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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686469/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Nigel B Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686468/optimizing-resting-behavior-in-lactating-dairy-cows-through-freestall-design
#2
REVIEW
Nigel B Cook
This article provides information necessary to assist in creation of freestall facilities in which cows thrive through designs that optimize the resting behavior of dairy cattle and provide a safe, comfortable, clean, and dry place to lie down with easy access to feed and water. Comfortable stalls require a deep-bedded surface, affording cows the cushion they need to lie down for 12 hours per day and the traction necessary to facilitate rising and lying movements. Stalls should be sized to accommodate cows using them and prevent obstructions to lunge and bob areas and impediments to normal rising and lying movements...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686467/maximizing-comfort-in-tiestall-housing
#3
REVIEW
Harold K House, Neil G Anderson
It is important to maximize tiestall comfort by designing and building for the cow. Optimizing cow comfort improves cow health and productivity, leading to greater producer satisfaction. Tiestall housing is the name given to dairy cattle housing where the cows are individually tethered in distinct stalls. Stalls must be designed to accommodate the size of the cow and to provide freedom of movement to reduce hock lesions while maintaining clean stalls. The stall also must accommodate easy access to feed and water as part of the stall design...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686466/feeding-behavior-feed-space-and-bunk-design-and-management-for-adult-dairy-cattle
#4
REVIEW
Trevor J DeVries
The feeding behavior of dairy cows, including how, when, and what cows eat of the feed provided to them, has a significant impact on cow health and productivity. The design and management of the feeding area impact the feeding behavior of dairy cows. To ensure good eating patterns, dairy cows need sufficient space to eat simultaneously, and a bunk design that minimizes competition, ensures good feed access, and minimizes risk of injury. Continuous feed access throughout the day, through adequate feeding levels, and frequent feed delivery and push-ups, also contribute to ensuring good eating behavior...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686465/lying-time-and-its-importance-to-the-dairy-cow-impact-of-stocking-density-and-time-budget-stresses
#5
REVIEW
Peter D Krawczel, Amanda R Lee
The stocking density of confinement dairy operations is one of the most important management factors in determining cows' ability to achieve the 12 hours per day of lying and 3 hours to 5 hours per day feeding that cows are highly motivated to engage in. Overstocking facilities consistently decreases lying time, alters feeding behaviors, decreases rumination times, and increases social stress. This article reviews the relevant literature to establish the recommended stocking density with freestall systems...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686464/calf-barn-design-to-optimize-health-and-ease-of-management
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth V Nordlund, Courtney E Halbach
This article offers general calf barn design recommendations to optimize calf health gleaned from clinical and research experience in a Midwestern US climate. Barn components that are discussed include sizing the barn, ventilating the facility, and providing a clean, deeply bedded, dry area for the calf. In addition, considerations for maximizing labor efficiency and reducing the spread of disease by caregivers are discussed.
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686463/design-and-management-of-proper-handling-systems-for-dairy-cows
#7
REVIEW
David W Kammel, Karl Burgi, Jim Lewis
The design and management of proper handling systems for dairy cows begin with a cow handling management plan that considers the cow and the stock person's behavior. The safety of the cow and stock person is important to the plan and design decisions. Cow welfare can be addressed in a proper cow handling system design. Key components of a handling system are the skills of the stock person, the cow handling management plan, and the design of the handling facility. Good design enhances stockmanship ability and minimizes stress for cows and stock persons, lowering the risk of injury to both...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686462/designing-automated-milking-dairy-facilities-to-maximize-labor-efficiency
#8
REVIEW
Jouni Pitkäranta, Virpi Kurkela, Virpi Huotari, Marjo Posio, Courtney E Halbach
As automatic milking systems grow in popularity in North America, questions about how to design the barn to improve labor efficiency arise. Multiple considerations such as cow flow traffic type, robot positioning within the pen, the number of cows per pen, and how cows are managed around the robots must be discussed during the barn planning period. This article focuses on barn design and pen layout to maximize labor efficiency in herds with single-box automatic milking systems.
