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Metabolic Brain Disease

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762138/antidepressive-effects-of-kaempferol-mediated-by-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-up-regulation-of-akt-%C3%AE-catenin-cascade
#1
Wenqi Gao, Wei Wang, Yan Peng, Zhifang Deng
Kaempferol (KFL), the major constituent of various fruits and vegetables, could attenuate oxidaitve stress and inflammation. The aims of the present study were to explore the ameliorative abilities of KFL on the depressive-like behaviors in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model, and to determine the potential mechanisms on oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and AKT/β-catenin signaling pathway. Three behavioral tests, sucrose preference test (SPT), social interaction test (SIT), and tail suspension test (TST), were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of KFL in CSDS mice...
February 14, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758707/evidence-for-an-association-of-serum-melatonin-concentrations-with-recognition-and-circadian-preferences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Cigdem Sahbaz, Omer Faruk Özer, Ayse Kurtulmus, Ismet Kırpınar, Fikrettin Sahin, Sinan Guloksuz
Melatonin, a neuro-differentiation factor, may play a role in the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment and decreased melatonin are reported in schizophrenia; however, the relationship between them remains unclear. We hypothesised that patients with schizophrenia would have lower concentrations of circulating melatonin than healthy controls and that melatonin levels would be associated with cognitive impairment. This study included 47 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls (HC)...
February 13, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758706/myalgic-encephalomyelitis-or-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-how-could-the-illness-develop
#3
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Maes, Michael Berk, Basant K Puri
A model of the development and progression of chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis), the aetiology of which is currently unknown, is put forward, starting with a consideration of the post-infection role of damage-associated molecular patterns and the development of chronic inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress in genetically predisposed individuals. The consequences are detailed, including the role of increased intestinal permeability and the translocation of commensal antigens into the circulation, and the development of dysautonomia, neuroinflammation, and neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities...
February 13, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747360/mutation-spectrum-of-pah-gene-in-phenylketonuria-patients-in-northwest-china-identification-of-twenty-novel-variants
#4
Yousheng Yan, Chuan Zhang, Xiaohua Jin, Qinhua Zhang, Lei Zheng, Xuan Feng, Shengju Hao, Huafang Gao, Xu Ma
This study was performed to analyze the mutational spectrum of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in Northwest China, to identify mutational hot spots, and to determine the correlation between variants and clinical phenotypes of PKU. A large cohort of 475 PKU families in Northwest China was enrolled to analyze PAH gene variants using Sanger sequencing, Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and gap-PCR. Bioinformatics software was used to predict the pathogenicity of novel variants and analyze the correlations between PAH gene variants and phenotypes of PKU patients...
February 12, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746596/protective-effects-of-ethyl-gallate-on-h-2-o-2-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-pc12-cells
#5
Lan Chen, Xuewei Wu, Tao Shen, Xiaoning Wang, Shuqi Wang, Jinxia Wang, Dongmei Ren
Oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in neuronal injury. Ethyl gallate (EG) is the ethyl ester of gallic acid which has been acknowledged as an antioxidant. We previously demonstrated that EG effectively inhibited H2 O2 -induced cytotoxicity and decreased the ROS levels in PC12 cells, while the relevant mechanisms of action of this compound remain largely uncharacterized. The present study was carried out in an attempt to clarify the underlying mechanisms of EG against H2 O2 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells...
February 12, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729385/evaluation-of-some-neuropharmacological-effects-of-caladium-bicolor-aiton-araceae-leaf-extracts-in-mice
#6
Abigail M Akhigbemen, Raymond I Ozolua, Enitome E Bafor, Emmanuel O Okwuofu
Caladium bicolor Aiton (Araceae) is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of boils, wound ulcers and convulsion. This study investigated the effects of the leaf extracts on some neuropharmacological parameters. The leaves were collected, dried, powdered and then extracted by maceration in methanol to yield the whole extract (WE). Extraction was also done using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus to obtain n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) extracts. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done using the whole extract...
February 7, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712135/a-possible-biomarker-of-neurocytolysis-in-infantile-gangliosidoses-aspartate-transaminase
#7
Mustafa Kılıç, Çiğdem Seher Kasapkara, Sebile Kılavuz, Neslihan Önenli Mungan, Gürsel Biberoğlu
Gangliosidoses (GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis) are rare, autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids. We aimed to investigate clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic spectrum of Turkish patients with infantile gangliosidoses and examined the potential role of serum aspartate transaminase levels as a biomarker. We confirmed the diagnosis of GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis based on clinical findings with specific enzyme and/or molecular analyses...
