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Animal Genetics

X Du, J Guo, Q Y Cao, W Yao, Q F Li
In sheep, increased expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in the ovary is a common feature of ewes that carry the prolific allele. In this study, we demonstrated that polymorphisms in the core promoter of the FSHR gene are associated with the reproductive performance of Hu sheep and are involved in the transcriptional activity of FSHR. An approximately 1.5-kb region of the 5' flanking sequence of the Hu sheep FSHR gene was isolated and characterized, and its core promoter was located in the 5' regulatory region, from nucleotides -580 to -342...
May 15, 2019: Animal Genetics
H Han, B Wallner, D Rigler, D E MacHugh, D Manglai, E W Hill
The Mongolian horse represents one of the most ancient extant horse populations. In this study we determined the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) haplotype distribution in 60 Chinese Mongolian horses representing five distinct populations. Cosmopolitan male lineages were predominant in horses from one improved (Sanhe), one Chinese Mongolian subtype (Baicha Iron Hoof) and one indigenous (Abaga Black) population. In contrast, autochthonous Y chromosome diversity was evident among the two landrace populations (Wushen and Wuzhumuqin), as the majority of their MSY haplotypes were situated at root nodes in a network...
May 9, 2019: Animal Genetics
X Ma, P Li, Q Zhang, L He, G Su, Y Huang, Z Lu, W Hu, H Ding, R Huang
Embryonic survival rate, an important factor in the fecundity of sows, is affected by endometrium-secreting histotroph. A higher concentration of calcium ion has been observed in the uterus of highly prolific Erhualian sows (EH) compared with those of less prolific (EL) sows. This suggests that EH sows have better establishment and maintenance of pregnancies, thus increasing embryonic survival rate during the peri-implantation period. To understand the mechanisms of how the endometrium-secreting histotroph affects embryonic survival rate during the Erhualian peri-implantation period, the expression patterns of endometrial mRNA in the EH and EL sows on day 12 of gestation were analyzed using RNA sequencing technology...
May 6, 2019: Animal Genetics
L Xiao, C He, L Luo, K Yang, L Yang, K Xu, Y Zheng, C Gu, Q Huang, H Meng
Pullorum is a bacterial disease that threatens the modern poultry industry. Over the years, research on this topic has focused mainly on its epidemiology, whereas the hosts' genetic basis of infection is still vague. In order to identify chickens' genes associated with pullorum, we sequenced 300 New Pudong chicken by double digest genotyping-by-sequencing. We obtained 1 527 953 SNPs for a genome-wide association analysis, which identified 43 genome-wide significant markers. Most of the significant SNPs were in the interval of 57...
April 24, 2019: Animal Genetics
H M Holl, K M Pflug, K M Yates, K Hoefs-Martin, C Shepard, D G Cook, C Lafayette, S A Brooks
Variations in the SLC45A2 gene are responsible for the dilution phenotypes cream and pearl in domestic horses. Cream dilution is inherited in an incomplete dominant manner, diluting only red in the heterozygous state but both red and black pigments when two alleles are present. The pearl dilution is recessive and dilutes only the red and black pigment in the homozygous state or when paired with a cream allele. Horses that inherit one copy of pearl (Cprl ) and one copy of the dominant cream allele (CC r ) display a dilution phenotype similar to that of homozygous cream, suggesting that pearl is the result of a different variation in the same gene responsible for cream...
April 21, 2019: Animal Genetics
Y Xu, H Liu, Y Jiang, W Fan, J Hu, Y Zhang, Z Guo, M Xie, W Huang, X Liu, Z Zhou, S Hou
Plasma cholinesterase (PCHE) activity is an important auxiliary test in human clinical medicine. It can distinguish liver diseases from non-liver diseases and help detect organophosphorus poisoning. Animal experiments have confirmed that PCHE activity is associated with obesity and hypertension and changes with physiological changes in an animal's body. The objective of this study was to locate the genetic loci responsible for PCHE activity variation in ducks. PCHE activity of Pekin duck × mallard F2 ducks at 3 and 8 weeks of age were analyzed, and genome-wide association studies were conducted...
