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Journals BioEssays : News and Reviews i...

BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38991980/architecture-of-rabl2-associated-complexes-at-the-ciliary-base-a-structural-modeling-perspective-deciphering-the-structural-organization-of-ciliary-rabl2-complexes
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Niels Boegholm, Narcis A Petriman, Niaj M Tanvir, Esben Lorentzen
Cilia are slender, micrometer-long organelles present on the surface of eukaryotic cells. They function in signaling and locomotion and are constructed by intraflagellar transport (IFT). The assembly of IFT complexes into so-called IFT trains to initiate ciliary entry at the base of the cilium remains a matter of debate. Here, we use structural modeling to provide an architectural framework for how RabL2 is anchored at the ciliary base via CEP19 before being handed over to IFT trains for ciliary entry. Our models suggest that the N-terminal domain of CEP43 forms a homo-dimer to anchor at the subdistal appendages of cilia through a direct interaction with CEP350...
July 11, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38991978/the-physical-basis-of-analog-to-digital-signal-processing-in-the-egfr-system-delving-into-the-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Laura Zoe Kreplin, Senthil Arumugam
Receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit ligand-induced activity and uptake into cells via endocytosis. In the case of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), the resulting endosomes are trafficked to the perinuclear region, where dephosphorylation of receptors occurs, which are subsequently directed to degradation. Traveling endosomes bearing phosphorylated EGFRs are subjected to the activity of cytoplasmic phosphatases as well as interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The peri-nuclear region harbors ER-embedded phosphatases, a component of the EGFR-bearing endosome-ER contact site...
July 11, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38990084/new-pathways-to-neurogenesis-insights-from-injury-induced-retinal-regeneration
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Seth Blackshaw, Jiang Qian, David R Hyde
The vertebrate retina is a tractable system for studying control of cell neurogenesis and cell fate specification. During embryonic development, retinal neurogenesis is under strict temporal regulation, with cell types generated in fixed but overlapping temporal intervals. The temporal sequence and relative numbers of retinal cell types generated during development are robust and show minimal experience-dependent variation. In many cold-blooded vertebrates, acute retinal injury induces a different form of neurogenesis, where Müller glia reprogram into retinal progenitor-like cells that selectively regenerate retinal neurons lost to injury...
July 11, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38990077/lost-in-translation-how-neurons-cope-with-trna-decoding
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Guo Wei, Stefano Russo, Francesca Tuorto
Post-transcriptional tRNA modifications contribute to the decoding efficiency of tRNAs by supporting codon recognition and tRNA stability. Recent work shows that the molecular and cellular functions of tRNA modifications and tRNA-modifying-enzymes are linked to brain development and neurological disorders. Lack of these modifications affects codon recognition and decoding rate, promoting protein aggregation and translational stress response pathways with toxic consequences to the cell. In this review, we discuss the peculiarity of local translation in neurons, suggesting a role for fine-tuning of translation performed by tRNA modifications...
July 11, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38975656/biochemical-communication-between-filament-forming-enzymes-potential-regulatory-roles-of-metabolites-in-enzyme-co-assemblies-with-ctp-synthase
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Stephen L Bearne
A host of metabolic enzymes reversibly self-assemble to form membrane-less, intracellular filaments under normal physiological conditions and in response to stress. Often, these enzymes reside at metabolic control points, suggesting that filament formation affords an additional regulatory mechanism. Examples include cytidine-5'-triphosphate (CTP) synthase (CTPS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step for the de novo biosynthesis of CTP; inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which controls biosynthetic access to guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP); and ∆1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) synthase (P5CS) that catalyzes the formation of P5C, which links the Krebs cycle, urea cycle, and proline metabolism...
