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Glycoconjugate Journal

Albert M Wu, Jia Hau Liu
Lectins, in combination with our established enzyme-linked lectin sorbent assay (ELLSA) and inhibition study, have been used as powerful tools in many glycoconjugate recognition studies. In this short review, we highlight the following: (i) The recognition profiles of Gal/GalNAc-specific lectins were updated and upgraded. (ii) Based on the cross-specificities of applied lectins, a new classification system was introduced. (iii) Applications of lectins for the detection and identification of N-glycan and/or Tn glycotope in glycoconjugates were intergraded...
April 16, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
So Young Kim, Joydip Kundu, Asher Williams, Anastasia S Yandulskaya, James R Monaghan, Rebecca L Carrier, Robert J Linhardt
Retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are major causes of blindness worldwide. Humans cannot regenerate retina, however, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a laboratory-bred salamander, can regenerate retinal tissue throughout adulthood. Classic signaling pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in axolotl regeneration. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interaction with FGF is required for signal transduction in this pathway. GAGs are anionic polysaccharides in extracellular matrix (ECM) that have been implicated in limb and lens regeneration of amphibians, however, GAGs have not been investigated in the context of retinal regeneration...
April 8, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Sindre Lee, Svein O Kolset, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Trine M Reine
The effects of acute and long-term exercise on syndecans and the relationship to insulin sensitivity are not fully explored. We aimed to examine the effects of acute and 12 weeks of exercise on (1) serum levels of syndecan-1 and -4, (2) gene expression related to syndecan synthesis and modification in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and (3) the relationship to insulin sensitivity. Sedentary men with (n = 13) or without (n = 13) dysglycemia underwent two 45 min acute bicycle tests interspersed by 12 weeks of exercise intervention...
April 4, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Freja Scheys, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
Parasitic helminths and pest insects are organisms with great ecological importance, having direct or indirect detrimental effects on people's lives worldwide. Several reports in literature indicate that the glycan repertoire of parasites plays important roles in host-parasite interactions and modulation and evasion of the host immune system, while insect glycans are essential for their survival, growth and development. Although glycosylation is the result of a highly conserved machinery, differences between species and between different stages of one organism's life cycle occur...
April 2, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Weidong Li, Kristof De Schutter, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
Protein O-glycosylation is the attachment of carbohydrate structures to the oxygen atom in the hydroxyl group of Serine and Threonine residues. This post-translational modification is commonly found on the majority of proteins trafficking through the secretory pathway and is reported to influence protein characteristics such as folding, secretion, stability, solubility, oligomerization and intracellular localization. In addition, O-glycosylation is essential for cell-cell interactions, protein-protein interactions and many biological processes, such as stress response, immunization, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, cell division, metabolism and cell signaling...
April 1, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Atit Silsirivanit, Chatchai Phoomak, Karuntarat Teeravirote, Sasiprapa Wattanavises, Wunchana Seubwai, Charupong Saengboonmee, Zhaoqi Zhan, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi, Akemi Suzuki, Sopit Wongkham
Alteration of glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis is observed in many types of cancer. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of sphingolipids and GSLs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Neutral lipids were extracted from tissue samples using mild-alkaline treatment method followed by TLC and LC-MS analysis. The expression of ceramides, hexosylceramides (HexCer), and lactosylceramides (LacCer) was altered in CCA tissues, 61.1% (11/18) of them showing an increase whereas 38...
March 19, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Pei Zhang, Hong Dai, Lei Peng
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneum was induced during peritoneal dialysis (PD), which finally caused progressive fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms were not well elucidated. We established advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)-induced EMT model using primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). The working concentration and time of AGEs were optimized. Then the expression and activation signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a key factor of EMT in cancer, were detected...
February 28, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Hao Wu, Huan Wang, Wei Li, Chi Zhang, Yushan Liu, Feng Xu, Jiepeng Chen, Lili Duan, Fengjiao Zhang
Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant in hemodialysis (HD) for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, it entails the risk of thrombus formation due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Indeed, CKD patients on HD are associated with excessive mortality from cardiovascular disease due to their prothrombotic profile. Therefore, it would be a significant breakthrough to develop a thrombolytic adjuvant that facilitates heparin to achieve its proper anticoagulant efficiency at a much lower dose for greater safety...