April 17, 2019: Animal Genetics
E Clancey, J N Kiser, J G N Moraes, J C Dalton, T E Spencer, H L Neibergs
Milk production traits, such as 305-day milk yield (305MY), have been under direct selection to improve production in dairy cows. Over the past 50 years, the average milk yield has nearly doubled, and over 56% of the increase is attributable to genetic improvement. As such, additional improvements in milk yield are still possible as new loci are identified. The objectives of this study were to detect SNPs and gene sets associated with 305MY in order to identify new candidate genes contributing to variation in milk production...
April 17, 2019: Animal Genetics
A M Sutera, V Riggio, S Mastrangelo, R Di Gerlando, M T Sardina, R Pong-Wong, M Tolone, B Portolano
Genome-wide association studies (GWASes) have become a powerful tool for identifying genomic regions associated with important traits in livestock. Milk production traits in dairy sheep are measured at different time points during their life span. Using phenotypic data generated from longitudinal traits could improve the power of association studies but until now have received less attention in GWASes as a methodology and has not been implemented. The aim of this study was to carry out a GWAS for milk production traits in Valle del Belice sheep using repeated measures...
April 14, 2019: Animal Genetics
X Liu, S Wei, S Deng, D Li, K Liu, B Shan, Y Shao, W Wei, J Chen, L Zhang
Many types of RNAs, including messenger RNAs (mRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), play crucial roles in regulating fat cell differentiation and tissue development. However, the expression profiles of these RNAs in different adipose tissues are still largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we performed a transcriptome analysis of mRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs obtained from intramuscular adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and mesenteric adipose tissue of Chinese Erhualian pigs...
April 14, 2019: Animal Genetics
B W Kirkpatrick, R M Thallman, L A Kuehn
Previous work identified SNP associations with twinning rate in the US Holstein population and developed a model for genomic prediction. The current study was conducted to assess the association of these SNPs with twinning rate and ovulation rate in a genetically diverse, outbred population selected for twinning and ovulation rate. A total of 18 SNPs that were components of a prediction equation for twinning rate in Holstein cattle were genotyped on 731 animals from the USDA Meat Animal Research Center production efficiency or twinning population...
April 12, 2019: Animal Genetics
T Ren, W Li, D Liu, K Liang, X Wang, H Li, R Jiang, Y Tian, X Kang, Z Li
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase-like (QPCTL) is an isoenzyme of glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase (QPCT). QPCTL and QPCT catalyze the formation of N-terminal modified pyroglutamate-fractalkine and the chemokine CCL2. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between insertions/deletions in the chicken QPCTL promoter region with growth traits in chickens. We first detected two insertion/deletion variants of QPCTL via whole-genome resequencing analysis of DNA samples from Xichuan chickens...
April 11, 2019: Animal Genetics
N Sevane, C R Sanz, S Dunner
Four loci seem responsible for the dilution of the basic coat colours in horse: Dun (D), Silver Dapple (Z), Champagne (CH) and Cream (C). Apart from the current phenotypes ascribed to these loci, pearl has been described as yet another diluted coat colour in this species. To date, this coat colour seems to segregate only in the Iberian breeds Purebred Spanish horse and Lusitano and has also been described in breeds of Iberian origin, such as Quarter Horses and Paint Horse, where it is referred to as the 'Barlink Factor'...
April 10, 2019: Animal Genetics
T P Bilton, A J Chappell, S M Clarke, R Brauning, K G Dodds, J C McEwan, S J Rowe
Gender assignment errors are common in some animal species and lead to inaccuracies in downstream analyses. Procedures for detecting gender misassignment are available for array-based SNP data but are still being developed for genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. In this study, we describe a method for using GBS data to predict gender using X and Y chromosomal SNPs. From a set of 1286 X chromosomal and 23 Y chromosomal deer (Cervus sp.) SNPs discovered from GBS sequence reads, a prediction model was built using a training dataset of 422 Red deer and validated using a test dataset of 868 Red deer and Wapiti deer...
