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Journal of Thoracic Imaging

Pierre D Maldjian, Li-Hsiang Yen
The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is about 4 to 10 per 1000 live births. While severe forms of CHD are usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood, milder and more survivable CHD may first manifest in the adult or may be discovered incidentally on imaging studies performed for other reasons. It is important to identify CHD in adults to implement appropriate treatment and prevent complications such as progression of pulmonary hypertension and development of heart failure. The goals of this article are to illustrate the appearance on computed tomography of various forms of uncorrected CHD in adults and describe the key features that characterize specific lesions...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Johanna Nattenmüller, Christopher L Schlett, Nanae Tsuchiya, Scott B Reeder, Perry J Pickhardt, Harald Kramer, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz, Joon B Seo, Hiroto Hatabu, Edwin J R van Beek, Mark L Schiebler
The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art for the noncardiovascular imaging biomarkers of metabolic syndrome found on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) of the chest and their prognostic significance. Routine chest NCCT includes quantitative information with regard to tissue density and organ volumes in the neck, chest, and upper abdomen. The specific imaging biomarkers that may be seen in association with metabolic syndrome include low thyroid iodine organification, hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia (muscle volume and density), demineralization of the thoracic and upper lumbar vertebral bodies, loss of axial skeletal muscle mass, premature lung inflammation, and an increased deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Joseph Barnett, Ilaria Pulzato, Ryan Wilson, Simon Padley, Andrew Nicholson, Anand Devaraj
PURPOSE: A common diagnostic dilemma in the assessment of small pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) is in distinguishing benign intrapulmonary lymph nodes (IPLNs) from small primary pulmonary malignancies. Several CT features have been described of IPLNs, including attachment to a pleural surface. We had observed that IPLNs were often connected to a pulmonary vein and sought to evaluate the utility of this sign in discriminating IPLNs from lung adenocarcinomas. The frequency of other previously described CT signs of IPLNs was also compared with lung adenocarcinomas...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Geewon Lee, So Hyeon Bak, Ho Yun Lee, Joon Young Choi, Hyunjin Park, Seung-Hak Lee, Yoshiharu Ohno, Mizuki Nishino, Edwin J R van Beek, Kyung Soo Lee
Multimodality imaging measurements of treatment response are critical for clinical practice, oncology trials, and the evaluation of new treatment modalities. The current standard for determining treatment response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on tumor size using the RECIST criteria. Molecular targeted agents and immunotherapies often cause morphological change without reduction of tumor size. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate therapeutic response by conventional methods. Radiomics is the study of cancer imaging features that are extracted using machine learning and other semantic features...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Tanja Zitzelsberger, Astrid Scholz, Holger Hetterich, Roberto Lorbeer, Fabian Bamberg, Sigrid D Auweter, Margit Heier, Christa Meisinger, Wolfgang Rathmann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Maximilian F Reiser, Annette Peters, Christopher L Schlett
PURPOSE: Myocardial strain analysis is a promising tool for the detection of subtle but relevant alterations of left ventricular function, also in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, we determined the feasibility of cardiac magnetic resonance-based 2D global strain analysis using feature tracking and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a sample from the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects without a history of cardiocerebrovascular disease were enrolled in a substudy of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Navi Nallasamy, Jennifer Bullen, Wadih Karim, Gustavo A Heresi, Rahul D Renapurkar
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patterns of vascular and lung parenchymal enhancement in patients with suspected chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and in those with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and compare those two groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 186 thoracic DECT studies referred for evaluation of CTEPH or pulmonary hypertension. A total of 80 of these patients had a negative scan (control group), 13 had acute PE, and 53 had chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED)/CTEPH...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Mark M Hammer, Maria Barile, Wesley Bryson, Sanjeev Bhalla, Constantine A Raptis
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of thymic lesions and to review those features that may result in diagnostic uncertainty or error. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients with pathologically proven thymic epithelial neoplasms (TEN) and thymic cysts who underwent preoperative MRI. Clinical reports were evaluated for the radiologist's first-choice diagnosis, if not already known before the MRI...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz, Bertram J Jobst, Oliver Weinheimer, Daniela Gompelmann, Felix J F Herth, Claus P Heussel
Novel therapeutic options in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require delicate patient selection and thus demand for expert radiologists visually and quantitatively evaluating high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with additional functional acquisitions such as paired inspiratory-expiratory scans or dynamic airway CT. The differentiation between emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes by imaging has immediate clinical value for patient management. Assessment of emphysema severity, distribution patterns, and fissure integrity are essential for stratifying patients for different surgical and endoscopic lung volume reduction procedures...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Marleen Vonder, Mieneke Rook, Harry J M Groen, Geertruida H De Bock, Xueqian Xie, Maarten J Ijzerman, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Matthijs Oudkerk
Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent in the general population and expected to cause most deaths by 2050. For these "Big-3," treatment might cure, delay, or stop the progression of disease at a very early stage. Lung nodule growth rate (a biomarker for lung cancer), emphysema/air trapping (a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and coronary artery calcification (a biomarker for cardiovascular disease) are imaging biomarkers of early stages of the Big-3 that can be acquired with low-dose computed tomography (CT)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Gael Dournes, Adrian Dubois, Ilyes Benlala, Aude Lacourt, Christophe Paris, Antoine Gislard, Benedicte Clin, Jean-Claude Pairon, Fabien Baldacci, François Laurent
RATIONALE: As pleural plaque has been reported as a risk factor in the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma, a reproducible and precise method of measurement of pleural plaque volume (PPV) is needed to further describe these relationships. The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetric analysis of PPV in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 patients were retrospectively randomly selected from the multicenter APEXS (Asbestos Post Exposure Survey) study, which was held between 2003 and 2005...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Malcolm Anastasius, Ahmed Mugharbil, Marcelo G Zamorano, Darra T Murphy, Jonathan Leipsic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
U Joseph Schoepf, Jeffrey P Kanne, Dorith Shaham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Calin Manta, Mathias Meyer, Cyrill Géraud, Mareike Roscher, Sergij Goerdt, Stefan O Schoenberg, Thomas Henzler, Melissa M Ong
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of detecting calcified aortic plaques in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mice using a state-of-the-art human computed tomography (CT) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven ApoE-KO and 9 wild-type mice, all male, were examined in this study. After intraperitoneal injection of 6.6% ketamine all mice underwent 2 ultra-high-resolution CT protocols on a third-generation dual-source CT system at 120 kVp and 130 kVp tube voltage, both performed with a tube current time product of 1300 mAs...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Fides R Schwartz, Lynne M Koweek, Bjarne L Nørgaard
High-accuracy diagnostic imaging is needed to diagnose and manage coronary artery disease as well as to allow risk stratification for future events. Advancements in multidetector computed tomography and image postprocessing allow for routine computed tomography coronary angiography to provide anatomic luminal assessment similar to invasive coronary angiography, and, similarly, computational fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography facilitates determination of hemodynamically relevant stenosis comparable to invasive fractional flow reserve...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Adam Bernheim, Ashwani Gore, Nikhil Goyal
Cardiac masses encountered on imaging may present a diagnostic dilemma when discovered incidentally, or even when they serve as the principal reason for the examination. In this review, we present an algorithmic approach for assessing cardiac masses by integrating clinical information with radiologic findings to reach a specific diagnosis or a narrow differential diagnosis.
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Daiwei Han, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Mieneke Rook, Monique D Dorrius, Matthijs Oudkerk
While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Theo J Klinkenberg, Rienhart F E Wolf, Wobbe Bouma, Albert J H Suurmeijer, Massimo A Mariani
Hibernomas are rare benign soft tissue tumors derived from brown fat. This case report describes an axillary hibernoma with intrathoracic extension, presenting as a thoracic outlet syndrome. A multimodality imaging series illustrates the classic radiologic features of hibernoma as well as its highly unusual pattern of growth. The latter resulted in TOS with vascular displacement and osseous remodeling, features that are generally absent in lipomatous masses. Detailed preoperative imaging allowed to plan a single surgical procedure in which an extrathoracic axillary approach was combined with intrathoracic video-assisted thoracic surgery...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Gastón A Rodríguez-Granillo, Exequiel Reynoso, Carlos Capuñay, Charalambos Antoniades, Leslee J Shaw, Patricia Carrascosa
PURPOSE: The prognostic value of vascular calcifications as well as of regional fat depots has been reported separately, in population-based studies, and using gated-computed tomography (CT) examinations. We, therefore, explored the interplay and prognostic value of vascular calcifications and adipose tissue depots assessed during conventional nongated chest CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled a consecutive series of 1250 patients aged between 35 and 74 years who underwent clinically indicated chest CT scans...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Charles S White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Jiali Cai, Dongming Xu, Shiyuan Liu, Matthew D Cham
Lung cancer at its earliest stage is typically manifested on computed tomography as a pulmonary nodule, which could be detected by low-dose multidetector computed tomography technology and the use of thinner collimation. Within the last 2 decades, computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules has been developed to meet the increasing demand for lung cancer screening computed tomography with a larger set of images per scan. This review introduced the basic techniques and then summarized the up-to-date applications of CAD systems in clinical and research programs and in the low-dose lung cancer screening trials, especially in the detection of small pulmonary nodules and missed lung cancers...
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
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