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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447771/regenerative-medicine-therapies-for-equine-wound-management
#1
REVIEW
Linda A Dahlgren
Wound management in horses can strike fear in some and passion in others. Wounds are common injuries in horses of all descriptions and requires exceptional knowledge and care to achieve a successful outcome. New treatments to overcome the critical challenges with equine wounds are always desired: managing dehisced and/or nonhealing wounds, managing exuberant granulation tissue, and ultimately achieving a functional tissue coverage. Regenerative medicine represents a broad set of tools with great promise to manipulate the deficiencies recognized in equine wound healing and improve the outcome...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447770/equine-wounds-over-synovial-structures
#2
REVIEW
Elsa K Ludwig, Philip D van Harreveld
Equine septic synovitis commonly occurs secondary to traumatic wounds. The distal limbs of horses have minimal soft tissue protection, thus wounds in these areas are more likely to involve adjacent synovial structures. Synovial sepsis can be debilitating due to difficulties clearing established infections and the degenerative changes that result from ongoing inflammation. Prompt diagnosis allows for immediate treatment, improving the prognosis. Goals for successful treatment of infected synovial structures due to wounds include early and accurate recognition of the condition, rapid resolution of pain and inflammation, complete elimination of microorganisms, appropriate wound healing, and a timely return to function...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447769/nonhealing-wounds-of-the-equine-limb
#3
REVIEW
Michael Maher, Leann Kuebelbeck
Nonhealing wounds present a common challenge to the equine practitioner. An underlying source of inflammation and infection is almost always present and needs to be resolved for healing to proceed. Wound débridement is the mainstay for this resolution. In addition, wound closure, wound dressings, and skin grafts can be used to achieve successful wound healing.
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447768/wound-management-wounds-with-special-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Randy B Eggleston
Distal limb wounds in horses heal substantially different than trunk wounds, commonly resulting in exuberant granulation tissue and exposed and sequestered bone. Surgical intervention of severe rectovaginal lacerations in the mare should be delayed until the tissues have heeled and scar tissue has remodeled. Wounds resulting in severe hemorrhage require appropriate emergent fluid therapy and potentially transfusion therapy.
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447767/topical-wound-medications
#5
REVIEW
Britta S Leise
Topical therapies are used in equine wound healing to clean and decontaminate the wound environment after acute injury and to promote healing and decrease the risk of infection once the wound has initially been treated. Evolving antibiotic resistance has prompted judicious use of systemic antimicrobials, particularly in the treatment of local infections, such as wounds. The use of topical antiseptics to disinfect acute wounds and topical antimicrobials to manage chronic wounds is necessary to achieve successful healing...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447766/equine-practice-on-wound-management-wound-cleansing-and-hygiene
#6
REVIEW
Karl E Frees
The goal of wound cleansing and care is the control or removal of tissue infection to allow healing in the most functional, cosmetic, fastest, and least expensive manner possible. This is accomplished through the removal of debris and necrotic tissue while reducing the bacterial load via careful use of mechanical techniques and cleaning agents, accepting that some level of tissue trauma will result. Keep in mind that the benefit of a clean wound must be weighed against the trauma inflicted in the process of cleansing...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30447765/diagnostic-approaches-to-understanding-equine-limb-wounds
#7
REVIEW
Earl M Gaughan
An accurate and timely diagnosis of the systemic and local tissue influences of a wound are essential to target successful treatment measures and reach the best result for an affected horse. A complete physical examination should be completed for any wounded horse and appropriate systemic therapies instituted. Visual and manipulative examinations aid in the complete understanding of wounded tissues. Imaging and invasive diagnostic techniques also have value in determining the extent of a wound. Considering what tissues are involved from an inside-out perspective can assist in developing a complete diagnosis...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342806/wound-management
#8
EDITORIAL
Earl M Gaughan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342805/choosing-the-best-approach-to-wound-management-and-closure
#9
REVIEW
Louis Kamus, Christine Theoret
This article aims to help the practitioner by providing the tools to decide which type of closure or healing is best in a given situation. An overview of the main criteria and the different approaches to wound closure is presented. Each wound must be considered as a unique problem that requires a clinician to take into account all of its characteristics and limits to determine the best management approach.
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342804/equine-wound-management-bandages-casts-and-external-support
#10
REVIEW
Randy B Eggleston
Successful management of equine wounds relies on knowledge of the stages of wound healing, factors that can alter those stages, how healing stages can be manipulated, and adherence to the principles of wound healing. Challenges that complicate wound management include the inability to immobilize and/or confine equine patients, and maintain a clean environment during the critical initial stages of healing. Because of these challenges, the equine practitioner relies heavily on bandaging and external coaptation techniques to successfully treat and manage wounds...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342803/medical-therapy-in-equine-wound-management
#11
REVIEW
R Reid Hanson
Suitable use of prophylactic antimicrobial drugs for wounds depends on the accurate selection of appropriate antibiotics, dosing regimen, and duration of use. Regional intravenous delivery and intraosseous infusion of antibiotics are pivotal to a successful outcome for deep-rooted infections, inadequately perfused tissue, and infected wounds containing biofilm. Antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads are predominantly helpful for wounds that have a poor blood supply and for those containing surgical implants that must remain in place...