April 7, 2019: Animal Genetics
A V Igoshin, N S Yudin, N M Belonogova, D M Larkin
Body weight is a complex trait in cattle associated with commonly used commercial breeding measurements related to growth. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weight have been identified in cattle so far, searching for genetic determinants in different breeds or environments is promising. Therefore, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two cattle populations from the Russian Federation (Siberian region) using the GGP HD150K array containing 139 376 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...
April 7, 2019: Animal Genetics
K Pokharel, M Weldenegodguad, R Popov, M Honkatukia, H Huuki, H Lindeberg, J Peippo, T Reilas, S Zarovnyaev, J Kantanen
Indigenous cattle breeds in northern Eurasia have adapted to harsh climate conditions. The local breeds are important genetic resources with cultural and historical heritages, and therefore, their preservation and genetic characterization are important. In this study, we profiled the whole-blood transcriptome of two native breeds (Northern Finncattle and Yakutian cattle) and one commercial breed (Holstein) using high-throughput RNA sequencing. More than 15 000 genes were identified, of which two, 89 and 162 genes were significantly upregulated exclusively in Northern Finncattle, Yakutian cattle and Holstein cattle respectively...
April 7, 2019: Animal Genetics
Juyoung Lee, Minh Thong Le, Min-Kyeung Choi, Van Chanh Quy Le, Hojun Choi, Hyejeong Lee, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim, Chankyu Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2019: Animal Genetics
C Du, T Deng, Y Zhou, T Ye, Z Zhou, S Zhang, B Shao, P Wei, H Sun, F A Khan, L Yang, G Hua
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is of great economic importance as a provider of milk and meat in many countries. However, the milk yield of buffalo is much lower than that of Holstein cows. Selection of candidate genes related to milk production traits can be applied to improve buffalo milk performance. A systematic review of studies of these candidate genes will be greatly beneficial for researchers to timely and efficiently understand the research development of molecular markers for buffalo milk production traits...
April 1, 2019: Animal Genetics
C Fraslin, S Brard-Fudulea, J D'Ambrosio, A Bestin, M Charles, P Haffray, E Quillet, F Phocas
In rainbow trout farming, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease, is responsible for important economic losses. Resistance to F. psychrophilum is heritable, and several quantitative trait loci (QTL) with moderate effects have been detected, opening up promising perspectives for the genetic improvement of resistance. In most studies however, resistance to F. psychrophilum was assessed in experimental infectious challenges using injection as the infection route, which is not representative of natural infection...
March 18, 2019: Animal Genetics
S Yu, G Wang, J Liao
The agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) is a widely studied pigmentation gene that plays an important role in melanin synthesis. To determine the variety of ASIP expression in the Muchuan Black-Bone chicken, we examined genetic variation in the ASIP promoter region. A single nucleotide polymorphism (c.-1826A>T) was found to be associated with the skin color (dorsal and subalar) of black-bone chicken. Individuals with TT and AT genotypes had higher ASIP mRNA levels in the skin than did those with the AA genotype (P < 0...
March 18, 2019: Animal Genetics
R Qiao, X Li, X Han, K Wang, G Lv, G Ren, X Li
To investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of Henan indigenous pig breeds, samples from a total of 78 pigs of 11 breeds were collected, including four pig populations from Henan Province, three Western commercial breeds, three Chinese native pig breeds from other provinces and one Asian wild boar. The genotyping datasets were obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing technology. We found a high degree of polymorphism and rapid linkage disequilibrium decay in Henan pigs. A neighbor-joining tree, principal component analysis and structure analysis revealed that the Huainan and Erhualian pigs were clustered together and that the Queshan black pigs were clearly grouped together but that the Nanyang and Yuxi pigs were extensively admixed with Western pigs...
March 18, 2019: Animal Genetics
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