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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784788/effects-of-myofascial-release-in-erector-spinae-myoelectric-activity-and-lumbar-spine-kinematics-in-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
M D Arguisuelas, J F Lisón, J Doménech-Fernández, I Martínez-Hurtado, P Salvador Coloma, D Sánchez-Zuriaga
BACKGROUND: Flexion-relaxation response of the lumbar erector spinae has been previously studied after different interventions such as exercise programs or spinal manipulation, in subjects with chronic low back pain. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an isolated myofascial release protocol on erector spinae myoelectric activity and lumbar spine kinematics in chronic low back pain. METHODS: Thirty-six participants, with nonspecific chronic low back pain, were randomized to myofascial release group (n = 18) receiving four sessions of myofascial treatment, each lasting 40 min, and to control group (n = 18) receiving a sham myofascial release...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784787/screws-with-larger-core-diameter-and-lower-thread-pitch-increase-the-stability-of-locked-plating-in-osteoporotic-proximal-humeral-fractures
#2
Benedikt Schliemann, Nadine Risse, Andre Frank, Marcus Müller, Philipp Michel, Michael J Raschke, J Christoph Katthagen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the screw design as a factor for stability of the bone-implant interface in locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Aim of the present study was to analyze if locking screws with a large core diameter and a low thread pitch provide increased stability when compared to conventional locking screws. METHODS: 3-Part proximal humeral fractures were created in ten pairs of osteoporotic human cadaveric humeri and fixed with a locking plate...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784786/ultrasound-melted-polymer-sleeve-for-improved-primary-pedicle-screw-anchorage-a-novel-augmentation-technique
#3
Anna Spicher, Richard A Lindtner, Simon Zimmermann, Hannes Stofferin, Werner Schmoelz
BACKGROUND: Cement augmentation of pedicle screws to prevent screw loosening is associated with significant complications, such as cement leakage or bone necrosis. Therefore, an alternative strategy to improve pedicle screw anchorage has been recently developed: Polymer reinforcement of pedicle screws uses an in situ melted polymer sleeve in order to enhance screw anchorage. This biomechanical study evaluated the effect of polymer-reinforcement by comparing polymer-reinforced pedicle screws to non-augmented as well as cement-augmented screws under cyclic loading...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784785/mechanical-analysis-of-femoral-stress-riser-fractures
#4
Shicheng Zhou, Seungyun Jung, Jihyo Hwang
BACKGROUND: A stress-riser fracture develops when stress in an object is higher than that in the surrounding material. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate all consecutive femoral stress-riser fractures during a period of >10 years and to verify high-risk factors by using mechanical analysis. METHODS: Forty clinical fractures caused by local stress concentration in the femoral cortical bone were included. Risk factors were analyzed, and Sawbones models were used to verify their effect...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784784/effect-of-wear-acetabular-cup-inclination-angle-load-and-serum-degradation-on-the-friction-of-a-large-diameter-metal-on-metal-hip-prosthesis
#5
Vesa Saikko
BACKGROUND: The large-scale clinical problem caused by unacceptable tribological behaviour of certain large diameter metal-on-metal prosthetic hips has directed attention to adverse condition testing. High metal-on-metal wear is connected with adverse reaction to metal debris. Friction is important because high friction may be associated with high wear, risk the fixation of the cup, and cause detrimental heating of periprosthetic tissues. METHODS: A friction measurement system was added to a multidirectional, established hip joint wear simulator, and its functionality was evaluated...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771615/effect-of-humeral-tray-placement-on-impingement-free-range-of-motion-and-muscle-moment-arms-in-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#6
Jonathan Glenday, Andreas Kontaxis, Stephen Roche, Sudesh Sivarasu
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that onlay humeral tray placement in reverse shoulder arthroplasty can affect impingement and muscle functionality. This study investigates biomechanical changes to the reversed shoulder using a variety of tray positional configurations. METHODS: The reconstructed scapula and humerus from 12 CT scans were used to customise a 3D biomechanical model of the shoulder. Each model underwent virtual RSA surgery using a commercially available prosthesis that was reconstructed from an explant...
February 5, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759406/kinematic-and-kinetic-differences-between-military-patients-with-patellar-tendinopathy-and-asymptomatic-controls-during-single-leg-squats
#7
Robert M Barker-Davies, Andrew Roberts, James Watson, Polly Baker, Alexander N Bennett, Daniel T P Fong, Patrick Wheeler, Mark P Lewis
BACKGROUND: Knee valgus alignment has been associated with lower-limb musculoskeletal injury. This case-control study aims to: assess biomechanical differences between patients with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. METHODS: 43 military participants (21 cases, 22 controls) were recorded using 3D-motion capture performing progressively demanding, small knee bend, single leg and single leg decline squats. Planned a priori analysis of peak: hip adduction, knee flexion, pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity and trunk flexion was conducted using MANOVA...
