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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Brit Salbu, Sergey Fesenko, Alexander Ulanowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E A Shishkina, E A Pryakhin, P A Sharagin, D I Osipov, G A Tryapitsina, N I Atamanyuk, E A Egoreichenkov, A V Trapeznikov, G Rudolfsen, H C Teien, M K Sneve
Waterborne radioactive releases into the Techa River from the Mayak Production Association in Russia during 1949-1956 resulted in downstream contamination of the river ecosystem. The discharged liquid waste contained both short-lived isotopes (95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103,106 Ru, 141,144 Ce, 91 Y, 89 Sr and 140 Ba with half-life from 3 days to 1.02 years) and the long-lived 90 Sr and 137 Cs (half-life - 28.79 y and 30.07 y, respectively). Even now, when two half-lives of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have passed, the contamination in the upper river region (about 70 km from the source of releases) is still relatively high...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Petra Kovács-Bodor, Katalin Csondor, Anita Erőss, Dénes Szieberth, Ágnes Freiler-Nagy, Ákos Horváth, Árpád Bihari, Judit Mádl-Szőnyi
The elevated radioactivity of the thermal waters of Buda Thermal Karst (BTK), Hungary is known and studied since the beginning of the 20th century. In the recent studies, the anomalous 222 Rn/226 Ra ratios have drawn the attention to the existence of local 222 Rn source. Biogeochemical precipitates (i.e. biofilms) in spring caves were found to have high adsorption capacity, accumulating e.g. 226 Ra. Biogeochemical precipitates are ubiquitous in the thermal springs of BTK, occurring in different amount and colours (dark grey, brown, red, white), and have different microbial communities and elemental composition...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E Salama, S U El-Kameesy, Rawaa Elrawi
For the sake of completeness of the surveillance process concerning the spread of depleted uranium (DU) in the Arabian Gulf region, we have applied a simple gamma spectroscopy technique to evaluate its content in Al Jolan, Nazzal and Askari districts in Al Fallujah area, Iraq for the first time and after more than one decade. The measurements were carried out along the lines of the wars that have been witnessed in Iraq last period and expected to be the region of impact of residuals of a large quantity of DU...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Almudena Real, Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace
The actions to be taken to demonstrate that the environment is adequately protected against the detrimental effects of ionising radiation, and if needed to protect it, must be commensurate with the overall level of risk to non-human biota. To judge the level of risk, the estimated dose rates absorbed by animals and plants need to be compared with dose criteria, a benchmark or reference value. A variety of aspects will influence the final value of the derived benchmark, including: the aim of the application of the benchmark, the protection goals of the assessment, the data on radiation-induced biological effects considered, and the methodology used...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yadong Wang, Yan Ma, Xiongxin Dai
Lead-210 in drinking water can be rapidly determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) using a new sulfate precipitation method. In this method, 210 Pb was first preconcentrated from water using iron hydroxide co-precipitation followed by sulfate precipitation to decontaminate most of non-alkaline earth elements. The Pb in the sulfate precipitate was then dissolved in strong alkaline solution, while alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ba, Ra) were separated as the sulfate/carbonate precipitate. To optimize the method, the influences of different acids and sulfate concentration on sulfate precipitation as well as the effects of pH, the added SO4 2- /CO3 2- concentrations and the Sr/Ba contents in the sulfate precipitate on the dissolution of PbSO4 were studied...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masakazu Ota, Taku Tanaka
14 C-labelled methane (14 CH4 ) released from deep underground radioactive waste disposal facilities can be a below-ground source of 14 CO2 owing to microbial oxidation of 14 CH4 to 14 CO2 in soils. Environmental 14 C models assume that the transfer of 14 CO2 from soil to plant occurs via foliar uptake of 14 CO2 . Nevertheless, the importance of 14 CO2 root uptake is not well understood. In the present study, below-ground transport and oxidation of 14 CH4 were modeled and incorporated into an existing land-surface 14 CO2 model (SOLVEG-II) to assess the relative importance of root uptake and foliar uptake on 14 CO2 transfer from soil to plants...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
N A Beresford, E M Scott, D Copplestone
