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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cari B Kolton, Chung K Marston, Robyn A Stoddard, Caitlin Cossaboom, Johanna S Salzer, Thomas R Kozel, Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth, Christopher A Cleveland, Alec T Thompson, Martha F Dalton, Michael J Yabsley, Alex R Hoffmaster
The Active Anthrax Detect (AAD) Rapid Test lateral flow immunoassay is a point-of-care assay that was under investigational use for detecting Bacillus anthracis capsular polypeptide (polyglutamic acid) in human blood, serum, and plasma. Small sample volumes, rapid results, and no refrigeration required allow for easy use in either the field or laboratory. Although the test was developed for use in suspect cases of human inhalation anthrax, its features also make it a potentially powerful tool for testing suspect animal cases...
February 18, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Zhigui He, Haimin Chen, Lijun Liang, Juan E Dong, Zongsuo Liang, Liang Zhao
Pinellia ternata is a traditional Chinese herb that has been shown to suffer from continuous cropping. Deterioration in continuous P. ternata cropping soils and the effect of alteration of crop rotation on the soil were evaluated by using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Soil physicochemical properties and fungal diversity were significantly lower in continuous P. ternate cropping soil compared with those of uncultivated soil. In contrast, significant increases in soil factors and fungal diversity were detected after the continuous cropping soil was subjected to rotational cropping treatments, indicating a remediation effect of crop rotation on continuous cropping soil...
February 18, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
G J Humphreys, A J McBain
Direct antagonism towards pathogens including Streptococcus pyogenes is a proposed mechanism of pharyngeal probiosis but off-target effects on the symbiotic microbiota of the throat are possible and may be beneficial, harmful or neutral. We have assessed the bacteriological effects of two candidate Lactobacillus probiotics and the established pharyngeal probiotic S. salivarius K12. Antagonism towards S. pyogenes and potential off-target effects were determined using sessile monospecies biofilms and pharyngeal microcosms, respectively...
February 18, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Akbar Ghadam Khani, Naeimeh Enayatizamir, Mojtaba Nourozi Masir
This study aimed to investigate the effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with potassium dissolution ability on different forms of potassium in soil under the cultivation of wheat. The factorial experiment was conducted as a randomized complete design with three replications in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of bacterium inoculation (without inoculation, Enterobacter cloacae Rhizo_33, Pseudomonas sp. Rhizo_9, consortium of Enterobacter cloacae Rhizo_33 and Pseudomonas sp. Rhizo_9), potassium application (2...
February 17, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
E Sweeney, A M Lovering, K E Bowker, A P MacGowan, S M Nelson
Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to treat, with biofilm growth and the diffusion barrier to antibiotics presented by bone contributory factors. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro model of osteomyelitis. A bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus was grown in bone blocks made from bovine femur. Light output was insufficient for detection of bacterial cells within bone by 24 h and viable counting of crushed bone blocks was used to determine bacterial survival. Challenge of 72 h biofilms with gentamicin and daptomycin for 24 h demonstrated that only concentrations of ten times the clinical peak serum target levels (100 mg l-1 gentamicin and 1000 mg l-1 daptomycin) resulted in significant reductions in cell viability compared to controls...
February 15, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Vipin Chembili, Musliyarakath Mujeeburahiman, Ashwini Prabhu, Arun Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath, Rekha Punchappady-Devasya
Increase in infection with multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious global challenge in healthcare. P. aeruginosa is capable of causing human infection in various sites and complicates the infection due to its virulence factors. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin, a dietary flavonoid against the virulence factors of P. aeruginosa and its cell protective effecets on epithelial cells. Bactericidal activity, anti-biofilm activity and effect on different virulence factors were carried out using standard methods by using five P...