February 20, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Shuji Mizumoto, Zui Zhang, Soo-Ki Kim, Chi-Ho Lee, Byong-Tae Jeon, Yoshinao Z Hosaka, Kenji Kadomatsu, Shuhei Yamada, Jun-Ichi Tamura
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) from the velvet antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon) at the different growing stages (Fukurozuno, Anshi, and Santajo) of bred and wild deer were isolated and their concentrations and sulfation patterns were analyzed. GAG were digested with chondroitinase ABC, ACI, heparinase-I and -III, and keratanase-II into the corresponding repeating disaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), hyaluronan, heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate. Cartilaginous tissues contained CS-DS at high concentrations with an almost equal ratio of 4- and 6-sulfates, while 4-sulfate-type CS-DS predominantly occupied ossified tissues, but at low concentrations...
January 24, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
João C Silva, Marta S Carvalho, Xiaorui Han, Ke Xia, Paiyz E Mikael, Joaquim M S Cabral, Frederico Castelo Ferreira, Robert J Linhardt
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic and complex meshwork of proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a crucial role in tissue homeostasis and organization not only by defining tissue architecture and mechanical properties, but also by providing chemical cues that regulate major biological processes. GAGs are associated with important physiological functions, acting as modulators of signaling pathways regulating several cellular processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Recently, in vitro fabricated cell-derived ECM have emerged as promising materials for regenerative medicine due to their ability of better recapitulate the native ECM-like composition and structure, without the limitations of availability and pathogen transfer risks of tissue-derived ECM scaffolds...
January 14, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Emmanuel Maes, Irina Sadovskaya, Mathilde Lévêque, Elisabeth Elass-Rochard, Bruno Payré, Thierry Grard, Vassilia Théodorou, Yann Guérardel, Muriel Mercier-Bonin
Lactobacillus farciminis CIP 103136 is a bacterial strain with recognized probiotic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying such properties have only been partially elucidated. In this study, we isolated and purified a cell-wall associated polysaccharide (CWPS), and evaluated its biological role in vitro. The structure of CWPS and responses from stimulation of (i) human macrophage-like THP-1 cells, (ii) human embryonal kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLR2 or TLR4) and (iii) human colonocyte-like T84 intestinal epithelial cells, upon exposure to CWPS were studied...
January 12, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Bridget L Stocker, Kristel Kodar, Kanu Wahi, Amy J Foster, Jacquie L Harper, Daiki Mori, Sho Yamasaki, Mattie S M Timmer
Trehalose glycolipids (TGLs) are promising vaccine adjuvants, however effects of glycolipid presentation in the in vitro evaluation, and ultimate selection, of lead vaccine adjuvants are often overlooked. To this end, we synthesised a variety of TGLs and determined how the physicochemical presentation of these lipids influenced the cytokine response by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). The TGLs were presented to wild-type and Mincle-/- BMMs as micellar solutions, coated on plates, coated on beads or surfactant solubilised...
January 8, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Sumeyye Cavdarli, Justine H Dewald, Nao Yamakawa, Yann Guérardel, Mickaël Terme, Jean-Marc Le Doussal, Philippe Delannoy, Sophie Groux-Degroote
Mainly restricted to the nervous system in healthy adults, complex gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 have been shown to be involved in aggressiveness and metastasis of neuro-ectoderm derived tumors such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. Interestingly, O-acetylated forms of GD2, not expressed in human peripheral nerve fibers, are highly expressed in GD2+ tumor cells. Very little information is known regarding the expression of O-acetylated disialogangliosides in breast cancer (BC) cell lines. Here, we analyzed the expression of GD2, GD3 and their O-acetylated forms O-acetyl-GD2 (OAcGD2) and O-acetyl-GD3 (OAcGD3) in BC cells...
