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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Toyohito Tanaka, Toshinari Suzuki, Akiko Inomata
Previous studies reported that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) induces adverse effects on exploratory behaviour in male mice. However, no consistent effects of PBO treatment were observed in female mice. This study aimed to evaluate PBO's neurobehavioral effects in female mice. Female mice were exposed to PBO through diet to provide levels of 0 (control), 0.025%, 0.1%, and 0.4% from 5 to 12 weeks of age, and selected behavioural parameters were measured. The average female body weight showed no significant effect from PBO treatment through the experimental periods...
March 14, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Asad Ullah, Madeeha Pirzada, Sarwat Jahan, Hizb Ullah, Muhammad Jamil Khan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical with estrogenic activity. The widespread exposure of individuals to BPA is suspected to affect a variety of physiological functions, including reproduction, development, and metabolism. Here we report the mechanisms by which BPA and three of its analogues bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) cause generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sperm DNA damage, and oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro rat models. Sperm were incubated with different concentrations (1, 10, and 100 µg/L) of BPA and its analogues BPB, BPF, and BPS for 2 h...
March 14, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
(no author information available yet)
Cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene (HFO-1336mzz-Z) is a clear, colorless liquid that finds uses as a foam-blowing agent, refrigerant, fire extinguishing agent, and solvent. HFO-1336mzz-Z is not an acute dermal or eye irritant and has very low acute toxicity via inhalation exposure (4-h lethal concentration (LC50 ) > 102,000 ppm). The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for cardiac sensitization (in epinephrine-challenged dogs) were 12,500 ppm and 25,000 ppm, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
(no author information available yet)
1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) is used industrially to treat the surface of silica, as an intermediate adhesion promoter or silylating agent in the semiconductor industry, as a chemical modifier of inorganic fillers, and as a water scavenger silicone sealant. In animal studies, HMDZ is considered to be slightly to at most moderately toxic following acute administration via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure. HMDZ is neither an eye irritant nor was it dermally irritating under semiocclusive conditions; however, it caused dermal necrosis in two studies under occlusive conditions...
February 13, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yu-Qin Shi, Guo-Qing Fu, Jing Zhao, Shen-Zhou Cheng, You Li, Ling-Na Yi, Zhen Li, Ling Zhang, Zhi-Bing Zhang, Juan Dai, Da-Yi Zhang
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a typical endocrine-disrupting chemical and reproductive toxicant. Although previous studies have attempted to describe the mechanism by which DEHP exposure results in reproductive dysfunction, few studies focused on puberty, a critical period of reproductive development, and the increased susceptibility to injury in adolescents. To elucidate the mechanism underpinning the testicular effects of DEHP in puberty, we sought to investigate the JAZF1/TR4 pathway in the testes of pubertal rats...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Shaista Andleeb, Tariq Mahmood, Azeem Khalid
The populations of wild animals are declining in many parts of the world in response to man-made alterations in the environment. Environmental contamination due to heavy metals discharge from industry may contribute to the decline of wild animal populations by impacting their reproduction, growth, and development. In the leather tanning industry, chromium (Cr) is used as a basic component, but it is a potent toxicant that can affect many of the physiological functions of animals. In the current study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of industrial Cr in female small Indian mongooses inhabiting a tannery area...
January 17, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Heydari Mahdi, Haghpanah Tahereh, Saddein Esmaiel, Ezzatabadipour Massood
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of apoptosis in the first-generation pups' testicular and ovarian tissue changes following mancozeb (MNZ) administration during intrauterine and lactating periods and also the preventive effect of the co-administration of vitamins E and C on these changes. Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) pregnant mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, vehicle, MNZ, vitamin E plus MNZ, vitamin C plus MNZ and vitamins E and C plus MNZ. Administered doses of MNZ and vitamins E and C were 500, 200 and 100 mg/kg of body weight, respectively...