December 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007453/equine-sports-medicine-our-daily-challenge
#12
EDITORIAL
José M García-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007452/lower-airway-disease-in-the-athletic-horse
#13
REVIEW
Melissa R Mazan
The airways are the first part of the pathway in the oxygen transport chain that is critical to excellent athletic performance, and the lower airways are considered the final gatekeeper before oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide exits. Horses are blessed with large airways and lungs that allow them to be superb athletes, but the down side of this largesse on the part of evolution is that unless they are truly elite athletes they may withstand noninfectious disease of the lower respiratory tract for months to years before the owner or trainer notices...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007451/cardiac-cardiovascular-conditions-affecting-sport-horses
#14
REVIEW
Katherine B Chope
Cardiac murmurs are not uncommonly detected in the equine athlete. Although most are benign in nature, differentiation and quantification of murmurs due to valvular regurgitation are important for prognosis and recommendations. Arrhythmias can be associated with structural disease or occur independently and may range in severity from minimal clinical effect to poor performance to presenting a safety risk to rider and horse. This article discusses commonly encountered cardiac conditions in the sport horse. Physical examination, diagnostic approach, valvular disease, and arrhythmias with an impact on performance or ridden safety are discussed...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007450/understanding-the-basic-principles-of-podiatry
#15
REVIEW
Raul J Bras, Ric Redden
Foot-related lameness is one of the most frequently encountered problems in the equine industry. Therapeutic shoeing is a frequently used preventative discipline for the treatment of many causes of lameness. The primary goal for therapeutic applications is to offset the mechanical limitations and enhance the healing environment. Equine podiatry is a blend of the 2 highly respected professions each contributing to the task at hand, but neither formally educated and trained as collaborative team members with a common thread of podiatry principles...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007449/borreliosis-in-sport-horse-practice
#16
REVIEW
Eric Lockwood Swinebroad
Given the variable clinical signs attributed to Borrelia burgdorferi, including infectious arthritis, neurologic disease, and behavioral changes, B burgdorferi is an important differential for decreased performance in sport horses. The primary vectors (Ixodes tick species) are expanding their range and thus Borrelia species are located in a wider area, making exposure more likely. Due to regionally high seroprevalence and vague clinical signs, diagnosis of Lyme disease in the horse is believed overestimated...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007448/neurologic-conditions-affecting-the-equine-athlete
#17
REVIEW
Daniela Bedenice, Amy L Johnson
EPM, CVSM, and EDM are currently recognized as the 3 most common neurologic diseases in US horses, with the latter 2 conditions being most prevalent in young animals. Moreover, horses competing at shows and performance events are at greater risk for exposure to highly contagious, neurologic EHV-1 outbreaks. A clinical diagnosis of any neurologic disease should be based on a careful history, complete neurologic examination, and appropriate diagnostic testing and interpretation. However, mild or early neurologic signs can often mimic or be mistaken for an orthopedic condition when horses present for performance-related concerns...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007447/diagnosis-of-skeletal-injury-in-the-sport-horse
#18
REVIEW
Kathryn B Wulster
This article discusses the basis of image formation of radiography, scintigraphy, PET, computed tomography (fan beam and cone beam), and magnetic resonance as it relates to imaging of musculoskeletal injury in the sport horse. The benefits and drawbacks of each modality are discussed with particular emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identification of subchondral bone injury. Examples of straightforward as well as confounding lesions are provided, emphasizing the need for appropriate clinical workup and diagnostic analgesia, where appropriate...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30007446/lameness-evaluation-of-the-athletic-horse
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Davidson
Lameness examination is commonly performed in the athletic horse. A skilled lameness diagnostician must have keen clinical and observational skills. Evaluation starts with a detailed history and thorough physical examination. Next, gait evaluation in the moving horse is performed. Lame horses have asymmetrical body movement due to unconscious shift of body weight. Recognition of the resultant head nod and pelvic hike is the basis for lameness diagnosis. Lameness identification is enhanced by circling, limb flexions, and riding...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29857966/equine-manual-therapies-in-sport-horse-practice
#20
REVIEW
Kevin K Haussler
Manual therapies involve the application of the hands to the body, with a diagnostic or therapeutic intent. Touch therapies, massage, joint mobilization, and manipulation are all critical components in the management of muscular, articular, and neurologic components of select injuries in performance horses. Musculoskeletal conditions that are chronic or recurring, not readily diagnosed, or are not responding to conventional veterinary care may be indicators that manual therapy evaluation and treatment is needed...
August 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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