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Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA

Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Leandro Borba Moreira, Michael T Lawton, Mark C Preul
PURPOSE: Localization of the facial nerve trunk (FNT) [i.e., the portion of the facial nerve between the stylomastoid foramen (SMF) and pes anserinus] may be required during various surgical interventions such as parotidectomy and hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. Several landmarks have been proposed for efficient identification of the FNT. We sought to assess the anatomical features of the digastric branch of the facial nerve (DBFN) and its potential as a landmark to identify FNT. METHODS: Fifteen sides of eight cadaveric heads were dissected to find the DBFN...
April 16, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mutsuaki Edama, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Takanori Kikumoto, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Masahiro Ikezu, Fumiya Kaneko, Ikuo Kageyama
PURPOSE: The aim was to clarify the relationships between differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and differences in the angle of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) with respect to the long axis of the fibula and their effects on ankle braking function. METHODS: The study sample included 110 Japanese cadavers. ATFLs were categorized as: Type I with one fiber bundle; Type II with two fiber bundles with incomplete separation and complete separation; and Type III with three fiber bundles...
April 16, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mutsuaki Edama, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Takanori Kikumoto, Ryo Hirabayashi, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Masahiro Ikezu, Fumiya Kaneko, Ikuo Kageyama
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to clarify the relationships between quadratus plantae (QP) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) using large-scale specimens. METHODS: This study examined 116 legs from 62 Japanese cadavers. The QP was classified as: Type I, formed by the lateral and medial heads; Type II, the lateral head is absent; and Type III, the medial head is absent. The FHL branches to the lesser toes were classified as: Type A, connection from FHL to toe 2; Type B, connection from FHL to toes 2 and 3; Type C, connection from FHL to toes 2-4...
April 16, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Philippe Clavert, Manon Jouanlanne, Guillaume Koch
INTRODUCTION: Anatomical variations of the lateral offset of the acromion (LOA) are supposed to be a factor favoring of the development of rotator cuff tears. The primary objective of this study is to quantify the inter-individual variations of the lateral offset of the acromion. METHODS: The morphology of 103 dried scapula was studied. Scapula with an os-acromiale, fractures and osteoarthritic changes of the glenoid cavity were excluded. We measured the distance between the medial edge of the spine and the supra-glenoidal tubercle of the glenoid fossa (L0 ), as well as the distance between this medial point and the most lateral point of the acromion (Lmax )...
April 15, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
I Bazin, M Armendariz, P S Marcheix, M Pichon, F Fredon, C Mabit, P A Mathieu
PURPOSE: The intramedullary percutaneous pinning in fractures of the lateral malleolus is a technique of osteosynthesis that can reduce complications of ORIF. Our study describes the morphology and the morphometry of the fibula, in particular intramedullary, so as to specify the best fibular nail features. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on CT acquisitions of fibulae in vivo. We studied total length, and the distal malleolar angle. Regarding intramedullary morphology, six axial study levels were defined...
April 11, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Alexandre Bellier, J Fournier, Q Faure, S Snyman, C Mirallie, P Chaffanjon
PURPOSE: Perfusion techniques on cadavers are heterogeneous and imperfect. The objective of this study was to improve the existing circulation model for surgical simulation on cadavers. METHODS: We used a three-step experimental approach. The first part of the experiment tested two variables: the type of circuit and the use of a heater for perfusion. The second approach evaluated two parameters: the injection fluid and the type of body conditioning (embalmed or freshly dead prepared using different washing techniques)...
April 11, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Racky Wade, Odile Plaisant, Alexis Guédon, Abdoulaye Dione Diop, Aïnina Ndiaye, Philippe Manyacka, Magaye Gaye, Sokhna Ba, Abdoulaye Ndiaye, Abdarahmane Dia
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge acquired on the lateral fossa of the brain (LFB) is heterogeneous and incomplete. Our goal was to provide a morphological description of the LFB and analyze the impact of these descriptions on the surgical approach of the region. METHODS: The morphology of LFB was studied on 40 cerebral hemispheres of 20 right-handed subjects aged 18-55 years with an MRI of 1.5 T. The anatomo-radiological identification of the two section levels preceded the description of the shapes of the LFB...
