Michael Sørensen, Mette Munk Lauridsen, Sara Montagnese
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency with symptoms ranging from slight cognitive changes detectable only by neuropsychiatric testing to coma. Up to 60% of patients with cirrhosis have mild forms of HE and 35% will at some point experience overt HE. Even in its milder forms, HE impacts the patient's daily routines, self-sufficiency, quality of life, and, thereby, socio-economic status. HE is a condition affecting the whole household including formal and informal caregivers, who carry a heavy burden...
July 16, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Benxing Yao, Di Xu, Qing Wang, Lin Liu, Ziyun Hu, Wenya Liu, Qi Zheng, Huihui Meng, Ran Xiao, Qian Xu, Yudie Hu, Junsong Wang
Ischemic stroke is the most important cause of disability and death worldwide, but current treatments remain limited. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including the herb pair of Zhiqiao-Danggui (ZD) offers a multifaceted treatment approach through promoting blood circulation, yet its specific anti-ischemic mechanism remains unclear. This study used the photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) mouse model and the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cell model to explore the therapeutic effect of ZD on ischemic stroke...
July 13, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Smita Jain, Ankita Murmu, Saraswati Patel
Betanin, a natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has shown promise in mitigating Alzheimer's disease (AD) by reducing amyloid plaque production. Employing network pharmacology, this study aimed to elucidate betanin's therapeutic mechanism in AD treatment. Through integrated analyses utilizing SwissTargetPrediction, STITCH, BindingDB, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and OMIM databases, potential protein targets of betanin in AD were predicted. Gene ontology analysis facilitated the identification of 49 putative AD targets...
July 12, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yan Wang, Yu-Feng Xue, Yi-Fan Xu, Ming-Wei Wang, Jing Guan, Xi Chen
Increasing evidences implicate vital role of neuronal damage in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is the main frame component of neurons and is closely related to axonal radial growth and neuronal structural stability. We hypothesized that NfL as a biomarker of axonal injury may contribute to early diagnosis of HE. This study recruited 101 patients with liver cirrhosis, 10 healthy individuals, and 7 patients with Parkinson's disease. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) was diagnosed using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score...
July 12, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zhuoying Yu, Jing Yang, Ye Jiang, Min Wei, Yanhan Lyu, Dongsheng Yang, Shixiong Shen, Yongzheng Han, Min Li
In this paper we investigated lipid and metabolite changes in diabetic neuropathy, using untargeted lipidomics and metabolomics analyses of the spinal cords from streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.170 metabolites and 45 lipids were dysregulated in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) phase. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed perturbations in starch and sucrose, tryptophan, pyrimidine, cysteine and methionine, thiamine, tyrosine, and nucleotides. The disturbance of tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, triacylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism indicated that pathological mechanisms in the PDN involved energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and neural reparative regeneration...
July 9, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ya-Zhi Bai, Yongming Zhang, Shuang-Qing Zhang
Cognitive deficits associated with oxidative stress and the dysfunction of the central nervous system are present in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Selenium (Se), an essential microelement, exhibits cognition-associated functions through selenoproteins mainly owing to its antioxidant property. Due to the disproportionate distribution of Se in the soil, the amount of Se varies greatly in various foods, resulting in a large proportion of people with Se deficiency worldwide...
July 4, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yue Qi, Qilun Zhou, Yongping Zhang, Jinlan Deng, Ruonan Li, Xiaofeng Zhang
The growing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and depression is a global public health issue. Alpiniae oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) is a kind of medicinal and edible plant which be found with anti-diabetic property, and could improve depression-like symptoms. This study aimed to screen active targets and potential mechanisms of AOF in treating DM with depression. Injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks were used to conduct the DM with depression mice model...
