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Language and Cognitive Processes

Petra Hendriks, Charlotte Koster, John C J Hoeks
In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the perspective of a hypothetical listener and (2) whether the possible impact of perspective taking on referential choice changes with increasing age, with its associated changes in cognitive capacity. In the production task, participants described picture-based stories featuring two characters of the same gender, making it necessary to use unambiguous forms; in the comprehension task, participants interpreted potentially ambiguous pronouns at the end of similar orally presented stories...
May 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Kimberly Leiken, Liina Pylkkänen
This study addresses a much-debated effect on a much-debated region: the increase of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) activation associated with object-extracted relative clauses. This haemodynamic result is one of the most central and most cited findings in the cognitive neuroscience of syntax and it has robustly contributed to the popular association of Broca's region with syntax. Our study had two goals: (1) to characterise the timing of this classic effect with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and (2) to connect it to psycholinguistic research on the effects of similarity-based interference during sentence processing...
April 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Aaron D Mitchel, Daniel J Weiss
Speech is typically a multimodal phenomenon, yet few studies have focused on the exclusive contributions of visual cues to language acquisition. To address this gap, we investigated whether visual prosodic information can facilitate speech segmentation. Previous research has demonstrated that language learners can use lexical stress and pitch cues to segment speech and that learners can extract this information from talking faces. Thus, we created an artificial speech stream that contained minimal segmentation cues and paired it with two synchronous facial displays in which visual prosody was either informative or uninformative for identifying word boundaries...
2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Sarah Laszlo, Kara D Federmeier
Visual word recognition is a process that, both hierarchically and in parallel, draws on different types of information ranging from perceptual to orthographic to semantic. A central question concerns when and how these different types of information come online and interact after a word form is initially perceived. Numerous studies addressing aspects of this question have been conducted with a variety of techniques (e.g., behavior, eye-tracking, ERPs), and divergent theoretical models, suggesting different overall speeds of word processing, have coalesced around clusters of mostly method-specific results...
2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Lyn Frazier, Charles Clifton, Katy Carlson, Jesse A Harris
Two partially independent issues are addressed in two auditory rating studies: under what circumstances is a sub-string of a sentence identified as a stand-alone sentence, and under what circumstances do globally ill-formed but 'locally coherent' analyses (Tabor, Galantucci, & Richardson., 2004) emerge? A new type of locally coherent structure is established in Experiment 1, where a that-less complement clause is at least temporarily analyzed as a stand-alone sentence when it corresponds to a prosodic phrase...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Frank H Guenther
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Kristen M Tooley, Tamara Y Swaab, Megan A Boudewyn, Megan Zirnstein, Matthew J Traxler
Three experiments investigated factors contributing to syntactic priming during on-line comprehension. In all of the experiments, a prime sentence containing a reduced relative clause was presented prior to a target sentence that contained the same structure. Previous studies have shown that people respond more quickly when a syntactically related prime sentence immediately precedes a target. In the current study, ERP and eyetracking measures were used to assess whether priming in sentence comprehension persists when one or more unrelated filler sentences appear between the prime and the target...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Tamar H Gollan, Victor S Ferreira, Cynthia Cera, Susanna Flett
Bilinguals experience more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states than monolinguals, but it is not known if this is caused in part by access of representations from both of bilinguals' languages, or dual-language activation. In two translation priming experiments, bilinguals were given three Spanish primes and produced either semantically (Experiment 1) or phonologically related Spanish words (Experiment 2) to each. They then named a picture in English. On critical trials, one of the primes was the Spanish translation of the English picture name...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Jean K Gordon, Jake C Kurczek
Aging affects the ability to retrieve words for production, despite maintainence of lexical knowledge. In this study, we investigate the influence of lexical variables on picture naming accuracy and latency in adults ranging in age from 22 to 86 years. In particular, we explored the influence of phonological neighborhood density, which has been shown to exert competitive effects on word recognition, but to facilitate word production, a finding with implications for models of the lexicon. Naming responses were slower and less accurate for older participants, as expected...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Gregory Hickok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Gregory Hickok
Speech production has been studied within a number of traditions including linguistics, psycholinguistics, motor control, neuropsychology, and neuroscience. These traditions have had limited interaction, ostensibly because they target different levels of speech production or different dimensions such as representation, processing, or implementation. However, closer examination of reveals a substantial convergence of ideas across the traditions and recent proposals have suggested that an integrated approach may help move the field forward...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Clinton L Johns, Peter C Gordon, Debra L Long, Tamara Y Swaab
Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists...
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Gary S Dell
This comment offers observations that support Hickok's claim that phoneme sized representations are involved more in speech production than speech perception, but notes that languages may vary with regard to the importance of the phoneme.
January 1, 2014: Language and Cognitive Processes
Sami Boudelaa, William D Marslen-Wilson
The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA)...
December 2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Sudha Arunachalam, Emily Escovar, Melissa A Hansen, Sandra R Waxman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Cristina Baus, Manuel Carreiras, Karen Emmorey
We examined whether iconicity in American Sign Language (ASL) enhances translation performance for new learners and proficient signers. Fifteen hearing nonsigners and 15 proficient ASL-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task and a production translation task. Nonsigners were taught 28 ASL verbs (14 iconic; 14 non-iconic) prior to performing these tasks. Only new learners benefited from sign iconicity, recognizing iconic translations faster and more accurately and exhibiting faster forward (English-ASL) and backward (ASL-English) translation times for iconic signs...
March 1, 2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Eduardo Navarrete, Bradford Z Mahon
The Response Exclusion Hypothesis localises the semantic interference effect as observed in the picture-word paradigm at a postlexical level of processing. An important aspect of this proposal is that the ease with which distractor words can be excluded from production at the response level is determined by the degree to which they satisfy criteria demanded of a correct response. This proposal predicts that naming a picture of a "rose" with the response "flower" will be slower with the distractor "rose" than a distractor word that would not be appropriate for the picture (e...
2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Aya Meltzer-Asscher, Julia Schuchard, Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Cynthia K Thompson
This study examines the neural correlates of processing verbal entries with multiple argument structures using fMRI. We compared brain activation in response to 'alternating transitivity' verbs, corresponding to two different verbal alternates - one transitive and one intransitive - and simple verbs, with only one, intransitive, thematic grid. Fourteen young healthy participants performed a lexical decision task with the two verb types. Results showed significantly greater activation in the angular and supramarginal gyri (BAs 39 and 40) extending to the posterior superior and middle temporal gyri bilaterally, for alternating compared to simple verbs...
2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Scott H Fraundorf, Duane G Watson
This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned...
2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
Jesse A Harris, Charles Clifton, Lyn Frazier
Three studies investigated how readers interpret sentences with variable quantificational domains, e.g., The army was mostly in the capital, where mostly may quantify over individuals or parts (Most of the army was in the capital) or over times (The army was in the capital most of the time). It is proposed that a general conceptual economy principle, No Extra Times (Majewski 2006, in preparation), discourages the postulation of potentially unnecessary times, and thus favors the interpretation quantifying over parts...
2013: Language and Cognitive Processes
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