April 6, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Akira Uchino, Tomoya Kamide, Hiroki Kurita
We present a rare variant of the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), recently named "replaced PCA," that demonstrates the origin of all its branches from the right anterior choroidal artery (AChA) on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. In this variation, the right posterior communicating artery (PCoA) is hypoplastic and resembles the transposition of the AChA and PCoA. Detection of such rare arterial variations on MR angiographic images requires careful review of images, including source images, and partial maximum-intensity-projection images aid their identification...
April 3, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Emre Köse, Özge Dönmez Tarakçı
Pneumatization is defined as air-filled cavities inside bone tissue. It is an anatomic variation such asymptomatic radiolucent defects that can be unilateral and multilocular in healthy individuals. The skull contains numerous pneumatized regions including paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, zygomatic arch and temporal bone. 38-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with a complaint of upper third molar pain. A radiolucent area was observed in left nasal region during panoramic radiograph examination...
April 3, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Pauline Nicol, Jean-Marc Constans, Marie-Pia d'Ortho, Patrick Goudot, Christian Vacher
PURPOSE: Although the morphology of the parapharyngeal adipose corpus (PAC) has been already described, the clinical interest of its volume and weight in the genesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is still controversial. The volume of the PAC has been determined in OSAS patients but not in a normal population. The aim of our study was to investigate the morphology of the PAC by dissection and MRI in a normal population and to determine if there is a relation between the dimensions and volume of the PAC and the Body Mass Index (BMI)...
April 3, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Cyrille Decante, Loïc Geffroy, Céline Salaud, Antoine Chalopin, Stéphane Ploteau, Antoine Hamel
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the medial patellar retinaculum and the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) to provide an anatomical validation of a pediatric reconstruction technique. METHODS: Fifteen knees were dissected to study the MPFL and its relationship with the medial patellar retinaculum and the femoral insertion of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). The distances between the insertions of the MPFL of eight knees, and the patellar insertion of the MPFL and the femoral insertion of the MCL of four knees, were measured during the flexion to evaluate the isometricity of the native and reconstructed MPFL...
April 3, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Thomas Radulesco, Djamel Hazbri, Patrick Dessi, Pascal Adalian, Justin Michel
PURPOSE: The nasal septum presents inter-individual conformational variations. The objectives of this study were to establish a validated protocol for nasal septum analysis using geometric morphometrics (GM) to establish a classification of septal deviations (SD). METHODS: This was a retrospective study including two groups of patients: patients operated on by septoplasty (SD group) and patients without nasal obstruction (control group). The 3D segmentation model was extracted from CT scans...
April 2, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Orhan Beger, Turan Koç, Meryem İlkay Karagül, Deniz Ladin Özdemir, Fatma Müdüroğlu, Diana Georgiana Cintacioiu, Hong Thai Le, Yusuf Vayisoğlu, Şakir Necat Yılmaz, Zeliha Kurtoğlu Olgunus, Derya Ümit Talas
PURPOSE: The main objective of the study was to investigate the morphometric properties of the stapedial tendon (ST) for pediatric otosurgeons and anatomists. METHODS: The present study was placed on 15 fetuses (8 females, 7 males) aged from 20 to 30 weeks of gestation (at mean, 24.27 ± 3.24 weeks) using the collection of the Anatomy Department of Medicine Faculty, Mersin University. All measurements were obtained with a digital image analysis software. RESULTS: In terms of male/female or right/left comparisons, no statistically significant difference was found in relation with the numerical data of ST...
