days. microscopy, culture, identification of isolates were done and some specilised tests on serum and BAL for antigen detection were performed. Results: Majority of the patients were young adult males in this study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Xiaoyun Wang, Yan Tian
Introduction: The signs and symptoms of influenza B are commonly ignored. Therefore, very few clinical reports are available. This study is an attempt to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of influenza B virus-associated pneumonia patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the microbiological and characteristics of influenza B virus-associated pneumonia patients. Methodology: Patients with <16 years old with a clinical diagnosis of influenza B virus infection and who had chest radiography within 2 days were enrolled...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Praveena Basireddy, Surekha Avileli, Nagajyothi Beldono, Swarna Latha Gundela
Purpose: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection through occupational exposure which is preventable through hepatitis B vaccination. In the current study, the response to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine was assessed in a selected group of HCWs by testing for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). Methods: Blood samples were collected in all HCWs, who have received the complete schedule of hepatitis B vaccination and anti-HBs levels, were assessed quantitatively in sera using ELISA...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Runal John Steve, Fletcher John Gnanadurai, Raghavendran Anantharam, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Uday George Zachariah, Ashish Goel, Eapen Eapen Chundamannil, Priya Abraham
Introduction: Acute decompensation of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD), known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), is associated with high mortality. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a potential cause was studied. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the role of HEV in ACLF patients using an IgM anti-HEV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), HEV antigen ELISA, and a quantitative HEV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 50 ACLF (cases) as defined by the standard guidelines (APASL, 2014) and 50 patients with stable CLD (controls) from January 2015 to August 2016, after obtaining informed consent...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Linda Rose Jose, Sumana Neelambike Mahadeviah, V Balamurugan, K Ramachandra Kini
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of ubiquitous distribution. During rainy seasons, in spring and summer and also during harvest times, the risk of leptospirosis increases as there are chances of frequent contact with infected rat population which is common in Karnataka as farming is a main source of income to the people here. There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalent serovars from Karnataka. This study was undertaken as an attempt to compare a battery of tools such as immunochromatographic test (ICT), microscopic agglutination test (MAT), immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect leptospirosis...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Tanu Singhal, Sweta Shah, Reshma Tejam, Pooja Thakkar
Purpose: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious healthcare-associated infection (HAI) now being increasingly reported from hospitals across India. However, there is a paucity of data on the incidence of and impact of control measures on CDI in India. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai from January 2016 to December 2017. All patients with healthcare-onset diarrhoea were tested for C. difficile by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/toxin assay or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bhupen Barman, Kaustubh Bora, Kryshanlang G Lynrah, W Valarie Lyngdoh, Mohammad Jamil
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). Although Northeast India is believed to be a HCV hotspot, the proportion of HCV infection and the distribution of HCV genotypes in CLD cases from the region are not known. The objectives of the study were to determine the proportion of HCV infection in newly diagnosed CLD patients from Meghalaya, Northeast India, and further investigate the HCV genotype distribution in those patients...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mubin Kazi, Rukhsar Khot, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Background: Resistance due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and OXA-48/181 continues to emerge as a threat which is associated with nosocomial outbreaks and is a serious healthcare concern. Phenotypic detection being laborious and time-consuming requires rapid detection of NDM and OXA-48/181, which is achieved through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Materials and Methods: In this study, RT-PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect NDM and OXA-48/181...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Krishnapriya Kalaiarasan, Rakesh Singh, Latha Chaturvedula
Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by overgrowth of Candida species in the female lower genital tract and most commonly caused by Candida albicans. The production of various virulence factors may attribute to their pathogenicity. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the production of various virulence factors of Candida spp. causing VVC. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 Candida spp. were isolated prospectively from 50 patients among 211 clinically suspected cases of VVC...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sheetal Bankar, Reena Set, Disha Sharma, Daksha Shah, Jayanthi Shastri
Introduction: The WHO endorsed Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF) assay, has been evaluated for pulmonary TB in a number of studies but very few have investigated it for extrapulmonary specimens. The present study evaluates the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is to determine sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of EPTB and RIF resistance in comparison to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and proportion method (PM), respectively...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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