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686461/considerations-for-cooling-dairy-cows-with-water
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer M C Van Os
Heat stress results in substantial economic losses to the dairy industry and is problematic for animal welfare. Soaking cattle with water is an effective form of heat abatement. This technique cools cattle when water evaporates from the skin and drips from the animal, and cools the microclimate. To evaluate cooling effectiveness and make appropriate adjustments to heat abatement, animal-based indicators should be recorded in addition to environmental measures. Ideally, heat abatement should be provided to all life stages of dairy cattle and soakers should be combined with shade...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686460/ventilation-systems-for-adult-dairy-cattle
#10
REVIEW
Mario R Mondaca
Ventilation systems for adult dairy cattle can be divided into natural and mechanical systems. Mechanical systems include tunnel and cross ventilation. Hybrid systems incorporate both mechanical and natural ventilation design elements. All systems need to provide appropriate airspeeds at the stalls, adequate ventilation rates, and a methodology to operate year-round. Typically, mechanical ventilation systems cost double to operate compared with natural systems, and the differences between mechanical systems are modest...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686459/designing-facilities-for-the-adult-dairy-cow-during-the-nonlactation-and-early-lactation-period
#11
REVIEW
Nigel B Cook
Improvements during transition, following a blueprint that allows for all cows to eat from the feedbunk simultaneously and have access to a comfortable soft bed, avoiding regrouping stress 2 to 7 days before calving. Approaches to prefresh cow housing have incorporated dedicated pens for cows and heifers, sequential fill approaches in larger herds and all-in-all-out pens to maintain social stability throughout the prefresh or dry period. This blueprint has improved postpartum health and early lactation milk performance...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686458/maternal-behavior-and-design-of-the-maternity-pen
#12
REVIEW
Kathryn L Proudfoot
Labor is likely a painful and stressful experience for dairy cows. Understanding maternal behavior can help inform the design of maternity pens that best accommodate the cow. The maternity pen should provide the cow an opportunity to seclude from other cows and barn activity. It should also be well-bedded, dry, and cleaned regularly to create a comfortable environment and minimize the spread of pathogens to the cow and her calf. Management of the maternity pen should aim to reduce environmental and social stressors to encourage a smooth transition for cows into the lactating herd...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686457/the-dairy-cattle-housing-dilemma-natural-behavior-versus-animal-care
#13
REVIEW
Annabelle Beaver, Caroline Ritter, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Animal welfare has historically been defined at the intersection of 3 key concepts: (1) health and biological functioning, (2) affective state, and (3) natural living. For farmed animals, such as dairy cattle, health and biological functioning are often prioritized, sometimes at the expense of natural living. In this work, the authors discuss the perceived conflict between the duty of care exercised by producers and the resulting consequences to natural behavior expression. They also provide considerations on how indoor housing systems for dairy cattle may be refined to better permit natural behaviors, with particular emphasis on animals' motivational priorities...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686456/introduction-building-from-the-cow-up
#14
REVIEW
Neil G Anderson
Building from the cow up refers to the construction of a barn for which the foundations are the cow and her behavior, comfort, health, safety, and performance. The stall area must allow a cow to stand with all 4 feet on a comfortable bed; to rest in natural wide, narrow, short, or long positions; and to recline and rise with natural forward lunging motions. There must be no hazards that may cause injury, pain, fear, or frustration. To achieve these goals, the dimensions of a cow, her natural behaviors, and the space she occupies must be known...
March 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316509/mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#15
EDITORIAL
Pamela L Ruegg, Christina S Petersson-Wolfe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316508/an-update-on-the-effect-of-clinical-mastitis-on-the-welfare-of-dairy-cows-and-potential-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Christina S Petersson-Wolfe, Kenneth E Leslie, Turner H Swartz
Despite the widespread implementation of mastitis control programs, mastitis is the most common and one of the costliest diseases in the dairy industry, with broad-ranging impacts and consequences. Recent technological advances have allowed researchers to assess the effects of mastitis on animal behavior and welfare, and the efficacy of mastitis treatments. Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are available as supportive therapies for clinical mastitis. This article focuses on recent advances in the assessment, therapy, and effects of mastitis on cow behavior and welfare...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316507/mammary-gland-immunobiology-and-resistance-to-mastitis
#17
REVIEW
Lorraine M Sordillo
The ability of dairy cattle to prevent infectious pathogens from causing mastitis is related to the efficiency of the mammary immune system. The primary roles of the bovine immune system are to prevent bacterial invasion of the mammary gland, eliminate existing infections, and restore mammary tissues to normal function. Mammary gland immunity uses a multifaceted network of physical, cellular, and soluble factors to protect the cow from the diverse array of mastitis-causing pathogens. Strategies to optimize mammary gland defenses can be an effective way to prevent the establishment of new intramammary infections and limit the use of antimicrobials to treat mastitis...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316506/optimization-of-clinical-mastitis-records-on-dairies
#18
REVIEW
John R Wenz
Deriving value from clinical mastitis records requires accurate and consistent records and tools for efficient summary and analysis. Variation in clinical mastitis case definition or detection intensity across dairies does not preclude consistent data recording. Dairy management software can improve consistency of clinical mastitis records by prompting users for quarter(s) affected, treatment, and severity. User-defined record systems must establish and follow protocols for clinical mastitis data recording...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316505/methods-for-diagnosing-mastitis
#19
REVIEW
Pamela R F Adkins, John R Middleton
A diagnosis of mastitis is based on clinical observations or direct/indirect measures of the inflammatory response to infection, whereas a diagnosis of an intramammary infection is based on identification of the infectious agent. Somatic cell count/somatic cell score are common diagnostic tests for the detection of subclinical mastitis. Culture and polymerase chain reaction can be useful in the diagnosis of an intramammary infection; however, both have their advantages and disadvantages. Diagnosing the bacterial agent causing the intramammary infection can help to determine treatment and prevention strategies on the farm, which in turn can help to reduce incidence and prevalence...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316504/impact-and-mitigation-of-heat-stress-for-mastitis-control
#20
REVIEW
Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress abatement is not difficult to implement, and at a minimum all cows should have shade access regardless of housing or pasture access. Active cooling of lactating cows and dry cows can have dramatic effects on productive function and enhance immune status as well. Whereas the method of abatement may vary depending on humidity conditions at a particular location, cooling can be achieved in any environment. Therefore, producers should emphasize appropriate heat stress abatement throughout the production cycle to improve productivity and health, including limiting mastitis...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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