Evangelia Damigou, Matina Kouvari, Demosthenes Panagiotakos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to present updated evidence on the role of skeletal muscle mass on cardiometabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased lean, and especially skeletal, muscle mass has been associated with better cardiometabolic health in various epidemiological studies, even in younger age groups. In addition, the link between skeletal muscle mass and adult lipid profile is of interest. A preliminary analysis using the data from the ATTICA prospective cohort study (2002-2022) supports this association...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Alexander Kohlmaier, Lesca M Holdt, Daniel Teupser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review recent findings on the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, we highlight some of the latest findings in lncRNA biology, providing an outlook for future avenues of lncRNA research in CVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications provide translational evidence from patient studies and animal models for the role of specific lncRNAs in CVD. The molecular effector mechanisms of these lncRNAs are diverse...
March 14, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Krithika Krishnarao, Selim R Krim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension remains one of the most common clinical problems leading to devastating postleft ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant complications. This study reviews the pathophysiology of hypertension in the setting of continuous flow LVAD support and provides an update on currently available antihypertensive therapies for LVAD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The true prevalence of hypertension in the LVAD population remains unknown. Effective blood pressure (BP) control and standardization of BP measurement are key to prevent suboptimal left ventricular unloading, pump malfunction and worsening aortic regurgitation...
March 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Charle Viljoen, Julian Hoevelmann, Karen Sliwa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) contributes significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this review, we describe the present-day epidemiology and current understanding of the pathogenesis of PPCM. We provide an updated approach to diagnosis and management of PPCM, and discuss risk factors and predictors of outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: The highest incidences of PPCM have been reported in African, Asian, and Caribbean populations...
March 3, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Stefanie Marek-Iannucci, Patricia Uber, Indranee Rajapreyar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women of reproductive age are increasingly undergoing heart transplantation (HT) or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation for advanced heart failure. This review is intended to give an overview of the current state of the art management of pregnancy in patients with LVAD or HT recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Heart transplant recipients are at increased risk for graft rejection, renal dysfunction, preeclampsia and worsening of comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes)...
March 3, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Maria A Pabón, Amrit Misra, Michael C Honigberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women. Women with history of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) have approximately two-fold risk of future CVD, but until recently the association with future heart failure (HF) was unclear. Here, we summarize evidence for associations of APOs with HF, potential underlying mechanisms, and future directions for clinical translation. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) have roughly two-fold risk of future HF compared with other parous women even after accounting for interval development of coronary artery disease...
March 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Anika Vaidy, Anjali Vaidya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is considered high risk and contraindicated, the incidence is rising. It is paramount to understand the pathophysiology and effective management strategies to ensure optimal outcomes for maternal and fetal survival. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we highlight the outcomes of recent case series of PAH patients in pregnancy, with a focus on proper risk assessment and target goals of PAH therapy...
March 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Soichi Sano, Mark C Thel, Kenneth Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Somatic mutations, described as noninherited changes in DNA that arise and are passed on to descendant cells, are well known to cause cancers; however, it is increasingly appreciated that the propagation of somatic mutations within a tissue may have a role in causing nonneoplastic disorders and abnormalities in elderly individuals. The nonmalignant clonal expansion of somatic mutations in the hematopoietic system is termed clonal hematopoiesis. This review will briefly discuss how this condition has been linked to various age-related diseases outside the hematopoietic system...
February 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Josephina A N Meester, Anne Hebert, Bart L Loeys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Structural genomic variants have emerged as a relevant cause for several disorders, including intellectual disability, neuropsychiatric disorders, cancer and congenital heart disease. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge about the involvement of structural genomic variants and, in particular, copy number variants in the development of thoracic aortic and aortic valve disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing interest in the identification of structural variants in aortopathy...
February 17, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
David S M Lee, Scott M Damrauer, Michael G Levin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide. There is considerable interest in better understanding the molecular genetics and biology of atrial fibrillation to inform the development of new therapies and improve clinical management. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of atrial fibrillation and new efforts to utilize genetics to inform clinical management. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations have increased the number of genetic loci associated with atrial fibrillation and its specific subtypes...