July 2, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ramin Mahdipour, Vahid Ebrahimi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Seyed HamidReza Rastegar-Moghaddam, Amir Mohammad Malvandi, Abbas Mohammadipour
Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 -NPs) can be found in many products, such as composites, paints, ceramics, consumer products, and food additives. We recently demonstrated that via breastfeeding, SiO2 -NPs transfer to the offspring's brain, interfering negatively with hippocampus development. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against the adverse effects of SiO2 -NPs. After delivery, animals were administered 25 mg/kg SiO2 -NPs with/without GSE (300 mg/kg) for 20 days (from 2nd to 21st days post-delivery) by gavage...
June 20, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Huma Ikram, Rumaisa Zakir, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Oxidative stress from generation of increased reactive oxygen species or has been reported to play an important role in dementia. Oxidative stress due to free radicals of oxygen or reactive oxygen species could be precipitating factors in the etiology of dementia. Apomorphine has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. To monitor memory enhancing and neuroprotective effects of apomorphine, we determined the antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in brain and plasma, following repetitive administration of apomorphine in rat model of dementia...
June 19, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Farnoosh Usefi, Auob Rustamzadeh, Zahra Ghobadi, Nader Sadigh, Nafiseh Mohebi, Armin Ariaei, Fatemeh Moradi
microRNAs are candidate diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to compare Silymarin with Rosuvastatin and placebo on total-Tau protein level and expression levels of microRNAs and TGF-β and COX-2 in Alzheimer's patients with secondary dyslipidemia. 36 mild AD patients with dyslipidemia were divided into three groups of 12. The first group received silymarin (140mg), the second group received placebo (140mg), and the third group recieved Rosuvastatin (10mg). Tablets were administered three times a day for Six months...
June 19, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Walaa G Abdelhamid, Noha A Mowaad, Gihan F Asaad, Asmaa F Galal, Sarah S Mohammed, Olfat E Mostafa, Doaa R Sadek, Lobna A Elkhateb
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium compound derived from glutamic acid. Excessive daily ingestion of MSG leads to elevated amounts of glutamic acid in the bloodstream, which can be detrimental to brain structures. Camellia sinensis, often known as green tea (GT), is a rich source of essential hexogen antioxidants that are necessary for the body. Thirty-two adult male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 8). Group 1 served as a control -ve group. Group 2 was given GT (1.5 ml/rat/day)...
June 13, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Timothy D Foley, Wen C Huang, Emily A Petsche, Emily R Fleming, James C Hornickle
The nature of brain redox metabolism in health, aging, and disease remains to be fully established. Reversible oxidations, to disulfide bonds, of closely spaced (vicinal) protein thiols underlie the catalytic maintenance of redox homeostasis by redoxin enzymes, including thioredoxin peroxidases (peroxiredoxins), and have been implicated in redox buffering and regulation. We propose that non-peroxidase proteins containing vicinal thiols that are responsive to physiological redox perturbations may serve as intrinsic probes of brain redox metabolism...
June 7, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
João Paulo Fabi
The aging of populations is a global phenomenon that follows a possible increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's diseases are some neurodegenerative disorders that aging could initiate or aggravate. Recent research has indicated that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis can trigger metabolism and brain functioning, contributing to the etiopathogenesis of those neurodegenerative diseases. The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites show significant functions in various aspects, such as the immune system modulation (development and maturation), the maintenance of the intestinal barrier integrity, the modulation of neuromuscular functions in the intestine, and the facilitation of essential metabolic processes for both the microbiota and humans...
June 7, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Khagesh Ram, Kuldeep Kumar, Dhandeep Singh, Dimple Chopra, Vasudevan Mani, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
This study examines the effectiveness of lupeol and metformin in a mouse model of dementia generated by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (i.c.v., STZ). Dementia was induced in Swiss mice with the i.c.v. administration of STZ at a dosage of 3 mg/kg on the first and third day. The assessment of dementia involved an examination of the Morris Water Maze (MWM) performance, as well as a number of biochemical and histological studies. STZ treatment resulted in significant decrease in MWM performance; various biochemical alterations (increase in brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), nitrite/nitrate, and reduction in nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf-2), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels) and neuroinflammation [increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity & neutrophil infiltration]...