February 4, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738222/biomechanical-testing-of-different-posterior-fusion-devices-on-lumbar-spinal-range-of-motion
#8
Frank Hartmann, Thomas Nusselt, Gerrit Maier, Pol Maria Rommens, Erol Gercek
BACKGROUND: Recent minimal-invasive posterior fusion devices are supposed to provide stability and obtain fusion in combination with interbody cages in the instrumented segment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the primary stability of two minimal-invasive posterior prototypes compared to an established spinous process plate and standard pedicle screw instrumentation. METHODS: Seven fresh frozen human cadaver lumbar spines (L2-L5) were tested in a spinal testing device with a moment of 7...
February 1, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721823/do-the-center-of-mass-strategies-change-with-restricted-vision-during-the-sit-to-stand-task
#9
Mozhgan Faraji Aylar, Valdeci Carlos Dionisio, AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the visual sensory and center-of-mass characteristics during the sit-to-stand task is not well documented. Do the center of mass strategies change with restricted vision during the sit-to-stand task? METHODS: The participants in this study were fifteen girls with congenital blindness (age (94.6 (5.6) months), mass (25.6 (2.0) kg), and height (1.3 (0.0) m)) and 30 healthy girls with no visual impairment who were divided randomly into two groups...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721824/normative-parameters-and-anthropometric-variability-of-lumbar-muscle-stiffness-using-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography
#10
Shane L Koppenhaver, Dominique Scutella, Brooke A Sorrell, Joshua Yahalom, Cesar Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, John D Childs, Scott W Shaffer, Minoru Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Quantifying stiffness of the lumbar spine musculature using shear-wave elastography (SWE) maybe beneficial in the diagnosis and treatment of non-specific low back pain (LBP). The primary purpose of this study was to establish normative parameter and variance estimates of lumbar spine muscle stiffness at rest and during submaximal contraction levels using SWE in healthy individuals. A second aim was to determine the relationship between lumbar spine muscle stiffness and a variety of demographic, anthropometric, and medical history variables...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711737/non-damaging-stretching-combined-with-sodium-pyruvate-supplement-accelerate-migration-of-fibroblasts-and-myoblasts-during-gap-closure
#11
Anat Marom, Yulia Berkovitch, Samer Toume, Martha B Alvarez-Elizondo, Daphne Weihs
BACKGROUND: Sustained, low- and mid-level (3-6%), radial stretching combined with varying concentrations of sodium pyruvate (NaPy) supplement increase the migration rate during microscale gap closure following an in vitro injury; NaPy is a physiological supplement often used in cell-culture media. Recently we showed that low-level tensile strains accelerate in vitro kinematics during en masse cell migration; topically applied mechanical deformations also accelerate in vivo healing in larger wounds...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711736/influence-of-alarming-auditory-cues-on-viscoelastic-stiffness-of-skeletal-muscles-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Tõnu Rätsep, Toomas Asser
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease can show brief normalization of motor activity in response to intense external stimuli - a phenomenon known as paradoxical kinesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of alarming auditory signals on the level of viscoelastic stiffness of skeletal muscles as an indicator of parkinsonian rigidity. METHODS: Myotonometry was used to determine the changes of viscoelastic stiffness of skeletal muscles in ten patients in an advanced stage of Parkinson's disease, treated with deep brain stimulation, and ten healthy controls...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710797/determining-the-change-in-length-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-during-knee-motion-a-three-dimensional-optoelectronic-analysis
#13
Thomas Neri, Rodolphe Testa, Loic Laurendon, Margaux Dehon, Sven Putnis, Samuel Grasso, David A Parker, Frederic Farizon, Remi Philippot
BACKGROUND: The variation of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) length during knee motion is still unclear, and the knee position in which a reconstruction graft should be tensioned remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of the ALL length during knee motion using a three-dimensional optoelectronic system. METHODS: Kinematic analyses of 20 cadaveric knees were performed using a Motion Analysis® system. The variability of the measurements made during the five acquisition cycles was studied...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703691/novel-adhesives-for-sternal-fixation-and-stabilization-a-biomechanical-analysis
#14
Cina Mehrvar, Paul Kuzyk, Gideon Cohen, Oleg Safir, Paul Zalzal, Adel Alhalawani, Mark R Towler, Marcello Papini
BACKGROUND: Cerclage wires remain the current standard of care following median sternotomy, despite significant complications including dehiscence and infection. This study uses a human cadaveric model to investigate the use of glass polyalkenoate cements formulated from two glasses, A (mole fraction: SiO2 :0.48, ZnO:0.36, CaO:0.12, SrO:0.04) and B (mole fraction: SiO2 :0.48, ZnO:0.355, CaO:0.06, SrO:0.08, P2 O5 :0.02, Ta2 O5 :0.005), to improve wired sternal fixation. METHODS: Median sternotomies were performed on fifteen cadaveric sterna...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710796/biomechanical-analysis-of-metacarpophalangeal-joint-arthroplasty-with-metal-polyethylene-implant-an-in-vitro-study
#15
D Melo, A Completo, A Nascimento, F Fonseca
BACKGROUND: The most common implant options for the metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty include silicone, pyrocarbon and metal-polyethylene. A systematic review of outcomes of silicone and pyrocarbon implants was conducted; however, a similar exercise for metal-polyethylene implants revealed a scarcity of published results and lack of long-term follow-up studies. The aim of the present work is to test the hypothesis that the magnitude of metacarpophalangeal joint cyclic loads generates stress and strain behaviour, which leads to long-term reduced risk of metal-polyethylene component loosening...