In the initial aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident there were detrimental effects recorded on wildlife, including, mass mortality of pine trees close to the reactor, reduced pine seed production, reductions in soil invertebrate abundance and diversity and likely death of small mammals. More than 30 years after the Chernobyl accident there is no consensus on the longer-term impact of the chronic exposure to radiation on wildlife in what is now referred to as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Reconciling this lack of consensus is one of the main challenges for radioecology...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
N E Adesiji, J A Ademola
The transfer factors (TFs) of naturally occurring radionuclides, 238 U and 232 Th from soil to different cassava plant compartments were calculated. Cassava is widely cultivated in Nigeria and contributes significantly to the food supply of the nation. There is sparsity of data on the TFs in Nigeria, and no TF data from any African country were included in the International Atomic Energy Agency's compilation of TFs for the tropical ecosystem. Samples of tin tailings and soil samples from virgin land were used to formulate three soil groups; group-A (soil from virgin land only), group-B (tailings only) and group-C (equal dry mass combination of tailings and soil from virgin land)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Antony R Denman, Robin G M Crockett, Christopher J Groves-Kirkby, Paul S Phillips, Gavin K Gillmore
The natural radioactive gas radon is widely present in the built environment and at high concentrations is associated with enhanced risk of lung-cancer. This risk is significantly enhanced for habitual smokers. Although populations with higher degrees of social deprivation are frequently exposed to higher levels of many health-impacting pollutants, a recent study suggests that social deprivation in the UK is associated with lower radon concentrations. The analysis reported here, based on published data on social deprivation and domestic radon in urban and rural settings in the English East Midlands, identifies a weak association between increasing deprivation and lower radon areas...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Elena I Sarapultseva, Kseniya Ustenko, Yuri E Dubrova
The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the combined effects of diet restriction and exposure to chemical on the survival and reproduction of aquatic organisms. However, the combined effects of diet restriction and exposure to ionizing radiation remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation and diet restriction can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed crustaceans and their progeny, Daphnia magna were given 10, 100 and 1000 mGy of acute γ-rays either during chronic diet restriction or normal food supply...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jaleh Semmler, Wenxing Kuang, Konstantin Volchek, Arshad Toor, Anthony Snaglewski, Zahid Khan, Pervez Azmi
Effective decontamination of large-scale areas such as roads and parking lots after an accidental or intentional radiological incident is important in order to contain the spread of contamination and avoid the need for long-term evacuation of urban areas. As a simulation, large coupons (surface area 3600 cm2 ) made of concrete patio stone and aged asphalt (from a parking lot) were contaminated with either 60 Co or 137 Cs solutions and then decontaminated. The decontamination process consisted of a six-component water-based chemical formulation applied using a common house-hold carpet cleaner...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Nan Hu, Tao Lang, Dexin Ding, Jingsong Hu, Changwu Li, Hui Zhang, Guangyue Li
A greenhouse pot experiment was performed to investigate the enhancement of repeated applications of citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS), and Oxalic acid (OA) on phytoremediation of uranium (U) contaminated soil by Macleaya Cordata. The chelates followed the order CA > EDDS > OA in terms of the enhancement on uranium uptake by M. cordata. The repeated applications of the chelates were found to be more effective than the one time application at the equal dose as the U concentration of soil solution increased significantly from the 8th to 14th day...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
John P O Horsfall, Divyesh Trivedi, Nick T Smith, Philip A Martin, Paul Coffey, Stella Tournier, Anthony Banford, Lin Li, David Whitehead, Adam Lang, Gareth T W Law
Stand-off, in-situ, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a rapid, safe, and cost-effective method for discrimination of radioactive waste materials arising during the operation of nuclear plants and from decommissioning activities. Characterisation of waste materials is a critical activity in understanding the nature of the waste, ensuring hazardous material is managed safely and that waste can be segregated for reuse, recycle or sentenced for appropriate disposal. Characterisation of materials, often in hostile environments, requires the ability to remotely differentiate between materials in terms of their chemical composition and radioactivity...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Chongyang Zhou, Guoqing Zhou, Shujuan Feng, Xinhua Zhao, Dingwei Huang, Zining Tian, Xiaolong Yu, Ziwei Cheng