January 5, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Genny Degani, Alberto Barbiroli, Paula Magnelli, Stefania Digiovanni, Alessandra Altomare, Giancarlo Aldini, Laura Popolo
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), resulting from non-enzymatic modifications of proteins, are potentially harmful to human health. They directly act on proteins, affecting structure and function, or through receptor-mediated mechanisms. RAGE, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, was identified as a receptor for AGEs. RAGE is involved in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress-based diseases and ageing. The majority of RAGE ligands bind to the VC1 domain. This domain was successfully expressed and secreted by Pichia pastoris...
January 5, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Melissa Baerenfaenger, Manuela Moritz, Bernd Meyer
Significant changes of glycan structures are observed in humans if diseases like cancer, arthritis or inflammation are present. Thus, interest in biomarkers based on glycan structures has rapidly emerged in recent years and monitoring disease specific changes of glycosylation and their quantification is of great interest. Mass spectrometry is most commonly used to characterize and quantify glycopeptides and glycans liberated from the glycoprotein of interest. However, ionization properties of glycopeptides can strongly depend on their composition and can therefore lead to intensities that do not reflect the actual proportions present in the intact glycoprotein...
January 5, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tania M Cortázar, Iain B H Wilson, Alba Hykollari, Edgar A Reyes, Nohora A Vega
We regret to inform of an incomplete affiliation in this article.
January 4, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yanxia Jin, Yajun Yang, Yanting Su, Xiangdong Ye, Wei Liu, Qing Yang, Jie Wang, Xiangning Fu, Yongsheng Gong, Hui Sun
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical biomarkers currently used for the early diagnosis of lung cancer have poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, it is urgent to identify sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of NSCLC to improve the patient survival of patients. In our previously study, we identified glycoprotein alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (AACT) as an early biomarker of NSCLC. In this study, serum glycopeptides were enriched using the high-GlcNAc-specific binding lectin, AANL/AAL2, for further quantitative proteomics analysis using LC-MS/MS...
January 3, 2019: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yosuke Yamada, Makoto Harada, Koji Hashimoto, Ran Guo, Takero Nakajima, Toshihide Kashihara, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Toshifumi Aoyama, Yuji Kamijo
Serum sulfatides are critical glycosphingolipids that are present in lipoproteins and exert anticoagulant effects. A previous study reported decreased levels of serum sulfatides in hemodialysis patients and suggested an association with cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of changes in serum sulfatides in chronic kidney dysfunction has not been well investigated. The current study examined whether a chronic kidney disease (CKD) state could decrease serum sulfatide levels using 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NCKD) mice, an established CKD murine model, and studied the mechanisms contributing to diminished sulfatides...
December 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Alexander Pralow, Udo Reichl, Erdmann Rapp
Analysis of glycans via a porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (tandem) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(/MS)) is a powerful analytical method in the field of glycomics. Isobaric glycan structures can be identified reliably with the help of PGC-LC separation and subsequent identification by ESI-MS(/MS) in negative ion mode. In an effort to adapt PGC-LC-ESI-MS(/MS) to the nano-scale operation, spray instability along the nano-PGC-LC gradient was repeatedly observed on an LTQ Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer equipped with a standard nano-electrospray ionization source...
December 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yuri Mineguchi, Midori Miyoshi, Epi Taufik, Ayumi Kawamura, Takuya Asakawa, Isao Suzuki, Kousaku Souma, Michiko Okubo, Tadao Saito, Kenji Fukuda, Sadaki Asakuma, Tadasu Urashima
Mammalian milk/colostrum usually contains oligosaccharides along with the predominant disaccharide lactose. It has been found that the number and identity of these milk oligosaccharides varies among mammalian species. Oligosaccharides predominate over lactose in the milk/colostrum of Arctoidea species (Carnivora), whereas lactose predominates over milk oligosaccharides in Artiodactyla including cow, sheep, goat, camel, reindeer and pig. To clarify whether heterogeneity of a variety of milk oligosaccharides is found within other species of Artiodactyla, they were studied in the milk of giraffe, sitatunga, deer and water buffalo...
December 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
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