January 16, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
(no author information available yet)
Trans-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene (HFO-133mzz-E) is an odorless gas that finds uses as a foam transfer agent, heat transfer fluid, and specialty gas. The acute 4-h LC50 (in rats) for HFO-133mzz-E is > 17,000 ppm; it was not an eye or dermal irritant in 3- and 13-week repeated-dose inhalation studies in rats at concentrations up to 1.5% (15,000 ppm). HFO-133mzz-E was not a cardiac sensitizer at 70,000 ppm in a standard epinephrine challenge study in Beagle dogs. In a 3-week, repeated-dose (non-GLP) inhalation range-finding study in male and female rats, HFO-133mzz-E concentrations of 7500 and 15,000 ppm were determined to be well-tolerated...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
(no author information available yet)
1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134) is a colorless gas used as a foam expansion agent and heat transfer fluid. HFC-134 has a low acute inhalation toxicity with an LC50 of >244,000 ppm. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed adverse effect level for cardiac sensitization (in epinephrine-challenged beagle dogs) were 75,000 and 100,000 ppm, respectively. A subacute 4-week GLP inhalation toxicity study exposed male and female Crl: CD® BR rats (10/sex) to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 50,000 ppm via whole-body inhalation...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Samah Saleh El-Hadidy, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany, Khalid Nour, Enas Elsherbeny, Abdel Hamied Abdel Hamied
INTRODUCTION: Metacarpal fractures of the hand occur in active and working population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to compare between occupational and non occupational metacarpal fractures. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional comparative study with prospective components among patients with metacarpal fractures admitted to the Mansoura University Emergency Hospital in a 6-month period. Data were collected using a questionnaire that included personal and occupational histories and accident analysis...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Runan Qin, Yue Wang, Shengyuan Wang, Bing Xia, Rui Xin, Chang Li, Yonghui Wu
Nickel (Ni) is a metal known to be a human carcinogen that occupational workers can be exposed to during the process of Ni refining. We investigated the molecular mechanism of inflammation that is induced by Ni-refining dust in a factory, using concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h and 48 h, in vitro. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to detect the transcriptional expression levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zhipeng Qi, Chao Mi, Fengdi Wu, Xinxin Yang, Yanqi Sang, Yanan Liu, Jiashuo Li, Haibo Yang, Bin Xu, Wei Liu, Zhaofa Xu, Yu Deng
There are limited studies focused on the precise mechanism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion dysfunction after overexposure to manganese (Mn). The objective of the present study was to explore the mechanism of Mn disruption of GnRH synthesis via nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Primary astrocytes were cultured and treated with different doses of Mn, tert-butylhydroquinonet (tBHQ; Nrf2 agonists), 3-[(2-methyl-4-thaizolyl) ethynyl] pyridine (MTEP; mGluR5 inhibitor), and celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) to measure the levels of COX-2, mGluR5, Nrf2, and Nrf2 target genes...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
William J Brock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jian Ying Yang, Yong Fa Zhang, Xiang Ping Meng, Xiang Feng Kong
T-2 toxin is a type-A trichothecene produced by Fusarium found in several food commodities worldwide. T-2 toxin causes reproductive disorders, genotoxicity, and testicular toxicity in animals. Our previous research has reported that T-2 toxin can induce apoptosis via the Bax-dependent caspase-3 activation in mouse primary Leydig cells. However, little is known about the functions of autophagy and the cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis after exposure to T-2 toxin in Leydig cells. This study investigated these problems in mouse primary Leydig cells...
March 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Emre Atay, Tolga Ertekin, Halil Yılmaz, Hatice Susar Güler, Özge Al, Mehtap Nisari, Arzu Yay, Erdoğan Unur, Saim Özdamar, Betül Yalçın
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most commonly produced chemicals in the world. BPA is used in products such as food packaging, personal care products, detergents, and plastic bottles. This study was conducted to determine the effect of BPA on fetal bone development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 16 pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: the control group and 0.5 mg/kg/day, 5 mg/kg/day, and 50 mg/kg/day dose BPA groups...
February 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Anreddy Rama Narsimha Reddy, Srividya Lonkala
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) cells following exposure. CuO NPs size <50 nm were used in this study. HEK-293 cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of CuO NPs between 3 µg/ml and 300 µg/ml and quartz (known as cytotoxic agent) and assessed for cell viability-mitochondrial function (MTT assay), cell membrane damage (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay), reduced glutathione (GSH), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and lipid peroxidation levels...
February 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jiangfei Chen, Duan Kang, Zhi Yan, Qiaosen Shen, Yanqi Lou, Yanyan Li, Aijun Kong, Bishu Pan, Changjiang Huang
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) are the typical representative pollutants of brominated flame retardants and heavy metals found in the air of e-waste recycling workshops. However, their metabolic kinetics through mixture inhalation is unknown. In the present study, 8-week old Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) male mice were whole-body exposed to TBBPA and CdCl2 mixtures by inhalation. Tissue samples were collected for TBBPA and cadmium (Cd) analysis at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks during exposure and at 4 and 8 weeks after the completion of the 8-week exposure period...
February 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ahmed A Allam, Sarah I Othman, Ayman M Mahmoud
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of perinatal potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) exposure on the development of sensorimotor reflexes and redox status, and on the histological architecture of the brain, liver, and kidney of newborn mice. Pregnant mice received 1-ml bottled drinking water daily by oral intubation and served as the control group. Another group of pregnant mice were supplemented orally with 200 mg/kg body weight KBrO3 dissolved in drinking water from gestation day 5 to postnatal day 21...
January 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Nafiseh Nasirzadeh, Mansur Rezazadeh Azari, Yahya Rasoulzadeh, Yousef Mohammadian
Nanomaterials are widely used nowadays in a range of technological and biomedical fields. Graphene as a nanomaterial used in the health-care sector and in workplaces has raised some concerns about its toxicity. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of graphene nanoparticles (GNPs) on the A549 epithelial cells of the human lung. The GNPs were synthesized from graphite by the modified Hummer method. The physicochemical characteristics of GNPs were identified by the transmission electron microscope, the scanning electron microscope, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method...
January 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sheng Ge, Pei Ye, Guo-Yang Li, Yi-Fu Fu, Qian Zhou, Fan Huang, Xiang Wang, Wen-Mei Wang
Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for some oral diseases. As an essential fluid in the oral cavity, saliva is crucial to maintain oral health. Relative to active smoking, there are very few studies assessing the effect of passive smoking on salivary cytokines levels. In the present study, we established the rat models by the means of the intraoral cigarette smoking or whole body cigarette smoke exposure to simulate human active or passive smoking, respectively. The effects of active or passive smoking on salivary cytokines levels were assessed by using ProcartaPlex multiplex immunoassays...
December 17, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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