To monitor low-level radioxenon isotopes activity concentrations in the bulk gases, a radioxenon sampling, separation and measurement system has been developed. The xenon enrichment factor of this system is more than 105 after the separation of impurities, including N2 , O2 , CO2 and H2 O, as well as radon and its progenies, such as 214 Pb and 214 Bi. Since radon and its progenies interfere with radioxenon measurement, they have to be removed before radioxenon counting. To separate radon from xenon, different dynamic adsorption coefficients of xenon and radon are used to design small radon removal trap to retain radon after eluting xenon, and the ratio between radon and xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient gives the adsorbent weight relationship between the xenon adsorption trap and its related radon removal trap...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Natal Ya A Orekhova, Makar V Modorov, Yulia A Davydova
The hepatic parameters (contents of glycogen, total lipids, nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, DNA and RNA, fructose-6-phosphate, water, lipid peroxidation products, as well as activities of succinate dehydrogenase and glucose phosphate isomerase), radiometric data, and the relative population abundance of the pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis Pall., 1811) inhabiting natural (Middle Urals, Southern Urals, and Trans-Urals) areas and radioactivity territory (the EURT zone after of the Kyshtym accident in the South Urals in 1957) were analysed...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
P Nogueira, M Hiller, M-O Aust
Vision is an important sense for the majority of the wildlife species, affecting their ability to find food and escape predation. Currently, no study on radiation induced cataract frequency on the fish eyes lens has been done. However, any thorough future study of this subject will require more accurate dose estimates for the fish eye lens than those currently available. For this purpose, the eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yanwei Wang, Weijun Luo, Guangneng Zeng, Yang Wang, Hanling Yang, Meifang Wang, Lin Zhang, Xianli Cai, Jia Chen, Anyun Cheng, Shijie Wang
Cave 222 Rn has been a major health issue and subject of scientific debate for decades. While the basics of natural ventilation physics are well understood, it is difficult to make blind predictions of 222 Rn concentrations in a given cave due to the complexity of cave systems. In-situ continuous observation is necessary to improve our ability to quantify radiation dose exposure and reduce radiation hazard to cave users, and trace the air exchange patterns occurring in caves. In this study, continuous monitoring using a RAD7 radon detector revealed high 222 Rn concentrations and large fluctuations in 222 Rn concentration in a small karst cave in southwest China, Shawan Cave...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marta Fuente, Eduardo Muñoz, Isabel Sicilia, Jamie Goggins, Le Chi Hung, Borja Frutos, Mark Foley
The purpose of this study is to investigate gas flow through different types of granular fill materials and soil by means of a series of experimental laboratory tests, in relation to soil depressurisation systems for radon reduction under buildings and the soil surrounding the foundation. Gas permeability characterisation of materials used as granular fill material beneath the slab in buildings is a key parameter for the optimum performance of soil depressurisation systems to mitigate radon. A test apparatus was developed, adapted from previous studies, to measure the gas permeability of the samples and Finite Element Method numerical simulations were validated to simulate the flow behaviour through them...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Richard S Woolf, Laurel E Sinclair, Reid A Van Brabant, Bradley J A Harvey, Bernard F Phlips, Anthony L Hutcheson, Emily G Jackson
The spectrum of cosmogenic neutrons at Earth's surface covers a wide energy range, from thermal to several GeV. The flux of secondary neutrons varies with latitude, elevation, solar activity, and nearby material, including ground moisture. We report the results from a campaign to measure count rates in neutron detectors responding to three different energy ranges conducted near the geomagnetic North Pole at CFS Alert, Nunavut, Canada (82.5°N, 62.5°W; vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, RC  = 0 GV) in June of 2016...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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