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Biology of Sport

Marcin Dornowski, Piotr Makar, Piotr Sawicki, Dominika Wilczyńska, Inna Vereshchaka, Zbigniew Ossowski
This study examined the effects of different training loads on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activity in swimming. Twelve female swimmers were included in this study (23.71±1.44 y.o.; 167±5.89 cm; 62.05±8.89 kg). They took part in an experiment with two different stages of load in swimming training. For the pelvic floor muscle assessment the Glazer Protocol was used. To assess swimming technique, David Pyne's Stroke Mechanics Test was used. A statistically significant increase in surface electromyography (sEMG) values appeared in the fifth R (rest after contraction) in the quick flick stage of the measurement protocol of PFM at the third measurement time (7...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Hazwani Ahmad Yusof, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed
We examined the association between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism and isometric handgrip (IHG) training on cardiovascular and muscular responses among normotensive males. Thirty (II = 10, ID = 10, and DD = 10) normotensive untrained males underwent IHG training at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Cardiovascular and muscular variables were measured before IHG, after a session of IHG and after 8 weeks of IHG. No significant interaction effect was found between ACE I/D genotype and IHG training session on all dependent variables (all p > 0...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Johnny Padulo, Enzo Iuliano, Gabriel Brisola, Antonio Dello Iacono, Alessandro M Zagatto, Corrado Lupo, Thomas Fuglsang, Luca P Ardigò, Drazen Cular
The aim of the investigation was to verify the validity and reliability of a low-end 50-Hz Global Navigation Satellite System receiver (GNSSr) for different soccer-specific run distances and average speed assessments. Six soccer players were assessed on two different days while performing eight different running paths with changes of direction for a final total of 44 runs. During the runs, each participant was equipped with the GNSSr, while the time for each single run was recorded using a photocell gate. Reference vs...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Mauricio Mónaco, José A Gutiérrez Rincón, Bruno J Montoro Ronsano, Rodney Whiteley, Fernando Sanz-Lopez, Gil Rodas
The aim of this cohort study is to estimate the influence of position, category, and maturity status on the incidence and pattern of injury in handball players, across two seasons. Injury registration from 164 players-season (12-27 years) was conducted, and players were categorized into youth (133) and adults (31), and per position: 27 goalkeepers, 67 backs, 70 wings and pivots. Maturity status in youth players was also measured by testicular volume on clinical examination (32 immature, 101 mature). 190 injuries occurred during 34 221 hours of exposure...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Mohamed Romdhani, Omar Hammouda, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari, Nizar Souissi
To compare the effects of two types of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) at the beginning (PSDBN) and the end (PSDEN) of the night on mood, cognitive performances, biomarkers of muscle damage, haematological status and antioxidant responses before and after repeated-sprint exercise in the post-lunch dip. Fourteen male athletes performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test following: (i) baseline normal sleep night, (ii) PSDBN, or (iii) PSDEN in a randomized and counter-balanced order. During each condition, participants performed simple and choice reaction time tests, the Profile of Mood States, subjective sleepiness, and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Jennifer Hommel, Steffen Öhmichen, Ulrike M Rudolph, Thomas Hauser, Henry Schulz
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the influence of sprint interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on calculated power in maximal lactate steady state (PMLSS) (influenced by the maximal lactate production rate (⩒Lamax ) and maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O2max )). Thirty participants were randomly assigned to the a) SIT, b) ET, or c) control group (n = 10 each). Each session consisted of four to six repetitions of 30 s all-out effort Wingate anaerobic tests (SIT) or 60 min cycling at 1...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Renato A Souza, Oscar A B Beltran, Diana M Zapata, Elisângela Silva, Wagner Z Freitas, Rubens V Junior, Fabiano F da Silva, Wonder P Higino