June 6, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lei Chen, Fengju Duan, Fangfang Ge, Lu Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Ying Li, Qing Zhu, Qiong Zhou, Hong Lin
Inhibitor of apoptosis stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) is related to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders by affecting the oxidative stress and survival of neurons. However, whether iASPP has a role in Parkinson disease (PD) remains to be determined. This work explored the potential regulatory effect of iASPP in an in vitro model of PD based on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ )-evoked neurotoxicity of dopaminergic neurons in culture. MN9D neurons were treated with MPP+ at 200 µM in the culture media for 24 h to induce neurotoxicity...
June 6, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zongchi Liu, Zhaohui Chai, Fan Wu, Luyuan Zhang, Xiaoyi Wang, Zihan Xu, Yuxiang Weng, Jiangbiao Gong, Jian Shen, Renya Zhan, Yu Zhu
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious hemorrhagic event with high mortality and morbidity. Multiple injurious events produced by SAH can lead to a series of pathophysiologic processes in the hypothalamus that can severely impact patients' life. These pathophysiologic processes usually result in physiologic derangements and dysfunction of the brain and multiple organs. This dysfunction involved multiple dimensions of the genome and metabolome. In our study, we induced the SAH model in rats to obtain hypothalamic tissue and serum...
June 6, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Jia Yee Lee, Mervyn Chen Xi Lim, Rhun Yian Koh, Min Tze Tsen, Soi Moi Chye
Neurodegeneration, known as the progressive loss of neurons in terms of their structure and function, is the principal pathophysiological change found in the majority of brain-related disorders. Ageing has been considered the most well-established risk factor in most common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is currently no effective treatment or cure for these diseases; the approved therapeutic options to date are only for palliative care. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases are closely intertwined; reversing the aspects of brain ageing could theoretically mitigate age-related neurodegeneration...
June 6, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Juliana Cordovil Cotrin, Rafael Mina Piergiorge, Andressa Pereira Gonçalves, João Santos Pereira, Alexandra Lehmkuhl Gerber, Ana Paula de Campos Guimarães, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Cíntia Barros Santos-Rebouças
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease globally, with a fast-growing prevalence. The etiology of PD exhibits a multifactorial complex nature and remains challenging. Herein, we described clinical, molecular, and integrative bioinformatics findings from a Brazilian female affected by Early-Onset PD (EOPD) harboring a recurrent homozygous pathogenic deletion in the parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene (PRKN; NM_004562.3:c.155delA; p.Asn52Metfs*29; rs754809877), along with a novel heterozygous variant in the synaptojanin 1 gene (SYNJ1; NM_003895...
June 5, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zhi He, Bo-Kai Yin, Ke Wang, Bo Zhao, Yue Chen, Zi-Cheng Li, Jing Chen
Apoptosis is the crucial pathological mechanism following cerebral ischemic injury. Our previous studies demonstrated that clonidine, one agonist of alpha2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR), could attenuate cerebral ischemic injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). However, it's unclear whether clonidine exerts neuroprotective effects by regulating neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we elucidated whether clonidine can exert anti-apoptotic effects in cerebral ischemic injury, and further explored the possible mechanisms...
June 4, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
Diane Rizkallah, Rose T Daher, Laith Haddad, Pascale E Karam
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome is an extremely rare disorder of urea cycle, with few patients reported worldwide. Despite hyperammonemia control, the long-term outcome remains poor with progressive neurological deterioration. We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular features of two Lebanese siblings diagnosed with this disorder and followed for 8 and 15 years, respectively. Variable clinical manifestations and neurological outcome were observed. The patient with earlier onset of symptoms had a severe neurological deterioration while the other developed a milder form of the disease at an older age...
June 4, 2024: Metabolic Brain Disease
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