February 2, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701417/evaluation-of-neuroglobin-and-cytoglobin-expression-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-during-prepubescence
#8
Rodrigo Rodrigues da Conceição, Janaina Sena de Souza, Kelen Carneiro de Oliveira, Renata Marino Romano, Rui Monteiro de Barros Maciel, Magnus Régios Dias-da-Silva, Marco Aurélio Romano, Maria Izabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are clusters of silver atoms with diameters that range from 1 to 100 nm. Due to the various shapes and large surface areas, AgNPs have been employed in the food and textile industries and medical fields. Therefore, because of the widespread use of these compounds, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AgNP exposure on the gene and protein expression levels of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Cytoglobin (Cygb), in the rat cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Post-natal day (PND) 21 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups...
January 30, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652256/pretreatment-with-crocin-along-with-treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-motor-and-memory-deficits-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats-by-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-mechanisms
#9
Somayeh Shahidani, Ziba Rajaei, Hojjatallah Alaei
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are preceded by non-motorized symptoms including memory deficits. Treatment with dopamine replacement medications, such as L-DOPA only control motor symptoms and does not meet the clinical challenges of the disease, such as dyskinesia, non-motor symptoms, and neuroprotection. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective potential of crocin and physical exercise in an animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats ran on a horizontal treadmill and/or pretreated with crocin at a dose of 100 mg/kg...
January 16, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652255/astrocyte-ablation-induced-by-la-aminoadipate-l-aaa-potentiates-remyelination-in-a-cuprizone-demyelinating-mouse-model
#10
Soheila Madadi, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Fatemeh Tahmasebi, Keywan Mortezaee, Maryam Khanehzad, Fatemeh Beigi Boroujeni, Golaleh Noorzehi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Chronic demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is accompanied by an increase in the number of reactive astrocytes and astrogliosis. There are controversial issues regarding astrocytes and their roles in demyelinating diseases in particular for multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate possible roles for pharmacologic astrocyte ablation strategy using La-aminoadipate (L-AAA) on remyelination in a cuprizone model of demyelination. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0.2% cuprizone for 12 weeks followed by 2-week administration of L-AAA through a cannula inserted 1 mm above the corpus callosum...
January 16, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649667/increases-in-total-cholesterol-and-low-density-lipoprotein-associated-with-decreased-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-elderly-adults
#11
Con Stough, Andrew Pipingas, David Camfield, Karen Nolidin, Karen Savage, Saurenne Deleuil, Andrew Scholey
The current study examined associations between blood lipid profiles and cognitive functioning using a healthy non-demented elderly sample. The sample comprised 196 healthy volunteers (male; 86: female 110) aged 60-75 years from the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI) study cohort. Serum total cholesterol (T-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TGL) were collected, and participants completed the Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB)...
January 16, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644018/neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-and-modafinil-on-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#12
Yusef Abbasi, Ronak Shabani, Kazem Mousavizadeh, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
Ethanol is known as an effective agent against cerebral lesions after ischemia. Modafinil is a stimulant of the central nervous system (CNS) with antioxidant properties. We assessed the neuroprotective effect of modafinil in combination with ethanol after focal cerebral ischemia. Male wistar rats weighing 280-300 g were divided into nine groups (n = 12 each group): The groups consisted of the MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) group (i.e. ischemia without treatment); the vehicle group(Dimethylsulfoxide); the modafinil group including three subgroups which pretreated with Modafinil (10, 30, 100 mg/kg), respectively, for seven days prior to the induction of MCAO; the ethanol group which received 1...
January 15, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637619/peripheral-viral-challenge-exacerbates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Tiffany J Petrisko, Gregory W Konat
Peripheral viral infections are potent triggers of exacerbation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we used a preclinical model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to corroborate this comorbidity in an experimental setting. EAE was induced by immunization of mice with MOG peptide, and paralysis was scored using a 5-point scale. At the onset of the chronic phase of the disease (Days 42-58 after MOG injection) the animals were divided into low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) with the mean score of 1...