July 8, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38962845/targeting-protein-condensation-in-cgas-sting-signaling-pathway
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yajie Li, Dongbo Zhao, Dahua Chen, Qinmiao Sun
The cGAS-STING signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in sensing cytosolic DNA and initiating innate immune responses against various threats, with disruptions in this pathway being associated with numerous immune-related disorders. Therefore, precise regulation of the cGAS-STING signaling is crucial to ensure appropriate immune responses. Recent research, including ours, underscores the importance of protein condensation in driving the activation and maintenance of innate immune signaling within the cGAS-STING pathway...
July 4, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38932642/metabolic-channeling-of-lipids-via-the-contact-zones-between-different-organelles
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kentaro Hanada
Various lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) mediate the inter-organelle transport of lipids. By working at membrane contact zones between donor and acceptor organelles, LTPs achieve rapid and accurate inter-organelle transfer of lipids. This article will describe the emerging paradigm that the action of LTPs at organelle contact zones generates metabolic channeling events in lipid metabolism, mainly referring to how ceramide synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum is preferentially metabolized to sphingomyelin in the distal Golgi region, how cholesterol and phospholipids receive specific metabolic reactions in mitochondria, and how the hijacking of host LTPs by intracellular pathogens may generate new channeling-like events...
June 27, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38924108/the-concept-of-balance-in-microbiome-research
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Maureen A O'Malley
Microbiome research is changing how ecosystems, including animal bodies, are understood. In the case of humans, microbiome knowledge is transforming medical approaches and applications. However, the field is still young, and many conceptual and explanatory issues need resolving. These include how microbiome causality is understood, and how to conceptualize the role microbiomes have in the health status of their hosts and other ecosystems. A key concept that crops up in the medical microbiome literature is "balance...
June 26, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922969/dynamic-modulation-of-enhancer-promoter-and-promoter-promoter-connectivity-in-gene-regulation
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shiho Makino, Takashi Fukaya
Enhancers are short segments of regulatory DNA that control when and in which cell-type genes should be turned on in response to a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic signals. At the molecular level, enhancers serve as a genomic scaffold that recruits sequence-specific transcription factors and co-activators to facilitate transcription from linked promoters. However, it remains largely unclear how enhancers communicate with appropriate target promoters in the context of higher-order genome topology. In this review, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the functional interplay between enhancers, genome topology, and the molecular properties of transcription machineries in gene regulation...
June 25, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922935/ips-cell-therapy-2-0-preparing-for-next-generation-regenerative-medicine
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kelvin K Hui, Shinya Yamanaka
This year marks the tenth anniversary of the world's first transplantation of tissue generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). There is now a growing number of clinical trials worldwide examining the efficacy and safety of autologous and allogeneic iPSC-derived products for treating various pathologic conditions. As we patiently wait for the results from these and future clinical trials, it is imperative to strategize for the next generation of iPSC-based therapies. This review examines the lessons learned from the development of another advanced cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, and the possibility of incorporating various new bioengineering technologies in development, from RNA engineering to tissue fabrication, to apply iPSCs not only as a means to achieve personalized medicine but also as designer medical applications...
June 25, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922965/balancing-act-brca2-s-elaborate-management-of-telomere-replication-through-control-of-g-quadruplex-dynamicity
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
So Young Joo, Keewon Sung, Hyunsook Lee
In billion years of evolution, eukaryotes preserved the chromosome ends with arrays of guanine repeats surrounded by thymines and adenines, which can form stacks of four-stranded planar structure known as G-quadruplex (G4). The rationale behind the evolutionary conservation of the G4 structure at the telomere remained elusive. Our recent study has shed light on this matter by revealing that telomere G4 undergoes oscillation between at least two distinct folded conformations. Additionally, tumor suppressor BRCA2 exhibits a unique mode of interaction with telomere G4...
June 24, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922923/cited2-is-a-key-regulator-of-placental-development-and-plasticity
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marija Kuna, Michael J Soares
The biology of trophoblast cell lineage development and placentation is characterized by the involvement of several known transcription factors. Central to the action of a subset of these transcriptional regulators is CBP-p300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2). CITED2 acts as a coregulator modulating transcription factor activities and affecting placental development and adaptations to physiological stressors. These actions of CITED2 on the trophoblast cell lineage and placentation are conserved across the mouse, rat, and human...