February 13, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Michael Georgoulis, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to update the evidence regarding the link between serum uric acid and cardiovascular risk, as well as the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of hyperuricaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The review focuses on recent epidemiological evidence concerning the role of elevated serum uric acid levels in cardiovascular risk prediction. The dietary prevention and management of hyperuricaemia is also discussed with an emphasis on the adoption of prudent dietary patterns...
January 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Ruth L Ackah, Jun Yasuhara, Vidu Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aortic valve disease is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, posing an increasing burden on society. Advances in next-generation technologies and disease models over the last decade have further delineated the genetic and molecular factors that might be exploited in development of therapeutics for affected patients. This review describes several advances in the molecular and genetic understanding of AVD, focusing on bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD)...
January 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Peter J Schwartz, Luca Sala
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and critically assess the contribution of genetics to the Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), with specific reference to the unraveling of its underlying mechanisms and to its impact on clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: The evolution towards our current approach to therapy for LQTS patients is examined in terms of risk stratification, gene-specific management, and assessment of the clinical impact that genetic modifiers may have in modulating the natural history of the patients...
January 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Nitish K Dhingra, C David Mazer, Kim A Connelly, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing number of adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are entering the healthcare system as a result of advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart defects. Heart failure is a common final pathway for this diverse patient population, representing the leading cause of mortality in ACHD patients. Herein, we review present guideline-directed management of heart failure in ACHD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: There exists a dearth of data to guide management of ACHD-related heart failure...
January 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Lina Elfaki, Akachukwu Nwakoby, Hillary Lia, George Zhao, Amanda Sicila, Nao Yoshida, Bobby Yanagawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic prohibited Canadian medical students from in-person observerships. This may be particularly detrimental to under-represented groups that may consider surgical subspecialties. To address the unprecedented need for alternative surgical career exploration and diversity within the profession, The University of Toronto Cardiac Surgery Interest Group and Division of Cardiac Surgery collaborated on virtual experiential programming. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical students were invited to virtual (1) observerships of a cardiac bypass case, (2) mentorship sessions with surgeons, (3) resident teaching sessions, (4) multidisciplinary case-based Heart Team discussions to further their understanding of the scope of Cardiac surgery, and (5) a virtual coronary anastomosis training program...
January 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Raj Verma, Gianluigi Bisleri, Geraldine Ong, Kim A Connelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic primary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart valve disease with a rising prevalence with the aging populations worldwide. The timing of surgical intervention in patients who have severe MR but remain asymptomatic is often debated. Herein we synthesize the latest American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and European Society of Cardiology/ European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (ESC/EACTS) heart valve guidelines in such patients and illustrate how circulating and/or imaging biomarkers can be used to help refine decision making algorithms...
January 12, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Adriana C Mares, Debabrata Mukherjee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza imparts a significant health burden on the United States and global population. Furthermore, influenza is associated with acute cardiovascular events, including heart failure exacerbations, acute coronary syndromes, strokes, and overall cardiovascular mortality. We review the role of seasonal influenza vaccination in mitigating cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: A large study assessed the impact of influenza vaccine on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality using the US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database...
December 29, 2022: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Mauricio Velez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurohormonal blockade and device-based therapies for heart failure (HF) greatly reduce morbidity and mortality. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have demonstrated benefits in patients with HF across a broad range of phenotypes. In addition to SGLT2i, drugs targeting novel pathways have demonstrated benefit in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This review will provide an update on recent advances in the medical management of HF, highlighting the role of SGLT2i, vericiguat and omecamtiv mecarbil, along with new evidence on the benefit of rapid up-titration of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in patients with acute HF...
March 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Nicholas S Hendren, Lauren K Truby, Maryjane Farr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, the selection criteria for heart transplant candidates has prioritized posttransplant survival while contemporary allocation policy is focused on improving waitlist survival. Donor scarcity has continued to be the major influence on transplant allocation policy. This review will address the opportunity of donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) and potential impact on future policy revisions. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2018, changes to U...
March 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Jeremy A Brooksbank, Chonyang Albert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite improvements in medical therapies, patients with heart failure continue to suffer significant morbidity and mortality. Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains a common and serious medical condition with a myriad of implications on patient survival and quality of life, and heart failure related readmissions persist [1-3]. RECENT FINDINGS: From the detection of prehospitalization decompensation and inpatient management of ADHF to stabilization of cardiogenic shock and durable mechanical circulatory support, device-based therapies are utilized across the spectrum of heart failure management...
March 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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