The study aimed to investigate physiological and psychological states prior to competition and prior to training in three different demanding activities. Eighteen canoe athletes, 18 street runners and 18 jiu-jitsu fighters were included in this study (n=54). The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2), salivary cortisol and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured at two time points (pre-training and pre-competition). Somatic anxiety (F1,42 = 15.29, p = 0.0003), HRV (F1,42 = 23.24, p < 0.0001) and salivary cortisol (F1,42 = 22...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Ryan M Miller, Eduardo D Freitas, Aaron D Heishman, Japneet Kaur, Karolina J Koziol, Bianca A Galletti, Michael G Bemben
Maximal muscular power is achieved at lower percentages of maximal strength (1RM); however, this notion has not been elucidated based on sex or training status. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of sex and training status on maximal power production. Sixty men and women (resistance trained or untrained) completed 1RM testing for the two-leg press (2LP) and bench press (BP). Participants then returned to perform single repetitions at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% of their 1RM to determine muscular power...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Mathieu Lacome, Alexis Peeters, Bertrand Mathieu, Marrier Bruno, Carling Christopher, Julien Piscione
The purpose of this study was to (1) provide data on maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and maximal acceleration (Amax) in elite rugby sevens players measured with GPS devices, (2) test the concurrent validity of the signal derived from a radar device and a commercially available 16 Hz GPS device, and (2) assess the between-device reliability of MSS and Amax of the same GPS. Fifteen elite rugby sevens players (90 ± 12 kg; 181 ± 8 cm; 26 ± 5 y) participated in the maximal sprinting test. A subset of five players participated in the concurrent validity and between-devices reliability study...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Luciana Zaccagni, Barbara Lunghi, Davide Barbieri, Natascia Rinaldo, Sasa Missoni, Tena Šaric, Jelena Šarac, Vesna Babic, Marija Rakovac, Francesco Bernardi, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Elite athletes differ from each other in their characteristics according to their discipline. This study aimed to identify performance predictors in elite Croatian sprinters taking into consideration their anthropometric, psychological and genetic characteristics. One hundred and four elite Croatian sprinters (68 males and 36 females) participated in this study. Of them, 38 are currently competing in the 100-metre dash. The others are former sprinters. The participants underwent direct anthropometric assessment...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Fatma E Koku, Süleyman O Karamızrak, Aynur S Çiftçi, Hasan Taşlıdere, Burak Durmaz, Özgür Çoğulu
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism in soccer players and sedentary individuals, and to investigate the relationship of this distribution with performance tests. A total of 100 soccer players and 101 sedentary individuals were enrolled in the study. Standing long jump and countermovement jump (with arm swing, without arm swing and repeated) scores were recorded, using a jump meter. Maximum VO2 levels were measured using a treadmill-connected cardiopulmonary exercise device, Masterscreen CPX...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Katarzyna Leźnicka, Kinga Humińska-Lisowska, Waldemar Moska, Monika Michałowska-Sawczyn, Zbigniew Ossowski, Ewelina Maculewicz, Paweł Cięszczyk, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Wojciech Ratkowski, Krzysztof Ficek, Piotr Zmijewski, Agata Leońska-Duniec
The aim of the present study was to analyse VEGFA rs699947, rs1570360, and rs2010963 polymorphisms with susceptibility to anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACLR) in a Polish population. The study included 412 physically active Caucasian participants. The study group consisted of 222 individuals with surgically diagnosed primary ACLR qualified for ligament reconstruction (ACLR group). The control group consisted of 190 apparently healthy participants without any history of ACLR (CON group). Three polymorphisms within the VEGFA (rs699947, rs1570360, and rs2010963) gene were chosen for investigation due to their significance in the angiogenesis signalling pathway and previous associations with risk of ACLRs...
