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International Clinical Psychopharmacology

Pavel Golubchik, Lilach Shalev, Dina Tsamir, Iris Manor, Abraham Weizman
The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity levels, as assessed by a continuous performance test (CPT), and the correlations between baseline CPT performance and response to methylphenidate (MPH), as assessed by the conjunctive CPT (CCPT), in children with only Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with no oppositional defiant disorder (ADHD/noODD) or with comorbid ODD (ADHD/ODD). Fifty-three children and adolescents were included in the study (ADHD/noODD group, n=25, 12 women/13 men and ADHD/ODD group, n=28, eight females/20 males)...
January 11, 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Aviv Segev, Anthony Evans, John Hodsoll, Eromona Whiskey, Rebecca S Sheriff, Sukhi Shergill, James H MacCabe
Clozapine is the only evidence-based antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, it has considerable side effects, limiting its usability and reducing patients' adherence. One of the most common and distressing side effects is hypersalivation, which can be debilitating, stigmatizing and potentially dangerous through its association with aspiration pneumonia. There is a paucity of evidence guiding possible treatment strategies for hypersalivation. This study aims to examine the efficacy of hyoscine (scopolamine) for clozapine-induced hypersalivation...
January 4, 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Maike Scherf-Clavel, Lydia Samanski, Leif G Hommers, Jürgen Deckert, Andreas Menke, Stefan Unterecker
Smoking is common among psychiatric patients and has been shown to accelerate the metabolism of different drugs. We aimed to determine the effect of smoking on the serum concentrations of psychopharmacological drugs in a naturalistic clinical setting. Dose-corrected, steady-state serum concentrations of individual patients were analyzed retrospectively by linear regression including age, sex, and smoking for amitriptyline (n=503), doxepin (n=198), mirtazapine (n=572), venlafaxine (n=534), clozapine (n=106), quetiapine (n=182), and risperidone (n=136)...
December 14, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Monika Salgueiro, Rafael Segarra
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics could be a favorable option of treatment and have some advantages over oral medications. The aim of this study was to review the published data on the use of LAI formulation of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Using PubMed and Scopus databases, we performed a systematic literature search of articles published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2018, that reported clinical trials on the use of LAI SGAs in patients with FEP. Seventy-seven articles were considered eligible and full-text revised...
December 11, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Unax Lertxundi, Itsasne Erezuma, Rafael Hernandez, Juan Medrano, Montserrat Garcia, Carmelo Aguirre
One of the possible long-term consequences of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia is the development of pituitary tumors - prolactinomas. So far, two pharmacovigilance studies of spontaneous adverse event report databases have suggested an increased risk, whereas a longitudinal study carried out with risperidone showed no evidence of increased risk of tumors with mass effect. Besides, information on amisulpride and paliperidone is lacking. Thus, in this study, we aimed to analyze the European pharmacovigilance database (EudraVigilance) to shed light on this issue...
December 10, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Giulia Turrini, Chiara Gastaldon, Davide Papola, Lauren Rayner, Rosangela Caruso, Luigi Grassi, Matthew Hotopf, Corrado Barbui
To assess the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants in adults with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We gathered all available randomized-controlled trials comparing antidepressants versus placebo or other antidepressants in adults with IHD. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms at the study endpoint, as measured by validated rating scales. We pooled data in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The confidence in the estimates (or certainty of the evidence) was assessed using the GRADE approach...
March 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Eduard Vieta, Willie R Earley, Maria V Burgess, Suresh Durgam, Changzheng Chen, Yan Zhong, Ágota Barabássy, György Németh
Lack of treatment response is a critical problem in major depressive disorder (MDD). Cariprazine is a D3-preferring dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT1A partial agonist. This phase 3, multicenter, open-label, long-term (26-week), flexible-dose (1.5-4.5 mg/day) study assessed the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine used adjunctively with antidepressant therapy in adult patients with MDD who had either completed a lead-in study (n=311) or had been newly recruited (n=131). A higher percentage of continuing patients (66...
March 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Megan K Skelly, Bethany A Wattengel, Randal Napierala, Vineeta Risbood, Jennifer Schroeck, John A Sellick, Kari A Mergenhagen
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, one in five adults experience a mental health condition yearly. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often treated with QTc prolonging antibiotics. The primary outcome assessed is if psychiatric diagnosis contributed to treatment failure in CAP. Outpatients with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 9 and 10 codes for CAP from January 2008 to January 2018 were analyzed retrospectively by descriptive statistics...
January 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Wendy M Leith, William E Lambert, James K Boehnlein, Michael D Freeman
The aims of this study were to assess the association between gabapentin and suicidality in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and to determine whether the risk is greater relative to patients prescribed lithium. This retrospective observational study utilizes US population-based claims data assembled by PharMetrics Inc., comprising 47 918 patients diagnosed with BD. Patients were included if they were at least 18 years old and initiated a new monotherapy prescription of either gabapentin (n=2421) or lithium (n=3101)...
January 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lenise P Francesconi, André T Victorino, Iarsan A Salah, Victor H S Cordova, Eduarda Dias da Rosa, Larissa Oliveira, Raquel V M Jacobus, Paulo S Belmonte-de-Abreu, Keila M Ceresér
The present study sought to assess biomarkers of inflammation in stable patients with schizophrenia (SZ) on clozapine therapy. We recruited 60 outpatients with SZ and 60 healthy controls, matched for sex and age. Compared with controls, patients had significantly increased concentrations of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Interestingly, patients on simvastatin had lower interleukin-6 levels compared with patients not on simvastatin and controls. This study corroborated previous evidence for increased inflammatory biomarkers in SZ and detected a potential anti-inflammatory action of simvastatin in patients with a clinical diagnosis of SZ on clozapine therapy...