February 14, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
E Scaltriti, D Carminati, C Cortimiglia, R Ramoni, K I Sørensen, G Giraffa, M Zago
Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic LAB that is mainly used in the manufacture of Swiss type and long-ripened Italian hard cheeses. In this study, the presence of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) were analysed in 25 L. helveticus genomes and identified in 23 of these genomes. A total of 40 CRISPR loci were identified and classified into five main families based on CRISPR repeats: Ldbu1, Lsal1, Lhel1, Lhel2 and a new repeat family named Lhel3. Spacers had a size between 30 and 40 bp whereas repeats have an average size of 30 bp, with three longer repeats...
February 14, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Sandra Rojak, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Andreas Wille, Ulrike Loderstädt, Lars Wassill, Rebecca Hinz, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
In-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedures for the detection of paratyphoid fever associated bacteria on serovar level were evaluated. Therefore, LAMP primers for Salmonella genus, for two LAMP schemes for S. Paratyphi A, for S. Paratyphi B and for S. Paratyphi C were tested with DNA from culture isolates from strain collections and spiked blood cultures against published PCR protocols targeting the same microorganisms. Sensitivity and specificity for DNA from culture isolates verified by LAMP ranged from 80...
February 14, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Dayane de Melo Costa, Khalid Johani, Dulcelene Sousa Melo, Lillian Kelly de Oliveira Lopes, Liwcy Keller de Oliveira Lopes Lima, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple, Honghua Hu, Karen Vickery
The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology (location, microbial load, microbiome, presence/absence of biofilm, and pathogens, including ESKAPE - Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles) of the bacterial contamination on intensive care units (ICUs) surfaces. Fifty-seven high-touched surfaces were collected from adult, paediatric and neonatal ICUs from two large public Brazilian hospitals from central and north regions...
February 13, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Cláudia N H Marques, Shona M Nelson
The influence of growth phase and state on survival and recovery of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to ciprofloxacin was investigated using batch culture grown planktonic cells and disaggregated biofilm populations. Biofilms were either non-antibiotic exposed or previously exposed to ciprofloxacin before disaggregation and subsequent challenge with ciprofloxacin. Viable counts showed that late stationary phase cells were tolerant to ciprofloxacin over 24 h exposure, whilst all other populations presented a biphasic killing pattern...
February 11, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Md Javed Foysal, Ravi Fotedar, Sanjay K Gupta, Md Reaz Chaklader
This study aimed to characterize the bacterial communities in rearing water treated with commercial plastic biological ball filters named as Bio-ball in marron culture for 60 days. Inclusion of Bio-ball in the aquaculture tanks showed improvement in water quality parameters and enrichment of bacterial communities in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The water treated with Bio-ball showed significantly less nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphorus and high dissolved oxygen concentration than untreated control group...
February 4, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
ChengChung Yong, Jina Lim, Bum-Keun Kim, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh
Clostridioides difficile is a spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobic pathogen that caused gastrointestinal illness. During dysbiosis, overgrowth of C. difficile resulting in higher levels of toxin production. Since Lactobacillus has been commonly used to alleviate gastrointestinal discomfort, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus isolated from kimchi on the quorum-sensing and virulence factors of C. difficile 027. Among the isolated Lactobacillus strains, the acid and bile tolerant L...
February 3, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Padrig B Flynn, William G Graham, Brendan F Gilmore
Acinetobacter baumannii is an intrinsically multi-drug resistant pathogen that, when existing as a biofilm, confers increased environmental tolerance to desiccation, nutrient starvation as well as increased tolerance to antimicrobials. Outbreaks of A. baumannii infections within the clinical setting are often associated with the biofilm phenotype. This study investigates the role of biofilm biomass in A. baumannii susceptibility to exposure to a kilohertz driven in-house designed cold plasma jet, through the examination of cold plasma treatment efficacy in A...
February 1, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Fei Peng, Xiao-Yang Ou, Ying Zhao, Min-Hua Zong, Wen-Yong Lou
Chiral 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (PED) performs vital effect for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and cosmetics. In the study, a newly isolated strain Kurthia gibsonii SC0312 with the ability to selectively oxidize racemic PED to achieve (S)-PED was evaluated in the aqueous reaction system. The strain showed excellent catalytic performances within the range of pH 5.5-8.5, temperature 25-45 °C and the amount of cell 15 mg mL-1 to 30 mg mL-1 . Besides, 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HAP) as the oxidation product displayed a stronger inhibition to the catalytic activity of cell, only remaining less than 63% of catalytic activity after incubation at 40 mmol L-1 HAP for 6 h...
