Ursula Stochaj
Profilin is a small protein that controls actin polymerization in yeast and higher eukaryotes. In addition, profilin has emerged as a multifunctional protein that contributes to other processes in multicellular organisms. This study focuses on profilin (Pfy1) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary sequence of yeast Pfy1 and its metazoan orthologs diverge vastly. However, structural elements of profilin are conserved among different species. To date, the full spectrum of Pfy1 functions has yet to be defined...
December 4, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Sadhana R N Sudhakar, Li Wu, Shrinal Patel, Athanasios Zovoilis, James R Davie
Histone H4 asymmetrically dimethylated at arginine 3 (H4R3me2a) is an active histone mark catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), a major arginine methyltransferase in vertebrates catalyzing asymmetric dimethylation of arginine. H4R3me2a stimulates the activity of lysine acetyltransferases such as CBP/p300 which catalyze the acetylation of H3K27, a mark of active enhancers, super-enhancers, and promoters. There are a few studies on the genomic location of H4R3me2a. In chicken polychromatic erythrocytes, H4R3me2a is found in introns and intergenic regions and binds to the globin locus control region (a super-enhancer), and globin regulatory regions...
November 27, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Hongbo Luo, Wei Sun, Jin Shao, Huiping Ma, Zhengping Jia, Linlin Jing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Joadi Jacobs, Rosa Iranpour, Amir Barzegar Behrooz, Simone C da Silva Rosa, Saeid Ghavami
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common aggressive central nervous system (CNS) cancer. GBM has a high mortality rate, with a median survival time of 12-15 months after diagnosis. A poor prognosis and a shorter life expectancy may result from resistance to standard treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) has been the mainstay treatment for GBM, but unfortunately, there are high rates of resistance with GBM bypassing apoptosis. A proposed mechanism for bypassing apoptosis is decreased ceramide levels, and previous research has shown that within GBM cells, BCL2L13 can inhibit ceramide synthase...
November 21, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Saurabh Tiwari, Abdallah Shahat, John Kastelic, Nehal Thakor, Jacob Thundathil
Increasing evidence of sperm RNA's role in fertilization and embryonic development has provided impetus for its isolation and thorough characterization. Sperm are considered tough-to-lyse cells, due to compact condensed DNA in sperm heads. Lack of consensus among bovine sperm RNA isolation protocols introduces experimental variability in transcriptome studies. Here, we describe an optimized method for total RNA isolation from bovine sperm using TRIzol reagent. This study critically investigated effects of various lysis conditions on sperm RNA isolation...
November 10, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Sadhana R N Sudhakar, Shahper N Khan, Ariel Clark, Thordur Hendrickson-Rebizant, Shrinal Patel, Ted M Lakowski, James R Davie
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a major type I arginine methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of monomethyl and asymmetric dimethylarginine in protein substrates. It was first identified to asymmetrically methylate histone H4 at the 3rd arginine residue forming the H4R3me2a active histone mark. However, several protein substrates are now identified as being methylated by PRMT1. As a result of its association with diverse classes of substrates, PRMT1 regulates several biological processes like chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, and signal transduction...
November 3, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Hongjia Wang, Xin Lian, Kexin Wang, Shuye Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the hematological malignancies with a high recurrence rate. WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (WWP2) is identified as a pivotal regulator of tumor progression. This study aimed to assess the possible role of WWP2 in AML. Analysis of the GEPIA database indicated an elevated WWP2 expression in AML. We established stable WWP2-overexpressed or WWP2-silenced cells using lentivirus loaded with cDNA encoding WWP2 mRNA or shRNA targeting WWP2. Notably, WWP2 overexpression facilitated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, which was manifested as the increase of colony formation number, S-phase percentage and cell cycle related protein levels...
November 3, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Rong Zhao, Ting Li, Xinran Zhao, Ziyi Yang, Liying Ma, Xiaoxia Wang
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) serves as a reader of RNA m6A (N6 methyladenosine) modification to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Emerging evidence suggests that IGF2BP2 plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant development. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of IGF2BP2 in ESCC are not well understood. Here, we found that IGF2BP2 expression was upregulated in esophageal cancer tissues and ESCC cells, and IGF2BP2 overexpression enhanced proliferation, migration, invasion, and stem cell-like properties of ESCC cells...
November 2, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Amjad Khan, Rabia Javed, Tariq Sadad, Saeed Ali Bahaj, Gabriel Avelino Sampedro, Mideth Abisado
Globally, retinal disorders impact thousands of individuals. Early diagnosis and treatment of these anomalies might halt their development and prevent many people from developing preventable blindness. Iris spot segmentation is critical due to acquiring iris cellular images that suffer from the off-angle iris, noise, and specular reflection. Most currently used iris segmentation techniques are based on edge data and non-cellular images. The size of pigment patches on the surface of iris increases with eye syndrome...
October 31, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Stacey N Lee, Victoria Hoskin, Céline M Laumont, Shannon Snelling, Lorenzo Lindo, Lou Bird, Vera Samarkina, Chantale Thurston, Grace Fox, Sarah Ivanco, Megan Mahoney, Jeanette E Boudreau, Sarah Nersesian
From 19 to 21 November 2022, BioCanRx held its first post-pandemic in-person Summit for Cancer Immunotherapy in Montreal, Canada. The meeting was well attended by patients, trainees, researchers, clinicians, and industry professionals, who came together to discuss the current state and future of biotherapeutics for cancer in Canada and beyond. Three plenaries, three keynote speakers, a lively debate, and panel discussions, together with poster sessions and a social event, made the event memorable and productive...
