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Seminars in Ophthalmology

Kerr Brogan, David Lockington, Kanna Ramaesh
INTRODUCTION: Temporal headache often results in an Ophthalmology referral to rule out giant cell arteritis (GCA). When clinical suspicion of GCA is low, alternative diagnoses should be considered. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) commonly causes a temporal headache. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients referred with a temporal headache attending the Friday emergency ophthalmology clinic from February to July 2017 were assessed for GCA using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria and TMD using a validated screening questionnaire...
February 14, 2019: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Roberto Secondi, Juan Carlos Sánchez España, Johnny Castellar Cerpa, Nuria Ibáñez Flores
Subconjunctival prolapse of orbital fat is an uncommon clinical entity in which intraconal orbital fat herniates into the subconjunctival space. Its diagnosis is mainly clinical in character and usually based on palpation, patient clinical history, and lesion features along with a slit lamp examination. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. Although frequently asymptomatic, clinical features may simulate conditions such as a prolapsed lacrimal gland, orbital lymphoma or dermolipoma and may worsen over time. In such cases, surgical removal or repositioning of the herniated fat may be necessary...
February 9, 2019: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuichi Hori
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the features of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are stronger independent factors for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) compared to the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the number of its individual components. METHODS: We studied a cross-sectional total of 132 patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine patients had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and 93 patients had PDR. Pulse oximetry was conducted, and the patients' mean oxygen saturation (mean SpO2%) and 4% oxygen desaturation index (4% ODI times/hour) were evaluated...
January 23, 2019: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Renato Ambrósio
Corneal ectasia has emerged as a serious complication of laser vision correction (LVC) procedures since the first report by Seiler in 1998. Thereby, its prevention has become a major concern for refractive surgeons. Ectasia occurs due to biomechanical decompensation of the stroma, which may be related to a severe impact on corneal structure (i.e., attempted treatment for high myopia) or the altered biomechanical properties preoperatively. The current understanding is that a combination from those factors determines stability or ectasia progression after LVC...
January 21, 2019: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Abuzer Gunduz, Ercan Ozsoy, Pamuk Betul Ulucan
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features of patients with Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) and evaluate the outcomes of surgical approaches based on the characteristics of each patient. METHODS: The records of 38 Caucasian subjects with DRS were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified as type I, II, or III based on the Huber Classification. Ten patients underwent unilateral medial rectus (MR) recession due to abnormal head posture (AHP) and/or esotropia...
December 5, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Alejandra Consejo, Tomasz Melcer, Jos J Rozema
New diagnostic and imaging techniques generate such an incredible amount of data that it is often a challenge to extract all information that could be possibly useful in clinical practice. Machine Learning techniques emerged as an objective tool to assist practitioners to diagnose certain conditions and take clinical decisions. In particular, Machine Learning techniques have repeatedly shown their usefulness for ophthalmologists. The possible applications of this technology go much further than been used as diagnostic tool, as it may also be used to grade the severity of a pathology, perform early disease detection, or predict the evolution of a condition...
November 30, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Vivek Pravin Dave, Rajeev R Pappuru, Avinash Pathengay, Mudit Tyagi, Raja Narayanan, Subhadra Jalali
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to report the prognostic factors and outcomes of vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil tamponade in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) secondary to acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: This retrospective, non-randomized, interventional comparative study included 38 eyes of 38 patients. All cases underwent PPV with silicone oil tamponade. The main outcome measure was improvement of final visual acuity relative to the presenting visual acuity and factors affecting the same Group A included eyes with favorable vision of 20/400 or better and Group B included the others...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Feyza Gediz, Bora Yüksel, Tuncay Küsbeci, Okan Akmaz, Ömer Kartı
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of donor and recipient factors on graft survival in penetrating keratoplasty (PK). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 365 eyes that underwent PK using corneas from 231 donors between June 2010 and June 2015. Patients were divided into three groups (group 1: primary endothelial diseases; group 2: iatrogenic endothelial disorders; and group 3: other pathologies with a healthy endothelium) according to PK indications...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Padmaja Kumari Rani, Reena C Prajapati
PURPOSE: To study the role of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Angiography (OCTA) in detecting retinal vascular and macular abnormalities as compared to Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) in subjects with Asteroid hyalosis (AH). METHODS: In a prospective study, patients with AH underwent OCTA and FFA. AH graded as Grade 1 in 8 (optic disc, second order vessels visible), Grade 2 in 4 (optic disc, first-order vessels visible), Grade 3 in 11 (hazy view of optic disc) and Grade 4 (no view of fundus) in 2 eyes...
November 26, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Kyung Tae Kang, Seung Pil Bang, Yu Cheol Kim
PURPOSE: To observe course of subretinal proliferation (SRP) after scleral buckling (SB) for the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: Fundus photographs and serial optical coherence tomographies (OCTs) were retrospectively analyzed in 10 cases from 9 patients. RESULTS: Preoperative SRP locations were beneath the retina in six cases, intraretinal in one, and between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in one. One demonstrated SRP heterogeneity...