April 1, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Xiaoli Hu, Zijing Huang, Zhuwei Huang, Lizhen Lei, Minyi Cui, Xiaolei Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of isthmi and middle mesial (MM) canals in the mesial roots of mandibular first molars (MFM) in a Mongoloid subpopulation and to evaluate their association with demographic and anatomic characteristics. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 496 patients with 823 MFMs were selected and analyzed. The following data were collected: patient age and gender, side, presence and distribution of MM canal and isthmus, distance between mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) orifices, and MB-ML root canal system (RCS) morphology...
April 1, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
L Dunbar, H Vidakovic, S Löffler, N Hammer, O Gille, L Boissiere, I Obeid, V Pointillart, J M Vital, David C Kieser
PURPOSE: To describe the origin of the vessels supplying the anterior sub-axial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) to further understand their potential influence on anterior bone loss after anterior cervical spinal surgery. METHOD: Cadaveric dissection was performed on ten adult human necks after latex perfusion of their subclavian, common carotid and vertebral arteries. The nutrient vessels of the sub-axial cervical spine were identified and traced to their origin. The course and distribution of these vessels and their nutrient foraminae are described...
April 1, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Philippe Charlier, Saudamini Deo, Francesco Maria Galassi, Nadia Benmoussa
Here, we present a description of Poland syndrome from the second session of the Anatomical Society (Paris, France) on 11 December 1803 of congenital mammary absence and muscular atrophy on the right side. This case report predates the first official description of the disease published by Alfred Poland in Guy's Hospital Reports (London, 1841). Consequently, perhaps would it be necessary to do justice to its French discoverer, and to name from now on this nosological entity the "syndrome of Marandel"?...
April 1, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mariusz Baumgart, Marcin Wiśniewski, Magdalena Grzonkowska, Mateusz Badura, Michał Szpinda, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska
PURPOSES: Skeletodysplasiae and hereditary dysostoses constitute a group of over 350 disorders of the skeletal system. Knowledge about development of the pubic primary ossification center may be useful in both determining the fetal stage and maturity, and for detecting congenital disorders. The present study was performed to quantitatively examine the pubic primary ossification center with respect to its linear, planar, and volumetric parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using methods of computed tomography (CT), digital-image analysis and statistics, the size of the pubic primary ossification center in 33 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (18 males and 15 females) aged 22-30 weeks was studied...
March 29, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran, Raveendranath Veeramani
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to study and classify the superficial palmar arch and its variation based upon the gross dissection and to check the bilateral symmetry of the arches. Specifically, we checked for the presence of the superficial palmar arch as described in the standard textbooks. METHODS: We dissected 55 hands from 28 cadavers of both sexes that include 18 males and 10 females. The superficial palmar arch was carefully dissected and the arteries contributing its formation were traced...
March 28, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Florian Bernard, Philippe Mercier, Marc Sindou
PURPOSE: The sensory trigeminal nerve in the trigeminal cave of Meckel-which is an individualized lodge-is classically segmented into two parts: the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the triangular plexus (TP). The TP has been defined as the portion of the trigeminal nerve from the posterior margin of the TG to the path over the upper ridge of the petrous bone. Due to its relatively unrecognized status, its morphological and functional anatomy has been reviewed by the authors through a PRISMA systematic review of the literature...
March 28, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Ji-Su Oh, Chae-Eun Kim, Jinu Kim, Sang-Pil Yoon
Many anatomical variants on the sternocleidomastoid muscle have been reported. In this study, supernumerary clavicular heads of sternocleidomastoid muscle in a Korean female cadaver were bilaterally displayed. The observed supernumerary heads were classified as follows: one sterno-mastoid, one cleido-occipital and one cleido-mastoid on the right side, and one sterno-mastoid-occipital, four cleido-occipitals, and one cleido-mastoid on the left side. The sterno-mastoid and sterno-mastoid-occipital and the cleido-occipital made the superficial layer of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, while others made deep layer...
March 27, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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