January 14, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637540/severe-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy-associated-with-d-glyceric-aciduria-report-of-a-novel-case-and-review
#14
Yoav Zehavi, Hanna Mandel, Ayelet Eran, Sarit Ravid, Muhammad Abu Rashid, Erwin E W Jansen, Mirjam M C Wamelink, Ann Saada, Avraham Shaag, Orly Elpeleg, Ronen Spiegel
D-glycerate 2 kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that mediates the conversion of D-glycerate, an intermediate metabolite of serine and fructose metabolism, to 2-phosphoglycerate. Deficiency of DGK leads to accumulation of D-glycerate in various tissues and its massive excretion in urine. D-glyceric aciduria (DGA) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GLYCTK gene. The clinical spectrum of DGA is highly variable, ranging from severe progressive infantile encephalopathy to a practically asymptomatic condition...
January 12, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635861/diet-induced-obesity-causes-hypothalamic-neurochemistry-alterations-in-swiss-mice
#15
Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Aline Haas de Mello, Michelle Lima Garcez, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Rubya Pereira Zacaron, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Josiane Budni, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Fabrícia Petronilho, Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
The aim of this study was to assess inflammatory parameters, oxidative stress and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese mice. Male Swiss mice were divided into two study groups: control group and obese group. The animals in the control group were fed a diet with adequate amounts of macronutrients (normal-lipid diet), whereas the animals in the obese group were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Obesity induction lasted 10 weeks, at the end of this period the disease model was validated in animals...
January 11, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612292/neuroprotective-activity-of-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-is-relayed-through-myeloid-zinc-finger-1-in-a-rat-model-of-stroke
#16
Stephanie M Davis, Lisa A Collier, Elspeth A Foran, Christopher C Leonardo, Craig T Ajmo, Keith R Pennypacker
The aim of this study was to determine whether leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) exerts its neuroprotective effects through signal transduction of the transcription factor myeloid zinc finger-1 (MZF-1). According to the hypothesis of this study, MZF-1 mediates LIF-induced neuroprotective signaling during ELVO through increased expression and transcriptional activity. To determine the in vivo role of MZF-1 in LIF-induced neuroprotection, we used Genomatix software was used to MZF-1 sites in the promoter region of the rat superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) gene...
January 5, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610438/roflumilast-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-mice-via-camp-creb-bdnf-signaling-and-anti-neuroinflammatory-effects
#17
Huancun Feng, Canmao Wang, Wei He, Xinjun Wu, Shujie Li, Zhenkun Zeng, Meidan Wei, Binghong He
Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors can prevent the breakdown of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and improve cognitive performances in several animal models of cognition. However, the clinical development of PDE4 inhibitors has been seriously hampered by severe side effects, such as vomiting and nausea. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of roflumilast, an FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), on learning and memory abilities in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
January 4, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610437/grm7-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-iranian-population
#18
Iman Azari, Reza Hosseinpour Moghadam, Hamid Fallah, Rezvan Noroozi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Mohammad Taheri
The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia or response to antipsychotic treatment has been proposed previously. The aim of the current study was to investigate the associations between two intronic variants within GRM7 gene (rs6782011 and rs779867) and schizophrenia in Iranian population. These two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 273 schizophrenic patients and 300 age and sex-matched normal controls. The frequency of A allele of the rs779867 was significantly lower in the schizophrenic patients compared with healthy subjects (OR (95% CI) = 0...
January 4, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607824/association-of-pttg1-polymorphism-rs1895320-rs2910200-and-rs6882742-with-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-in-chinese-han-population-a-case-control-study
#19
Bin Zhu, Ming Gao, Lei Zhang, Juan Wang, Lei Wang, Ling Ling Qin, Xi Xiong Kang, Zhi Gang Zhao
Due to absence of clinical manifestations of hormonal hyper secretion, the treatment of Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) was always delayed. PTTG1 was reported to be overexpressed in most of pituitary tumors, however, the polymorphism of PTTG1 rs1895320, rs2910200 and rs6882742 with NFPA were still not fully elucidated in NFPA. Thus, a hospital based case control study which included 79 patients and 142 healthy control participants were conducted. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyped by Mass Array methods...
January 3, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607823/neurological-alterations-induced-by-formulated-imidacloprid-toxicity-in-japanese-quails
#20
Sayed M Rawi, Ayed S Al-Logmani, Reham Z Hamza
Agrochemical risk assessment that takes into account only pesticide active ingredients without the spray adjuvants will miss important toxicity outcomes detrimental to non-target species including birds. In the present study toxicity of imidacloprid (IMI) pesticide was evaluated individually and in a mixture with polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) as adjuvant against Japanese quails. Oral intubation was used to obtain concentration-mortality data. Oral intubation was used to obtain concentration-mortality data. Treatments of quails for 24 h with different doses leading to the calculation of LC50 values...
January 3, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
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