November 14, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Aparna Rao, Hrishikesh Kaza, Debananda Padhy, Gopinath Das, Sarada Sarangi
PURPOSE: To characterize anatomical dimensions of a disc notch using novel methods using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). PARTICIPANTS: All age- and severity-matched glaucoma patients with disc notch (defined as complete loss of neural rim with no residual rim between disc and cup) seen from 2014 to 2015 who underwent enhanced depth imaging with SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT version 6.5, Carl Zeiss, USA) were included for this retrospective observational study...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Allen Popović-Beganović, Jasmin Zvorničanin, Vera Vrbljanac, Edita Zvorničanin
In this study we investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and visual impairment among primary school children in the urban population of Brčko District, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A cross-sectional study included 40 randomly selected classes of children aged 7-16 years attending five different primary schools in Brčko District. The examination included visual acuity testing, ocular motility evaluation, retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia, examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media and fundus...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Maja Bohac, Mateja Koncarevic, Adi Pasalic, Alma Biscevic, Maja Merlak, Nikica Gabric, Sudi Patel
PURPOSE: To report the incidence of postoperative ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: A retrospective case review of 30,167 eyes (16,732 patients) was conducted following LASIK between August 2007 and August 2015. The follow-up was between 2 and 8 years. Tomography was performed after 2 years postop. After identifying cases of ectasia, the charts of these patients were examined to identify any common factors that may have predisposed them to develop ectasia...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jiwon Baek, Kee-Sun Tae, Anna Lee, Man Soo Kim, Eun Chul Kim
PURPOSE: To compare effective lens position (ELP) after phacoemulsification between micro-incision (2.25 mm) and small-incision (2.75 mm) groups. METHODS: Sixty-seven eyes with age-related cataracts were randomly divided into two groups based on the width of the corneal incision (micro-incision [n = 33] and small-incision groups [n = 34]). Participants underwent clear corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Uncorrected visual acuity, refractive error, corneal astigmatism, and ELP were measured preoperatively and at 2 months postoperatively...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Didar Ucar, Nazım Yıldız, Mustafa Hepokur, Fatih Baltu, Elvin Guliyev, Murat Emul, Ahmet Murat Sarıcı
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the ongoing neurotrophic effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) might be detected in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: This study was conducted using a prospective design. The RNFL thickness alterations of 18 psychiatric patients undergoing ECT were assessed using OCT. The results were compared with the RNFL thicknesses of 18 age and gender-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: In the left eye, the average RNFL (p = 0...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Gena M Damento, Nelson S Winkler, David O Hodge, Sunil S Khanna, Cheryl L Khanna
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of a glaucoma team care model on resource utilization and efficiency in glaucoma management. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 358 patients diagnosed and treated for glaucoma. Analysis included number of patient visits, diagnostic tests, and glaucoma procedures performed before (2005-2007) and after (2008-2010) implementation of a team care model in 2008. Patients not involved in the model served as controls. RESULTS: Number of patient visits did not change significantly after model implementation (p > ...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Snježana Kaštelan, Antonela Gverović-Antunica, Goran Pelčić, Marta Gotovac, Irena Marković, Boris Kasun
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent endocrinedisease in developed countries. In people with diabetes in addition to visionloss caused by diabetic retinopathy transient visual disturbances may occurfrequently caused by refractive changes. These changes in refraction are associated with variations in blood glucose levelsbut the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. A systematic reviewwith a comprehensive literature search was performed in order to clarify the underlyingmechanisms regarding the connection of glycaemic control and refractive shift...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jae Hui Kim, Young Suk Chang, Jong Woo Kim, Chul Gu Kim, Dong Won Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of early recurrent hemorrhage in submacular hemorrhage secondary to type 3 neovascularization or retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and its influence on visual prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective study included 32 eyes with submacular hemorrhage secondary to type 3 neovascularization or RAP that underwent anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The eyes exhibiting an increase in the extent of hemorrhage within 6 months after hemorrhage development were included in the early recurrent hemorrhage group, and the remaining eyes were included in the non-early recurrent hemorrhage group...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Kohta Fujiwara, Miho Yasuda, Jun Hata, Yuji Oshima, Sawako Hashimoto, Takeshi Yoshitomi, Yutaka Kiyohara, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Koh-Hei Sonoda
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a general Japanese population. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 with subjects from the Hisayama Study. Of the 3,648 residents in Hisayama, Japan, 2,663 who were ≥ 50 years old were enrolled in this study. The characteristics of PCV were determined by fundus examination or based on indocyanine green and fluorescein angiographic findings...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Onsiri Thanathanee, Rawipaparas Pulnitiporn, Orapin Anutarapongpan, Olan Suwan-Apichon, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo
PURPOSE: To compare the bacterial cultures of the lower eyelid margins and lower fornices between ocular irrigations with and without eyelid margin cleaning before intraocular surgery. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out that included 102 eyes from 51 patients undergoing intraocular surgery between December 2016 and April 2017. In each patient, the surgical eye (control group) only received ocular irrigation and the opposite eye (study group) received ocular irrigation with eyelid margin cleaning...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
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