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Journal of Rural Health

Michael Hendryx, Nicholas Higginbotham, Benjamin Ewald, Linda H Connor
PURPOSE: Rural areas may face under-recognized threats to air quality. We tested 2 hypotheses that 1) rural areas in New South Wales, Australia, would have better air quality than metropolitan Sydney, and that 2) the rural Upper Hunter region characterized by coal mining and coal combustion would have worse air quality than other rural areas of the state. METHODS: We analyzed 2017 daily mean values for New South Wales, Australia, for particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and NOx (sum of NO and NO2 )...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Cindy Del Rosario, Ann Kutney-Lee, Julie Sochalski, Mary Ersek
PURPOSE: Several studies have identified differences in end-of-life (EOL) care between urban and rural areas, yet little is known about potential differences in care processes or family evaluations of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between rurality of residence and quality of EOL care within the Veterans Affairs health care system. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 126,475 veterans who died from October 2009 through September 2016 in inpatient settings across 151 facilities...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Kara M Bensley, John Fortney, Gary Chan, Julia C Dombrowski, India Ornelas, Anna D Rubinsky, Gwen T Lapham, Joseph E Glass, Emily C Williams
PURPOSE: It is unknown whether receipt of evidence-based alcohol-related care varies by rurality among people living with HIV (PLWH) with unhealthy alcohol use-a population for whom such care is particularly important. METHODS: All positive screens for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 5) among PLWH were identified using Veterans Health Administration electronic health record data (10/1/09-5/30/13). Three domains of alcohol-related care were assessed: brief intervention (BI) within 14 days, and specialty addictions treatment or alcohol use disorder (AUD) medications (filled prescription for naltrexone, disulfiram, acamprosate, or topiramate) within 1 year of positive screen...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Allison L Swiecki-Sikora, Kevin A Henry, Deanna Kepka
BACKGROUND: In this study, we used data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) to examine HPV vaccination uptake by rural and urban residence defined by ZIP code. METHODS: We used 2012-2013 NIS-Teen data to examine associations of HPV vaccination among teens aged 13-17 years with ZIP code measures of rural/urban (Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes, population density). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccination initiation (≥ 1 dose) and completion (≥ 3 doses)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Claire E Margerison, Sidra Goldman-Mellor
OBJECTIVE: Suicide mortality rates in rural areas of the United States are twice that of rates in urban areas, and identifying which factors-eg, higher rates of suicidal distress, lower rates of help-seeking behaviors, or greater access to firearms-contribute to this rural/urban disparity could help target interventions. METHOD: Using 2015-2016 data on adult respondents to the California Health Interview Survey (n = 40,041), we examined associations between residence in a rural (vs nonrural) census tract and nonfatal suicidal ideation and attempt...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Whitney E Zahnd, Sara L McLafferty, Recinda L Sherman, Hillary Klonoff-Cohen, Susan Farner, Karin A Rosenblatt
PURPOSE: To characterize spatial access to mammography services across 8 Lower Mississippi Delta Region (LMDR) states. These states include the Delta Region, a federally designated, largely rural, and impoverished region with a high proportion of black residents and low mammography utilization rates. METHODS: Using the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area method, we calculated spatial accessibility scores for mammography services across LMDR census tracts. We compared accessibility scores between the Delta and non-Delta Regions of the LMDR...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Paul Moore, Graham T Atkins, Stephanie Cramb, Janet B Croft, Lisa Davis, Rowena J Dolor, Daniel Doyle, Maggie Elehwany, Cara James, Alana Knudson, John Linnell, David Mannino, Jean M Rommes, Akshay Sood, Eric Stockton, David N Weissman, Mike Witte, Eugenia Wyatt, William C Yarbrough, Barbara P Yawn, Lenora Johnson, Tom Morris, James P Kiley, Neyal J Ammary-Risch, Antonello Punturieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Carrie Henning-Smith, Ira Moscovice, Katy Kozhimannil
PURPOSE: Social isolation is an urgent threat to public health. Meanwhile, health outcomes across multiple measures are worse in rural areas, where distance to neighbors is often greater and opportunities for social interaction may be scarcer. Still, very little research examines rural-urban differences in social isolation. This study addresses that gap by examining differences in social isolation by rurality among US older adults. METHODS: Using Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project data (n = 2,439), we measured differences between urban and rural (micropolitan or noncore) residents across multiple dimensions of social isolation...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Scott V Adams, Michael J Mader, Mary J Bollinger, Edwin S Wong, Teresa J Hudson, Alyson J Littman
PURPOSE: Interactive clinical video telemedicine (CVT) has the potential to benefit health care systems and patients by improving access, lowering costs, and more efficiently distributing providers. However, there is a gap in current knowledge around the demand for and potential uses of CVT in large integrated health care systems. METHODS: We conducted an observational study using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative databases to analyze trends in CVT utilization, and types of care received, among 7...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Makoto Kaneko, Takuya Aoki, Hideki Mori, Ryuichi Ohta, Hiroki Matsuzawa, Akira Shimabukuro, Kazuhisa Motomura, Machiko Inoue
