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Histology and Histopathology | Page 2

Abigail Hay, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Arthur Lewis, Carol Moreno Quinn, Elena Miranda
Optimized protocols for the microdissection of specific areas from archival tissues and the subsequent RNA analysis are needed but challenging due to RNA degradation and chemical modifications. The aim of this study was to present the most appropriate protocol for utilizing mouse FFPE kidney for laser capture microdissection and Nanostring gene expression analysis. We evaluated different section thicknesses (3, 5, 10 μm), 2 RNA extraction kits (Qiagen and Roche) and different H&E staining methods to optimize microdissection and RNA extraction from glomeruli and cortical tubules samples from FFPE mouse kidney...
June 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Esperanza Sánchez-Alemán, Leticia María Lili-Carrillo, Martin Humberto Muñoz-Ortega, Ma Consolación Martínez-Saldaña, Javier Ventura-Juárez
Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the main extra-intestinal complication caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Given the histological features of ALA in hamsters and the importance of the vagus nerve in the immune response, the aim of this study was to identify and analyze the major changes in ALA that are caused by a vagotomy. The changes found are related to inflammatory foci and abscess size, the type of collagen formed, and the number of trophozoites in lesions. Male hamsters were divided into three groups: Intact animals (IA) and those undergoing a false operation (SHAM) or a subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG)...
June 7, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Marco Tatullo, Irina Makeeva, Sandro Rengo, Carlo Rengo, Gianrico Spagnuolo Bruna Codispoti Marco Tatullo Tecnologicasrl Com, Bruna Codispoti
Regenerative dentistry is attracting growing interest in the scientific community, mainly because of its translational and promising therapeutic approach. The latest research carried out by the scientific community are aimed at triggering the local cellular response, in order to induce a physiological self-repairing of damaged oral tissues. Such physiological processes mainly involve the activation of local stem cell populations: mesenchymal stem cells, in fact, retain the ability to proliferate and to differentiate towards functional mature elements, thus leading towards healing of damaged tissues...
June 6, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Arnulf H Koeppen, Jiang Qian, Alicia M Travis, Alyssa B Sossei, Paul J Feustel, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
Heart disease is an integral part of Friedreich ataxia (FA). In addition to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fiber necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration, sections show fibrosis and disorganized capillaries. We examined the left ventricular wall (LVW) of 41 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous FA patients aged 10-87 and 21 controls aged 2-69. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody to CD34 allowed quantitative counts of capillary profiles for a comparison with cardiomyocyte counts in the same field. Capillary counts (mean±standard deviation [SD]) in normal controls were 1926±341/mm², while mean cardiomyocyte counts were 2003±686/mm²...
June 5, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Lauren Nagel, Regiana Oliveira, Alexey V Pshezhetsky, Carlos R Morales
Mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes. The disorder occurs due to Heparan Acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT) deficiency, an enzyme which typically catalyzes the transmembrane acetylation of heparan sulfate, a basement membrane component. When the gene encoding this enzyme is mutated, it cannot perform the processing of heparan sulfate, leading to un-acetylated heparan sulfate build-up in the lysosomes of cells, causing a storage disorder...
June 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Ai Sato, Kiyoshi Takagi, Yasuhiro Miki, Ayano Yoshimura, Mizuki Hara, Takanori Ishida, Hironobu Sasano, Takashi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c1 (CYC1) is a heme-containing subunit of mitochondria complex III and is mainly involved in cellular energy production. A recent study has demonstrated that CYC1 was overexpressed in breast carcinoma tissues and induced proliferation, migration and invasion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma cells. However, the clinical significance of CYC1 protein remains largely unclear in invasive breast carcinoma, and biological functions of CYC1 have not been reported in ER-positive breast carcinoma cells...
May 31, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Ting Wei, Sara Shalin, Elizabeth Draper, Emily Miller, Haihong Zhang, Ravi Sun, Madison Lee, Gregory Albert, Gresham T Richter
BACKGROUND: Vascular malformations are characterized by anomalous vascular channels with fragile walls and a propensity to bleed. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in particular have disorganized vascular spaces with intervening fibrosis. Characterization of the structural abnormalities of these vessels has not been comprehensively evaluated. We hypothesize that AVMs are likely to demonstrate altered elastic and collagen fiber organization and distribution, reflecting their fragility, vascular instability, and abnormal development...
May 23, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Qing Li, Aihua Zhang, Changying Xing, Yanggang Yuan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a worldwide health problem. Progression of CKD may lead to many serious complications, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is no satisfactory treatment. Thus, targeted therapies are urgently needed. The kidneys are second to the heart in terms of mitochondrial abundance and oxygen consumption. Thus, it is not surprising that mitochondrial homeostasis is absolutely essential for the normal function of the kidney. In fact, a number of reports indicate that mitochondria are involved in the progression of CKD...
August 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Cestmir Cejka, Sarka Kubinova, Jitka Cejkova
Trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is a naturally occurring nontoxic and nonreducing bioactive sugar. Trehalose is synthetized by many organisms when cells are exposed to stressful conditions, including dehydration, heat, oxidation, hypoxia or even anoxia. Although trehalose is not synthesized by mammalian cells, it has recently been demonstrated to have a number of important properties that indicate its utility in humans. Trehalose enables wound healing by protecting cells, especially cell membranes, from oxidative injury and dessication...
June 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Lais Silva Nascimento, Larissa Martins Tedesco, Natiele Silva Araujo, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho Priviero, Mario Angelo Claudino, Denise Gonçalves Priolli, Thalita Rocha
Heart failure (HF) is the final common pathway of many cardiovascular diseases. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, such as MMP9 and TIMP-1, assist in maintaining the extracellular matrix, leading to tissue remodeling observed after HF. Previous studies have shown that L-Arginine (LA) appears to have beneficial effects for the treatment of HF, contributing to vasodilation, the reestablishment of the endothelial function and an increase in muscle contractile force. This study analyzed heart tissue remodeling in an animal model of HF induced by aortocaval fistula (ACF) and submitted to LA treatment...