October 23, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Bin Zhang, Ruowen Sun, Min Gu, Zehui Jiang, Y E Wang, Linlin Zhang, Xiaoyang Liu, Zuofei Chi
Acute T-lymphocyte leukemia (T-ALL) is a malignant tumor disease. RNA-binding protein Neotumor ventral antigen-1 (NOVA1) is highly expressed in bone marrow mononuclear cells of T-ALL patients, while its role in T-ALL progression remains unknown. Here, the gain- and loss-of-function studies for NOVA1 were performed using lentivirus-mediated NOVA1 overexpression/knockdown in Jurkat and CCRF-CEM cells. NOVA1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. NOVA1 knockdown increased the apoptosis rate of T-ALL cells...
October 10, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Darren Gemmill, Corey Nelson, Maulik Badmalia, Higor S Pereira, Liam Kerr, Michael T Wolfinger, Trushar R Patel
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remains a worldwide concern, and currently, no effective treatments or vaccines are available. Novel therapeutics are an avenue of interest that could probe viral RNA-human protein communication to stop viral replication. One specific RNA structure, G-quadruplexes (G4s), possess various roles in viruses and all domains of life, including transcription and translation regulation, genome stability, and serving as nucleation points for RNA liquid-liquid phase separation. Previous G4 studies on ZIKV using a Quadruplex forming G-Rich Sequences (QGRS) Mapper located a potential G-quadruplex sequence (PQS) in the 3' terminal region (TR) and was validated structurally using a 25-mer oligo...
September 29, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Nour El Houda Hammami, Natacha Mérindol, Mélodie B Plourde, Tara Maisonnet, Sophie Lebel, Lionel Berthoux
Human MURFs (muscle-specific RING finger) are members of the TRIM (tripartite motif) family of proteins characterized by their COS (C-terminal subgroup one signature) domain. MURFs play a role in sarcomere formation and microtubule dynamics. It was previously established that some TRIMs undergo post-translational modification by SUMO. In this study, we explored the putative SUMOylation of MURF proteins as well as their interactions with SUMO. MURF proteins (TRIM54, TRIM55 and TRIM63) were not found to be SUMOylated...
September 13, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Alyssa Ialongo, Ssu-Yu Yeh, Ho Sung Rhee
The International Asilomar Chromatin, Chromosomes, and Epigenetics Conference was held online from December 8 - 10, 2022. Topics of this year's conference included chromosome dysregulation, genome integrity, nuclear organization, regulation of chromatin, epigenetics, transcription, and gene regulation in cell differentiation and disease. The meeting featured four keynote speakers including Yamini Dalal (National Cancer Institute, USA), Meaghan Jones (University of Manitoba, Canada), Pedro Rocha (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, USA), and Vincent Pasque (University of Leuven, Belgium)...
August 29, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Sabateeshan Mathavarajah, Graham Dellaire
The cGAS-STING axis integrates DNA damage and cellular stress with type I interferon (IFN) signalling to facilitate transcriptional changes underlying inflammatory stress responses. The cGAS-STING pathway responds to cytosolic DNA in the form of dsDNA, micronuclei, and LINE-1 (L1) retroelements. L1 retroelements are a class of self-propagating non-LTR transposons that have remained highly active in our genomes. L1 retroelements are emerging as important inducers of cGAS-STING and interferon signalling, which are often dysregulated in several diseases including cancer...
August 29, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Tayyab Ateeq, Zaid Bin Faheem, Mohamed Ghoneimy, Dr Jehad Ali PhD Computer Engineering, Yang Li, Abdullah Baz
Cerebral Microbleeds (CMBs) in the brain are the essential indicators of critical brain disorders such as dementia and ischemic stroke. Generally, CMBs are detected manually by experts which is an exhaustive task with limited productivity. Since, CMBs have complex morphological nature, so manual detection is prone to errors. This paper presents a machine learning-based automated Cerebral Microbleeds detection technique in the brain SWI scans based on statistical feature extraction and classification. The proposed method consists of three steps: 1...
August 28, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Zhigang Wang, Erxing Tao, Yiming Chen, Qi Wang, Min Liu, Liang Wei, Siyi Xu, Wei Chen, Chunlong Zhong
NDUFA4 is a component of respiratory chain-oxidative phosphorylation pathway. NDUFA4 is highly expressed in tumor tissues, but little is known about the function of NDUFA4 in head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL). We examined NDUFA4 expression in tissues from 10 HNPGL patients and 6 controls using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. NDUFA4 knockdown PGL-626 cells were established by using lentivirus infection and puromycin screening. Cell viability, ATP production, lipid reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays were performed to investigate the ferroptotic effects in NDUFA4 deficiency HNPGL cancer cells...
August 21, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Johan Sebastian Lopez Salguero, Melissa Rodríguez Rendón, Jessica Triviño Valencia, Jorge Andrés Cuellar Gil, Carlos Andrés Naranjo Galvis, Oscar Moscoso Londoño, César Leandro Londoño Calderón, Fabio Augusto Gonzáles Osorio, Reinel Tabares Soto
Here, a machine learning tool (YOLOv5) enables the detection of Cryptosporidium microorganisms using optical and phase contrast microscope images. The two databases were processed using 520 images (optical microscopy) and 1200 images (phase contrast microscopy). It used Python libraries to label, standardize the size, and crop the images to generate the input tensors to the YOLOv5 network (s, m, and l). It implemented two experiments using randomly initialized weights in optical and phase contrast microscope images...
August 16, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Ganesan Arunkumar
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are significant contributors in maintaining genomic integrity through epigenetic regulation. LncRNAs can interact with chromatin-modifying complexes in both cis and trans pathways, drawing them to specific genomic loci and influencing gene expression via DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. They can also operate as building blocks to assemble different chromatin-modifying components, facilitating their interactions and gene regulatory functions. Deregulation of these molecules has been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders...
August 14, 2023: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
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