June 24, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922978/biophysical-aspects-of-migrasome-organelle-formation-and-their-diverse-cellular-functions
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Raviv Dharan, Raya Sorkin
The transient cellular organelles known as migrasomes, which form during cell migration along retraction fibers, have emerged as a crutial factor in various fundamental cellular processes and pathologies. These membrane vesicles originate from local membrane swellings, encapsulate specific cytoplasmic content, and are eventually released to the extracellular environment or taken up by recipient cells. Migrasome biogenesis entails a sequential membrane remodeling process involving a complex interplay between various molecular factors such as tetraspanin proteins, and mechanical properties like membrane tension and bending rigidity...
June 23, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38884196/mouse-embryos-chimeras-and-embryonal-carcinoma-stem-cells-reflections-on-the-winding-road-to-gene-manipulation
#14
REVIEW
Virginia E Papaioannou
The relationship of embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, the stem cells of germ cell- or embryo-derived teratocarcinoma tumors, to early embryonic cells came under intense scrutiny in the early 1970s when mouse chimeras were produced between EC cells and embryos. These chimeras raised tantalizing possibilities and high hopes for different areas of research. The normalization of EC cells by the embryo lent validity to their use as in vitro models for embryogenesis and indicated that they might reveal information about the relationship between malignancy and differentiation...
June 17, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38881154/pioneer-factors-for-dna-replication-initiation-in-metazoans
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yue Wang, Jing Liang
Precise DNA replication is fundamental for genetic inheritance. In eukaryotes, replication initiates at multiple origins that are first "licensed" and subsequently "fired" to activate DNA synthesis. Despite the success in identifying origins with specific DNA motifs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, no consensus sequence or sequences with a predictive value of replication origins have been recognized in metazoan genomes. Rather, epigenetic rules and chromatin structures are believed to play important roles in governing the selection and activation of replication origins...
June 16, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38873912/interplay-between-altered-metabolism-and-dna-damage-and-repair-in-ovarian-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Apoorva Uboveja, Katherine M Aird
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and is often associated with both DNA repair deficiency and extensive metabolic reprogramming. While still emerging, the interplay between these pathways can affect ovarian cancer phenotypes, including therapeutic resistance to the DNA damaging agents that are standard-of-care for this tumor type. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about cellular metabolic rewiring in ovarian cancer that may impact DNA damage and repair in addition to highlighting how specific DNA repair proteins also promote metabolic changes...
June 14, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38873900/culture-acquired-genetic-variation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-twenty-years-on
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
John P Vales, Ivana Barbaric
Genetic changes arising in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) upon culture may bestow unwanted or detrimental phenotypes to cells, thus potentially impacting on the applications of hPSCs for clinical use and basic research. In the 20 years since the first report of culture-acquired genetic aberrations in hPSCs, a characteristic spectrum of recurrent aberrations has emerged. The preponderance of such aberrations implies that they provide a selective growth advantage to hPSCs upon expansion. However, understanding the consequences of culture-acquired variants for specific applications in cell therapy or research has been more elusive...
June 14, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38873893/c2h2-proteins-evolutionary-aspects-of-domain-architecture-and-diversification
#18
REVIEW
Artem N Bonchuk, Pavel G Georgiev
The largest group of transcription factors in higher eukaryotes are C2H2 proteins, which contain C2H2-type zinc finger domains that specifically bind to DNA. Few well-studied C2H2 proteins, however, demonstrate their key role in the control of gene expression and chromosome architecture. Here we review the features of the domain architecture of C2H2 proteins and the likely origin of C2H2 zinc fingers. A comprehensive investigation of proteomes for the presence of proteins with multiple clustered C2H2 domains has revealed a key difference between groups of organisms...
June 14, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38873886/-not-available
#19
EDITORIAL
Dave Speijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38850173/crosstalk-between-co-assembling-filamentous-enzymes
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nancy Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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