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Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Mulu Geletu, Zaid Taha, Rozanne Arulanandam, Reva Mohan, Hikmat H Assi, Maria G Castro, Ivan Robert Nabi, Patrick T Gunning, Leda Raptis
We recently demonstrated that Cav1 is a negative regulator of Stat3 activity in mouse fibroblasts and human lung carcinoma SHP77 cells. We now examined whether the cellular context may affect their levels and relationship between them, by assessing Cav1 and Stat3-ptyr705 levels in different lines. In MDA-MB-231, A549 and HaCat cells Cav1 levels were high and Stat3-ptyr705 levels were low, consistent with the notion of a negative effect of the endogenous Cav1 upon Stat3-ptyr705 levels in these lines. In addition, manipulation of Cav1 levels revealed a negative effect in MCF7 and mouse fibroblast cells, while Cav1 upregulation induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells...
April 15, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Zoe E Gillespie, Tanner Bakhshi, Maria Laura Sosa Ponce, Philippe T Georgel, Juan Ausio
The 40th International Asilomar Chromatin, Chromosomes and Epigenetics Conference was held in the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Groove California, USA on December 6Th-9th 2018. The organizing committee consisted of established scientists in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics: Sally Pasion and Michael Goldman from the Biology Department, San Francisco State University, CA, USA, Philippe Georgel from the Department of Biological Sciences, Marshal University, WV, USA, Juan Ausió from the Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, BC, Canada and Christopher Eskiw from the Department of Biochemistry, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada...
April 11, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Jianrong Wu, Juan Miao, Ye Ding, Yayun Zhang, Xiaohao Huang, Xue Zhou, Ranran Tang
Numerous studies have implied that CPSF4 is over-expressed in a large percentage of human lung cancers and identified as a potential oncogene of human lung tumor. Down-regulation of CPSF4 inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cells proliferation and promoted lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis. Our previous study also suggested that CPSF4 overexpression was observed in breast cancer, and closely associated with poor prognosis. This study is to identify valuable microRNAs (miRNAs), which target CPSF4 to modulate BC cells proliferation...
April 10, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Amit Koul, Soumya Deo, Evan P Booy, George Orriss, Matthew Genung, Sean A McKenna
Human 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon inducible proteins which, upon activation by double-stranded RNA, polymerize ATP into 2'-5' linked oligoadenylates. Here, we probe the RNA cofactor specificity of the two smallest isozymes, OAS1 and OAS2. First, we demonstrate the purification of recombinant OAS2 from human cells and quantified enzymatic activity relative to OAS1. We then confirmed that both OAS2 domains, as opposed to only the domain containing the canonical catalytic aspartic acid triad, are required for enzymatic activity...
April 9, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Garret N Gomez, Fareeha Abrar, Maya P Dodhia, Fabiola G Gonzalez, Anita Nag
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) is a key factor in virus-induced down-regulation of host gene expression. In infected cells, nsp1 engages in a multi-pronged mechanism to inhibit host gene expression by binding to the 40S ribosome to block the assembly of translationally competent ribosome, and then inducing endonucleolytic cleavage and the degradation of host mRNAs. Here, we report a previously undetected mechanism by which nsp1 exploits the nuclear pore complex and disrupts nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of biomolecules...
April 3, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Marwa G A Hegazy, Manal A Emam, Hemmat I Khattab, Nesma M Helal
This study was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms through which Echinops spinosus (ES) extract demonstrates nephroprotective effect on the paracetamol acetominophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Twenty-four Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups (six rats each). The placebo group was orally administered sterile saline, the APAP group received APAP (200 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 i.p.) daily, the ES group was given ES extract orally (250 mg/kg), and the APAP + ES group received APAP as for the APAP group and administrated the ES extract as for the ES group...
April 1, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Darren Gemmill, Simmone D'souza, Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Trushar R Patel
RNA is involved in all domains of life, playing critical roles in a host of gene expression processes, host-defense mechanisms, cell proliferation, and diseases. A critical component in many of these events is the ability for RNA to interact with proteins. Over the past few decades, our understanding of such RNA-protein interactions and their importance has driven the search and development of new techniques for the identification of RNA-binding proteins. In determining which proteins bind to the RNA of interest, it is often useful to use the approach where the RNA molecule is the 'bait' and allow it to capture proteins from a lysate or other relevant solution...
March 30, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Azadeh Aminzadeh, Ayda Salarinejad
Lead is a major environmental pollutant, which causes serious adverse effects on biological systems and cells. In this study, we examined the effect of citicoline on lead-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were pre-treated with citicoline and then exposed to lead for 48 h. The effect of citicoline on cell survival was examined by MTT assay. In addition, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol groups, total antioxidant power (TAP), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated...
March 29, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Tantip Boonsong, Siriporn Pakwan, Wanida Chawnawa
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of germinated (GPE) and non-germinated peanut (NGPE) extracts on adipogenesis and oxidative status in normal and oxidative stress-induced 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. The treated cells were analysed for cell growth, lipid accumulation, intracellular ROS and the expression of mRNAs and proteins related to adipogenesis and antioxidative defense systems. The results indicated that 9 day-germinated peanut extract (9GPE) reduced lipid contents and mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes greater than 1-day germinated (1GPE) and NGPE, respectively...
March 25, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Yu-Fei Wang, Jie Han
Otoraplin (OTOR), recognized as an important cochlear gene, has a predicted secretion signal peptide sequence and harbors a high degree of cross-species conservation. However, its role in tumor progression is relatively unclear, especially in breast carcinoma (BC). This study aimed to investigate clinicopathologic significance of OTOR in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) with high metastasis and unveil its biological function in BC. OTOR was highly overexpressed in BC tissues and cells compared with normal samples...