January 31, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Veronika Oravcova, Milan Kolar, Ivan Literak
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens of increasing medical importance. This study involved 121 VRE selectively obtained from a representative set of 1464 samples collected from various sources in the north-eastern part of the Czech Republic. In total, 119 VRE belonged to Enterococcus faecium and two to Enterococcus faecalis. All isolates of E. faecium were resistant to at least three antibiotic classes. The resistance genes vanA, erm(B), tet(M), tet(L), aac(3)-IIIa, and aac(6')-aph(2'') were detected...
January 29, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Natalia Di Marco, Cecilia Lucero-Estrada, Carlos Rodolfo Pungitore
Foodborne diseases have become a health issue worldwide, mainly due to the consumption of contaminated foods that are either raw, improperly heat treated or crosscontaminated after adequate heat treatment foods. A group of alkaloids extracted from plants were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect against different strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and other foodborne bacteria. The results obtained reveal that oliveridine and pachypodanthine inhibited Y. enterocolitica growth, with MIC values of 25 μmol l-1 and 100 μmol l-1 , respectively...
January 27, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Lisa F Stinson, Jeffrey A Keelan, Matthew S Payne
Numerous studies have reported bacterial DNA in first-pass meconium samples, suggesting that the human gut microbiome is seeded prior to birth. However, these studies have not been able to discriminate between DNA from living bacterial cells, DNA from dead bacterial cells, or cell-free DNA. Here we have used propidium monoazide (PMA) together with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine whether there are intact bacterial cells in the fetal gut. DNA was extracted from first-pass meconium (n=5) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing with/without PMA treatment...
January 23, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ye-Ji Jang, Seul-Ah Kim, Seung-Oh Seo, Ling Li, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc citreum EFEL2700 isolated from kimchi was used as a host strain for genetic and metabolic engineering in our previous studies, but the cells of EFEL2700 contained a cryptic plasmid (P-cells). Thus, we created plasmid free cells (F-cells) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In this study, we compared the microbial characteristics of P- and F-cells in terms of growth rate, biochemical properties, transformation efficiency, plasmid copy number, and protein expression level. When the growth rate was measured in MRS medium at 30°C, no significant difference (p > 0...
January 21, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yasmine Abdallah, Min Yang, Muchen Zhang, Md Mahidul Islam Masum, Solabomi Olaitan Ogunyemi, Afsana Hossain, Qianli An, Chenqi Yan, Li Bin
The effects and mechanisms of Paenibacillus polymyxa Sx3 on growth promotion and the suppression of bacterial leaf blight in rice were evaluated in this study. The results from a plate assay indicated that Sx3 inhibited the growth of 20 strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Rice seedling experiments indicated that Sx3 promoted plant growth and suppressed bacterial leaf blight. In addition, bacteriological tests showed that Sx3 was able to fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and produce indole acetic acid, indicating that various mechanisms may be involved in the growth promotion by Sx3...
January 19, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Teerana Greetatorn, Shun Hashimoto, Sukanlaya Sarapat, Panlada Tittabutr, Nantakorn Boonkerd, Toshiki Uchiumi, Neung Teaumroong
Bradyrhizobium sp. strain SUTN9-2 was confirmed as rice endophytic bacteria and also as rice growth promotion agent. SUTN9-2 showed the capability of plant growth promotion charecteristics, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase productions and nitrogen fixation. In this study, the ability of SUTN9-2 to stimulate rice growth was investigated at different stages with N-free and NH4 NO3 under in vivo condition. The rice dry weight and chlorophyll content could be enhanced when SUTN9-2 was inoculated in N-free, especially at seedling stage (7 and 14 dai)...
January 13, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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