May 17, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
María Elena Soto, Elizabeth Soria-Castro, Verónica Guarner-Lans, Andrés Martínez Guzmán, Cesar Amilcar Morales Marín, Karla Susana Martínez Zavala, Israel Pérez-Torres
Marfan syndrome (MS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue that is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN-1) gene that cause degeneration of the artery. It is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. The potential transient receptor of the vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) ion channel plays an important role in endothelial vascular functioning. Here we determine the association of the presence TRPV1 in aortic aneurysm with dilation and dissection of the artery in MS patients. Histological sections of aortic aneurysm tissue obtained by the surgical procedure of Bentall and De Bono or David, were processed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ICAM, VCAM, iNOS, eNOS, TRPV1 and TNF-α and the immunolabelling area was determined...
May 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Hani A Alturkistani, Osama A H Abuzinadah, Abdelhakeem M Kelany, Gamal S Abd El-Aziz, Aziza R Alrafiah
BACKGROUND: Honey and olive oil are natural products that have high nutritional values, and therapeutic properties. Cytotoxic drugs, like methotrexate (MTX) are used to treat malignancies in tumour cells; however, these drugs also have serious side effects that could threaten the patient's life. AIM: To evaluate the potential protective effects of honey and olive oil, administered alone or together, against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Adult male albino rats were divided: Group I: negative control (n=8); II: honey ( daily by oral 1...
May 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Soo Yeon Lee, Wonkyung Jung, Jinhwan Lee, Aeree Kim, Han Kyeom Kim, Baek-Hui Kim
DEK is an oncogene that has been identified as part of the DEK-CAN fusion gene. DEK plays a role in carcinogenesis through WNT signaling and induces cell proliferation through cyclin-dependent kinase signaling. DEK overexpression has been reported in HCC, but the clinical significance is unclear. This study enrolled 221 cases of HCC. The expression of DEK protein was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Cdk4, cyclin D1, Wnt10b, E-cadherin, and β-catenin were also immunohistochemically stained and analyzed for correlation...
May 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Wang-Yu Zhu, Xiao-Fei Hu, Ke-Xin Fang, Qiong-Qiong Kong, Ri Cui, Hai-Feng Li, Jian-Ying He, Yong-Kui Zhang, Han-Bo Le
INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation have been well studied. However, the correlation of EGFR mutation with mutant p53, Ki-67, and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and their prognostic value remain indistinct. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and pathological characteristics and overall survival were analysed retrospectively in 523 surgically resected NSCLC patients...
May 7, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Lorenzo Alibardi
The hypothesis here presented tries to explain why organ regeneration is present in fish and amphibians (anamniotes) but is absent in reptiles, birds and mammals (amniotes). Anamniotes possess complex life cycles including larvae and metamorphosis stages, the latter representing a physiological form of organ destruction and regeneration coded in their genome that can be reactivated in adults in the form of regeneration. Part of the genome for larvae and metamorphosis phases was likely lost in amniotes with the evolution of direct development, the potentiation of the immune system and the increase in complexity of the nervous system...
May 6, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Zahra Gholami Mahmoudian, Shiva Roshankhah, Mehdi Farokhi, Cyrus Jalili
This experiment evaluated the effects of harmine against nicotine-induced damage to the liver of mice. Nicotine is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke and a major risk factor for functional disorders in the liver, because it induces oxidative stress. Harmine is a harmal-derived alkaloid with therapeutic and antioxidant properties. In this study, 80 male mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups: the normal control and nicotine control groups (2.5 mg/kg); the harmine groups (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg), and the nicotine + harmine groups (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg mg/kg)...
May 3, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Qin Ye, Jiayang Liu, Ke Xie
Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) form one of the largest families of transcription factors in human genetics, via their conserved zinc finger motifs. ZFPs function in many biological processes including development, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that ZFPs are closely associated with different stages of cancer development. One of the hallmarks of cancer is altered signal transduction cascades and an understanding of the changes in these pathways is essential for targeted cancer therapy...
May 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Qian Chen, Fangzhou Jiao, Luwen Wang, Zuojiong Gong
INTRODUCTION: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor has the effect of anti-tumor and inhibiting apoptosis, and could inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, reducing the damage to liver and enterocytes in acute liver failure (ALF). HDAC2 specific inhibitor CAY10683 was used to verify the protective effect on acute liver failure through reducing intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) was used to induce ALF in Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 29, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Norihiko Sasaki, Yoko Itakura, Fujiya Gomi, Kazumi Hirano, Masashi Toyoda, Toshiyuki Ishiwata
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small group of cells within a tumor that preserve stemness and enhance regrowth of cancer cells. CSCs have important implications in resistance to conventional therapies and tumor relapse, although their detailed properties remain unknown. Thus, CSCs represent promising targets to improve cancer treatment. So far, a number of cell surface markers containing glycans have been exploited to identify and isolate CSCs. Cell surface glycans are well-known markers for specific cell types and also play important cellular roles, such as regulation of cell signaling...
April 26, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
One hundred and fifty years ago, Paul Langerhans described what would come to be known as pancreatic 'islet of Langerhans'. Since then, we have accumulated knowledge about the pancreatic islet, the cells that exist there and the hormones secreted by these cells. The increasing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease in the population (three conditions that are linked to pancreatic islet function), the islet has been playing a significant role in endocrinological and metabolic studies searching how we can protect the pancreatic islet and its cell content, or how we can regenerate it...
April 25, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
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