November 19, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Camila B Villas-Boas, Danielly Chierrito, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Fernanda S Tonin, Andréia C C Sanches
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the pharmacological options available to treat patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder, for generating evidence on the safest, most-effective and tolerable pharmacotherapy. To this end, a systematic search was performed in three electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Directory of Open Access Journals; December 2017). Randomized, double-blind, parallel-design clinical trials evaluating the efficacy, safety or tolerability of therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder in children and adolescents or adults were considered...
November 12, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Anna M Szota, Aleksander S Araszkiewicz
Hypothermia is unpredictable and life-threatening adverse effect of atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment, which has been little described. The aim of this article is to increase the awareness that hypothermia induced by APD drugs is more common than the current published case reports may suggest, and risk factors increase its development. Moreover, valuable guidelines regarding how to detect the early stages of hypothermia in clinical practice are included. A literature search for reports on APD-induced hypothermia in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Medline Complete and eHealthMe databases was conducted...
November 5, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Naomi A Fineberg, David S Baldwin, Lynne M Drummond, Solange Wyatt, Jasmine Hanson, Srinivas Gopi, Sukhwinder Kaur, Jemma Reid, Virender Marwah, Ricky A Sachdev, Ilenia Pampaloni, Sonia Shahper, Yana Varlakova, Davis Mpavaenda, Christopher Manson, Cliodhna O'Leary, Karen Irvine, Deela Monji-Patel, Ayotunde Shodunke, Tony Dyer, Amy Dymond, Garry Barton, David Wellsted
Established treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) include cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Combined treatment may outperform monotherapy, but few studies have investigated this. A total of 49 community-based adults with OCD were randomly assigned to CBT, SSRI, or SSRI+CBT. Sertraline (50-200 mg/day) was given as the SSRI for 52 weeks. A 16-h-manualized individual CBT was delivered over 8 weeks with four follow-up sessions. Assessors were 'blinded' to treatment allocation...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Julia Dehning, Heinz Grunze, Michaela Walpoth-Niederwanger, Georg Kemmler, Armand Hausmann
Antipsychotics (AP) are commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. They cover a broad spectrum of indications including acute psychotic, manic and depressive symptoms, and maintenance treatment. This study evaluates the changes in prescribing patterns of first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) and second-generation AP at Innsbruck University Hospital for the treatment of bipolar inpatients between 1999 and 2016. In this retrospective chart review, we included adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (ICD 9: F296; ICD 10: F31) who were admitted as inpatients at the Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy between 1999 and 2016 for more than 7 days...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Maurizio Fava, Suresh Durgam, Willie Earley, Kaifeng Lu, Robert Hayes, István Laszlovszky, György Németh
This 19-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive cariprazine (0.1-0.3 and 1.0-2.0 mg/day) as an antidepressant treatment for adults with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) (NCT00854100). The primary endpoint was change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score and the secondary was change in the Clinical Global Impression-Intensity score. Additional efficacy parameters were also assessed...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Suresh Durgam, Carl Gommoll, Raffaele Migliore, Changzheng Chen, Cheng-Tao Chang, Michelle Aguirre, Michael E Thase
This randomized withdrawal study assessed relapse prevention with vilazodone in adults with major depressive disorder. After 20 weeks of open-label treatment with vilazodone 40 mg/day, responders were randomized (1 : 1 : 1) to 28 weeks of double-blind, fixed-dose treatment with vilazodone 20 mg/day, vilazodone 40 mg/day, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to first relapse, defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 and meeting major depressive episode criteria, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 at two consecutive visits, or discontinuation for an insufficient therapeutic response...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Ekkehard Haen, Christoph Hiemke, Bianca Fay, Sandra Unholzer, Christoph U Correll, Gerhard Gründer, Michael Paulzen
We assessed the effect of body weight and BMI on plasma concentrations of venlafaxine (VEN), O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN), active moiety (AM=VEN+ODVEN), and dose-corrected plasma concentrations (C/D). A database containing concentrations of VEN and ODVEN including 737 of 1594 eligible patients was analyzed. Analyses included sex, body weight, and BMI as well as concentrations of VEN, ODVEN, AM, and C/D. A positive correlation was detected between body weight and daily dosage (rs=0.168, P<0.001). A negative correlation was found between body weight and AM (rs=-0...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Pavel Golubchik, Tomer Levy, Abraham Weizman
To evaluate the effect of 3 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on psychopathic behavior in children having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Twenty-seven children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth ed., ADHD (13 female/14 male; aged 13.3±2.2 years old) were compared to an age/sex matched ADHD/ODD group (N=27, eight female/19 male; aged 11.8±1.9 years). The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder rating scale (ADHD-RS) and the California Child Q-Set (CCQ) were used in both groups before MPH treatment (0...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Yan-Jie Zhao, Yan-Ling He, Li-Li Zhang, Ying Qiao, Jing-Ping Zhao, Tian-Mei Si, Gang Wang, Ning Zhang, Yu-Ping Ning, Ming-Yuan Zhang
A new self-rating functional scale (SRFS) was developed to assess the functionality of patients with schizophrenia, referred to the structure of Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the SRFS. A total of 210 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from outpatient clinics in six sites in China. Demographic information, SRFS, PSP, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were assessed...
October 10, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Harald Murck, Matthias C Braunisch, Carsten Konrad, Daniela Jezova, Tilo Kircher
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its hormone receptors, i.e. the angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), have emerged as important targets for central nervous system disorders and in particular for major depression. We have recently characterized baseline MR function as a predictor for treatment outcome with standard antidepressants. The aims of this study are (i) to characterize how strongly an early biomarker change (after 2 weeks) is related to outcome and (ii) whether these biomarker changes are related to the final outcome, that is, could serve as surrogate markers for response...
October 8, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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