March 2019: Biology of Sport
Michał Wilk, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Artur Gołaś, Michał Krzysztofik, Adam Maszczyk, Adam Zając
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate-protein supplementation with whey protein (CHO-PROw) after resistance training, and casein protein (PROc) before bedtime on the concentration of growth hormone (GH), insulin (I) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Twelve strength trained male subjects (age: 25.8 ± 4.7 years; training experience 6.1 ± 0.79 years; body mass 75.9 ± 2.7 kg; body height 171.8 ± 13.3 cm) were recruited for the study...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Tomé Rodrigues de Matos, Pablo Arrans, Alfredo Santalla, José Naranjo Orellana
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ventilatory efficiency ( V E /VCO2 slope) and the respiratory control (Vt/Ti slope) in a wide range of athletes and describe the influence of fitness level, age, ergometer type or BMI on these parameters. Ninety-one males (30.4±10.53 years; 175.52±7.45 cm; 71.99±9.35 kg) were analysed retrospectively for the study. Ventilatory efficiency reacted similarly in athletes independently of the fitness level, age, BMI or the ergometer used for testing. No significant differences were found in V E /VCO2 slope and the Vt/Ti slope between variables analyzed ( P >0...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Bessem Mkaouer, Sarra Hammoudi-Nassib, Samiha Amara, Helmi Chaabène
This study aimed to determine the specific physical and basic gymnastics skills considered critical in gymnastics talent identification and selection as well as in promoting men's artistic gymnastics performances. Fifty-one boys from a provincial gymnastics team (age 11.03 ± 0.95 years; height 1.33 ± 0.05 m; body mass 30.01 ± 5.53 kg; body mass index [BMI] 16.89 ± 3.93 kg/m² ) regularly competing at national level voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometric measures as well as the men's artistic gymnastics physical test battery (i...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Vytautas Pliauga, Inga Lukonaitiene, Sigitas Kamandulis, Albertas Skurvydas, Rytis Sakalauskas, Aaron T Scanlan, Jurate Stanislovaitiene, Daniele Conte
This study investigated the effect of block periodization (BP) and traditional periodization (TP) approaches on jumping and sprinting performance in collegiate basketball players during an 8-week pre-season period. Ten collegiate male basketball players (mean±SD; age: 21.5±1.7 years; body mass: 83.5±8.9 kg; stature: 192.5±5.4 cm) from the same team were equally assigned to a training group (BP or TP). BP and TP were designed with different numbers of power sessions (BP=8; TP=16) and recovery days (BP=14; TP=8)...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Liliana C Baptista, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Raul A Martins
To establish the effect of three types of treatment - multicomponent exercise (MEX); the oral hypoglycaemic drug metformin (MET); combined therapy comprising exercise plus metformin (MEXMET) - on cardiovascular risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with comorbidities in an early stage of the disease (HbA1c < 7.5%). A sample of 284 participants was evaluated for multifactorial cardiovascular risk at baseline and at 24-month intervention according to anthropometric and hemodynamic components, lipid profile, glycaemia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Samad Esmaeilzadeh, Esther Hartman, Reza Farzizadeh, Liane B Azevedo, Hassan-Ali Kalantari, Inga Dziembowska, Alicja Kostencka, Mohammad Narimani, Akbar Abravesh
The present study aimed to explore the association between physical fitness (PF) and cognitive performance in a sample of 19-24 year old males. Two hundred and eleven young males (20.2±1.5 years) participated in the study. Cognitive functioning tasks including information processing speed and inhibitory control were measured in addition to PF and motor fitness components such as aerobic fitness, static strength, explosive strength, agility and speed. Regression analysis showed that after adjustment for potential confounders (e...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
Latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP) have been linked to several impairments of muscle function. The present study was conducted in order to examine whether a single bout of self-myofascial release using a foam roller is effective in reducing MTrP sensitivity. Fifty healthy, pain-free subjects (26.8±6 years, 21 men) with latent MTrP in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle were included in the randomized, controlled trial. One week after a familiarization session, they were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) static compression of the most sensitive MTrP using a foam roll, (2) slow dynamic foam rolling of the lateral calf and (3) placebo laser acupuncture of the most sensitive MTrP...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Takashi Sato, Koichi Okita
This study investigated whether jump training with blood flow restriction (BFR) improves jump performance compared to jump training without BFR under similar exercise intensity in healthy young humans. The participants were twenty healthy males who were assigned to either jump training with BFR (n = 10) or jump training without BFR [control (CON); n = 10] groups. All subjects completed five sets of 10 repetitions with one-minute intervals of half-squat jumps (SJ) at maximal effort, four days a week for four weeks...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
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