PURPOSE: In rural areas, the management of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits is an important issue, and it is compounded by factors such as the long distance to secondary care facilities, funding difficulties in many rural medical institutions, and shortage of medical staff. While better patient experience (PX) has been shown to reduce hospitalizations and ED visits, previous studies have not considered the differences between urban and rural areas. In addressing this gap, this study examines the association between PX and hospitalizations/ED visits on isolated islands...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Margaret B Greenwood-Ericksen, Craig Rothenberg, Nicholas Mohr, Shawn D Andrea, Todd Slesinger, Tiffany Osborn, Jessica Whittle, Pawan Goyal, Nalani Tarrant, Jeremiah D Schuur, Donald M Yealy, Arjun Venkatesh
PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) developed national quality measures for emergency department (ED) sepsis care. Like care for many conditions, meeting sepsis quality metrics can vary between settings. We sought to examine and compare sepsis care quality in rural vs urban hospital-based EDs. METHODS: We analyzed data from EDs participating in the national Emergency Quality Network (E-QUAL)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Ian Janssen, Richard L Berg, Barbara Marlenga, William Pickett
PURPOSE: The objectives were to: (1) describe sleep timing and patterns among adolescents who live or work on farms; (2) compare these sleep characteristics to those of nonfarm adolescents; (3) explore whether the above sleep and farm versus nonfarm differences varied by age and gender. METHODS: Participants were aged 11-16 years and were abstracted from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Records from 2,160 farm adolescents were frequency matched (by school, gender, and grade) to records from 2,210 nonfarm adolescents...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Jeffrey J VanWormer, Sailee R Tambe, Amit Acharya
PURPOSE: Low oral health literacy (OHL) is an emerging risk factor for several oral health outcomes, but there are very few studies of OHL overall and no studies of OHL in the rural United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between OHL and sociodemographic factors, as well as several oral health outcomes, in rural adults served by an integrated medical and dental care system in Wisconsin. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a stratified random sample of patients from 2 rural communities...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Carrie Henning-Smith, Shailendra Prasad, Michelle Casey, Katy Kozhimannil, Ira Moscovice
PURPOSE: Quality scores are strongly influenced by sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, many of which lie outside of the clinician's control. As a result, there is vigorous debate about whether, and how, to risk-adjust quality measures. Yet, rurality has been largely missing from this debate, even though population and environmental characteristics are demonstrably different by rurality. We addressed this gap by examining the influence of county-level population sociodemographic, environmental, and health characteristics on 3 Medicare quality measures...
January 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Caroline K Geiger, Ashley M Kranz, Andrew W Dick, Erin Duffy, Mark Sorbero, Bradley D Stein
PURPOSE: Integrating oral health care into primary care has been promoted as a strategy to increase delivery of preventive oral health services (POHS) to young children, particularly in rural areas where few dentists practice. Using a multistate sample of Medicaid claims, we examined a child's odds of receiving POHS in a medical office by county rurality. METHODS: We used 2012-2014 Medicaid Analytic extract claims data for 6,275,456 children younger than 6 years in 39 states that allowed Medicaid payment for POHS in medical offices...
January 2019: Journal of Rural Health
Tyrone F Borders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Joseph Fonseca, Andrew Chang, Feng Chang
PURPOSE: Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. METHODS: One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Emily B Jones
PURPOSE: This study explores correlates of on-site availability of substance use disorder treatment services in federally qualified health centers, including buprenorphine treatment that is critical to addressing the opioid epidemic. METHODS: We employed descriptive and multivariable analyses with weighted 2010 Assessment of Behavioral Health Services survey data and the 2010 Uniform Data System. FINDINGS: In 2010, 47.6% of health centers provided on-site substance use disorder treatment, 12...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Laura J Chavez, Kelly J Kelleher, Steven C Matson, Thomas M Wickizer, Deena J Chisolm
PURPOSE: Rural young adults experience greater unmet need for mental health (MH) and alcohol or drug (AOD) treatment and lower health insurance coverage than urban residents. It is unknown whether Affordable Care Act (ACA) reforms in 2010 (dependent coverage extended to age 26) or 2014 (Medicaid expansion) closed rural/urban gaps in insurance and treatment. The present study compared changes in rates of health insurance, MH treatment, and AOD treatment for rural and urban young adults over a period of ACA reforms...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Michele Staton, Gabriele Ciciurkaite, Jennifer Havens, Martha Tillson, Carl Leukefeld, Matthew Webster, Carrie Oser, Bridgette Peteet
BACKGROUND: Limited research has focused on correlates of injection drug use (IDU) among high-risk subgroups of drug users, particularly women, who may be at increased risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C. The purpose of this study is to better understand the contextual and health correlates of IDU among women living in rural Appalachia by examining (1) differences between injectors and noninjectors, and (2) the unique correlates of recent IDU and past IDU...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
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