January 22, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690409/variability-of-the-helical-axis-during-active-cervical-movements-in-people-with-chronic-neck-pain
#16
Feras Alsultan, Corrado Cescon, Alessandro Marco De Nunzio, Marco Barbero, Nicola R Heneghan, Alison Rushton, Deborah Falla
BACKGROUND: Recent work described parameters of the helical axis in asymptomatic people with potential for investigating kinematic changes in the cervical region. This approach could provide novel information on movement variability in people with neck pain, however this has never been investigated. This study aimed to investigate movement variability during active neck movements performed at different speeds in people with and without chronic neck pain. METHODS: This observational case-control study examined 18 participants with chronic neck pain of either idiopathic or traumatic origin and 18 gender-matched asymptomatic participants...
January 22, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703692/tibiofemoral-kinematics-in-the-transverse-and-frontal-planes-influence-the-location-and-magnitude-of-peak-patella-cartilage-stress-an-investigation-of-runners-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#17
Tzu-Chieh Liao, Christopher M Powers
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the location and magnitude of peak patella cartilage stress varies among runners with and without patellofemoral pain. To determine whether tibiofemoral kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes predict peak lateral and medial patella cartilage stress. METHODS: Twelve recreational runners with patellofemoral pain and 10 pain-free controls participated. Peak patella cartilage stress was quantified using finite element models that incorporated subject-specific kinematic and kinetic data obtained during running...
January 17, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660055/knee-extensor-torque-and-bmi-differently-relate-to-sit-to-stand-strategies-in-obesity
#18
Lance M Bollinger, Michelle C Walaszek, Rebekah F Seay, Amanda L Ransom
BACKGROUND: Obesity alters whole body kinematics during activities of daily living such as sit-to-stand (STS), but the relative contributions of excess body mass and decreased relative strength are unknown. METHODS: Three-dimensional motion analysis data was collected on 18 obese subjects performing sit-to-stand (chair height: 52 cm). Isometric knee extensor strength was measured at 900 knee flexion. Forward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the association between the independent variables BMI and the knee extensor torque with the dependent variables: foot position and trunk kinematics...
January 12, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658156/distal-fibula-osteotomies-improve-tibiotalar-joint-compression-a-biomechanical-study-in-a-cadaveric-model
#19
Christopher B Arena, Evan P Roush, Allen R Kunselman, Paul J Juliano, Umur Aydogan, Gregory S Lewis
BACKGROUND: Successful tibiotalar joint fusion relies on adequate compression. Compression following joint preparation may be affected by the extent to which the fibula holds the joint out to anatomical length. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various distal fibula osteotomies on tibiotalar joint compression. METHODS: Eight adult cadaveric lower extremity specimens with an intact ankle joint and syndesmotic complex were evaluated. The ankle joint cartilage was denuded to subchondral bone...
January 9, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665037/motion-response-of-a-polycrystalline-diamond-adaptive-axis-of-rotation-cervical-total-disc-arthroplasty
#20
Robert M Havey, Saeed Khayatzadeh, Leonard I Voronov, Kenneth R Blank, Gerard Carandang, David P Harding, Avinash G Patwardhan
BACKGROUND: Cervical fusion is associated with adjacent segment degeneration. Cervical disc arthroplasty is considered an alternative to reduce risk of adjacent segment disease. Kinematics after arthroplasty should closely replicate healthy in vivo kinematics to reduce adjacent segment stresses. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinematics of a polycrystalline diamond cervical disc prosthesis. METHODS: Nine cadaveric C3-T1 spines were tested intact and after one (C5-C6) and two level (C5-C7) arthroplasty (Triadyme-C, Dymicron Inc...
January 4, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
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