March 21, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Malik Zibouche, Françoise Illien, Jesus Ayala-Sanmartin
The members of the annexin family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins participate in different cellular processes. Annexin A2 binds to S100A10 forming a functional heterotetrameric protein that has been involved in many cellular functions such as exocytosis, endocytosis, cell junction formation and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Herein, we studied annexin A2 cellular movements and looked for its partners during epithelial cell differentiation. By using immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry and western blot analyses after S100A10 affinity column separation, we identified several annexin A2-S100A10 partner candidates...
March 18, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Qizhi Sun, Mohamed I I Gatie, Gregory M Kelly
PARP2 belongs to a family of proteins involved in cell differentiation, DNA damage repair, cellular energy expenditure, chromatin modeling and cell differentiation. In addition to these overlapping functions with PARP1, PARP2 participates in spermatogenesis, T-cell maturation, extraembryonic endoderm formation, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. The function(s) of PARP2 is far from complete, and the mechanism(s) by which the gene and protein are regulated are unknown. In this study, we found that two different mechanisms are used in vitro to regulate PARP2 levels...
March 17, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Iris Mattos Santos-Pirath, Laura Otto Walter, Mariana Franzoni Maioral, Patricia Devantier Neuenfeldt, Ricardo José Nunes, Maria Cláudia Santos-Silva
T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is an aggressive hematological malignancy originating from the malignant transformation of progenitor T cells at different stages of development. The treatment causes severe adverse effects and is associated with relapses and high morbidity and mortality rates. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of 28 new compounds containing 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl analogues on hematological neoplastic cells lines. Cytotoxicity screening by the MTT method revealed that compound 1d was the most promising...
March 8, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Qiu-Ning Lin, Yong-Dong Liu, Si-En Guo, Rui Zhou, Qun Huang, Zhan-Man Zhang, Xiao Qin
BACKGROUND: To address the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammation effects of Sch B in atherosclerosis, we performed the investigation on injured HMEC-1 and HUVEC-12 cells induced by high glucose (HG). METHODS: Western blotting was performed to detect the protein levels of Hsp27, Noxa, TLR5, p-IκBα and p-p65 in HG induced cells, while ELISA assay was used to analyze the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-1β in cells with Hsp27 or Noxa stable expression...
February 28, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Suphia Rafique
In the present work, tropical maize genotypes were evaluated against the combined stresses (drought x low-N, and waterlogging x low-N) that were set to 30 days old maize seedlings concurrently. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was used to examine the protein changes induced by combined stresses, in leaves, of tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Moreover, some physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed, to understand the physiological status of tolerant and susceptible genotypes under combined stresses...
February 26, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Yuhui Yu, Yongsheng Wang, Xiangying Xiao, Wei Chang, Liqiang Hu, Weiyun Yao, Zhangxuan Qian, Wei Wu
Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Tumor response rate of liver cancer patients towards systemic chemotherapy is low and chemoresistance can easily develop. Identifying novel molecules that can repress drug resistance and metastasis of liver cancer will facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study is to determine the roles of NUAK1 and miR-204 in the drug resistance and metastasis of liver cancer and to reveal their relationship. We found that NUAK1 was increased in the tumor of primary liver cancer...
February 26, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Heqian Kuang, Cheng-Hsin Wei, Tiannan Wang, Jennifer Eastep, Yang Li, Guoxun Chen
Whether vitamin A (VA) has a role in the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with intake of a high-fat diet (HFD) is unclear. Sprague-Dawley rats after weaning were fed an isocaloric VA sufficient HFD (VAS-HFD) or a VA deficient HFD (VAD-HFD) for eight weeks. Body mass, food intake, liver and adipose tissue mass, and the hepatic expression levels of key proteins for metabolism were determined. VAD-HFD rats had lower body, liver and epididymal fat mass than VAS-HFD rats. VAD-HFD rats had lower hepatic protein expression levels of cytochrome P450 26A1, glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase than VAS-HFD rats...
February 25, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Pan Tan, Yong-Hong Guo, Jun-Kun Zhan, Li-Min Long, Mei-Li Xu, Ling Ye, Xin-Yu Ma, Xing-Jun Cui, Hai-Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major threats to human life and health, and vascular aging is an important cause of its occurrence. Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a kind of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which plays important roles in cell senescence. However, the role and mechanism of ANRIL in senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are unclear. METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle were evaluated using MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively...
February 21, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Xianglun Zhang, Xiuwen Tan, Yifan Liu, Wei You, Guifen Liu, Xiaomu Liu, Qing Jin, Chen Wei, Fachun Wan, Hongbo Zhao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) on the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and barrier function in bovine jejunum epithelial cells (BJECs). BJECs were exposed (or not) to 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h to generate a pro-inflammatory model. The cells were then treated with different concentrations of Ala-Gln (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol/L) to detect the potential regulatory effect on the inflammation and barrier function of BJECs. LPS decreased cell viability and enhanced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8...
February 16, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Shannon N Tessier, Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) are excellent models for studying acute brain ischemia since they show high resistance to reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery without evidence of neurological damage. In the present study, we analyzed the insulin signaling pathway and regulation of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in three regions of ground squirrel brain (forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem), comparing summer, late torpor, and interbout arousal conditions. We found select decreases in phospho-Akt in the cerebellum during torpor as compared to summer animals, as well as select increases in the forebrain during interbout arousal, suggesting that Akt may influence either metabolism or cytoprotective pathways...
February 14, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
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