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Tropical Biomedicine

R M Zuha, L X Q Jenarthanan, R H L Disney, B Omar
In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
P Xu, X Li, F Tang, Y H Liu, X Kou, M L Zhao, B Li, L Guo, X G Liu, Q Zhao
In the present study, serum samples from 402 sheep and 216 goats were collected from 5 counties in Jinzhou from August to October 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, 104 (16.8%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:25 to 1:800. Seropositive samples were distributed in all the 5 counties and seroprevalences of T. gondii varied significantly with flock size, age and rearing system, but not with breed, gender and farm location. The seroprevalences in small farms (18...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
L Y Hu, N Z Zhang, Q Gao, J Chen, F L Wen, S K Wang, X Q Zhu
Toxoplasmosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is anopportunistic zoonosis in warm-blooded animals and humans, with a worldwide distribution. Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 16 (TgGRA16) can modulate some functions in host cells and is considered a significant virulent factor of the parasite. The present study reports sequence variation in TgGRA16 gene among T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical locations, and the construction of phylogenetic relationships of these T...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
V L Low, W Y Vinnie-Siow, A L Lim Y, T K Tan, C S Leong, C D Chen, A A Azidah, M Sofian-Azirun
Given the lack of molecular evidence in altered target-site insecticide resistance mechanism in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) worldwide, the present study aims to detect the presence of A302S mutation in the gene encoding the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor resistant to dieldrin (Rdl) in Ae. albopictus for the first time from its native range of South East Asia, namely Malaysia. World Health Organization (WHO) adult susceptibility bioassay indicated a relatively low level of dieldrin resistance (two-fold) in Ae...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
Sarun Saensiriphan, Lerdsak Rungmuenporn, Pimpawee Phiromnak, Siriporn Yingyeun, Supawadee Klayjunteuk, Theerakamol Pengsakul
Genitourinary amoebiasis is a rare form of kidney and urinary tract infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we describe the first case of unusual infection caused by E. histolytica in Bueng Kan province, northeast, Thailand. A 63-year-old female patient was diagnosed as acute pyelonephritis. E. histotolytica trophozoites were accidentally found in urine collected from a catheter.
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
M Zeehaida, A Zueter, N Z Zairi, S Zunulhisham
Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome (TDS) is a severe persistent trichuriasis associated with heavy worm build-up in the colon that continues to be neglected and underestimated in endemic countries. Trichuriasis is most prevalent in children in tropical countries, and that increases the risk of TDS. We reported a series of four preschool children of both genders chronically having TDS over a period ranging from several months to years presenting with anaemia. The hemoglobin levels ranged from 4.6 to 9.1 g/dl on first admissions...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
W F Qian, W C Yan, T Q Wang, X D Shao, K Zhai, L F Han, C C Lv
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that has a remarkable ability to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. This study was aimed to determine the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates from domestic animals in Henan Province, central China. A total of 363 DNA samples, including 208 from hilar lymph nodes of pigs, 36 from blood samples of cats, 12 from tissues of aborted bovine fetuses and 107 from blood samples of dams with history of abortion in Henan Province, were examined for the presence of T...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
K T Chong, S F Wong, J W Mak, L C Loh, T M Ho
Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
H A Taha, S A Shoman, N M Alhadlag
The prevalence of some viral and haemoprotozoan infections in goats and sheep was investigated in the present study. The infections of Anaplasma spp. and Theileria spp. were encountered by PCR and cELISA for the detection of Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. was more prevalent than Theileria spp. with a significant difference (Pvalue<0.05) in both goats and sheep, but, the infection in sheep was more prevalent than goats. Also four viral infections were detected: Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), Bluetongue Virus (BTV), Madina Visna Virus (MVV) and Schmallenberg, (SBV) with an overall prevalence of 56...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
W Srisuka, H Takaoka, A Saeung
The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
K P Sreelekha, L Chandrasekhar, G Jyothimol, D R Lenka, V Aswathi, T P Adarshkrishna, K G Ajithkumar, S N Nair, R Ravindran, S Juliet, S Ghosh
The ovary of Haemaphysalis bispinosa was of panoistic type with asynchronous development of oocytes. The wall of the ovary was composed of a layer of epithelial cells to which the oocytes were attached by means of pedicel cells with elongated nucleus. The oocytes were classified into stages I to V based on morphologic characteristics like size and shape, presence / absence of germ vesicle, cytoplasmic appearance, presence or absence of yolk granules and presence of chorion. Day wise changes were in the form of occurrence of oogonia from partially fed upto day zero of engorgement, presence of all stages of oocytes on day one and two after engorgement and onset of degenerative changes in oocytes from day three onwards...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
R H Prasetyo
The majority of amoeba infection are asymptomatic, but clinically intestinal amoebiasis or extra intestinal amoebiasis may result. Genital amoebiasis is very rare manifestation of extra intestial amoebiasis, but a case of amoebic scrotal abscess, seen in Surabaya. The invasive form of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite was seen in Giemsa stained aspirate of the abscess. In case of an abscess bacteria are primarly considered, but the case presented here shows that amoeba can be the cause, although very rarely...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
Nurhidanatasha Abu Bakar
Studies show that the pH of the malaria parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) plays a key role in the physiological functions of this organelle and antimalarial drug accumulation, and yet is technically difficult to measure. In this study, a flow cytometry-based technique was developed to measure the DV pH using a ratiometric pH indicator, FITC-dextran loaded into the DV of saponin-permeabilized parasites. To calculate the DV pH, a standard pH calibration curve was generated by incubating the saponin-permeabilized cells in buffers with different pH in the presence of an ionophore, CCCP...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
M Nateghi Rostami, E Seyyedan Jasbi, A Khamesipour, A Miramin Mohammadi
The role of pro-inammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in human leishmaniasis is not fully understood. We analyzed the alterations in the plasma levels of TNF- α, soluble TNF receptor type 1 (sTNFR I), IL-17 and IL-22 in the volunteers with leishmaniasis. Blood samples were collected from patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the same CL patients after standard antimonial therapy as healed CL, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and healed VL volunteers. Levels of the cytokines were titrated on plasma samples by sandwich ELISA method...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
N A Mahat, Z Meor Ahmad, R Abdul Wahab
Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present cross sectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
B Davari, M Limoee, S Khodavaisy, G Zamini, S Izadi
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
J W Tay, C Y Lee
To evaluate the effects of the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen on colonies of the Pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.), peanut oil containing different concentrations (0.3, 0.6, or 0.9%) of pyriproxyfen was fed to monogynous (1 queen, 500 workers, and 0.1 g of brood) and polygynous (8 queens, 50 workers, and 0.1 g of brood) laboratory colonies of M. pharaonis. Due to its delayed activity, pyriproxyfen at all concentrations resulted in colony elimination. Significant reductions in brood volume were recorded at weeks 3 - 6, and complete brood mortality was observed at week 8 in all treated colonies...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
B Latif, M Kannan Kutty, A Muslim, J Hussaini, E Omar, C C Heo, N F Rossle, S Abdullah, M A Kamarudin, M A Zulkarnain
One thousand and forty-five tissue samples of skeletal muscles, tongue, heart, diaphragm and esophagus were collected from 209 animals (43 sheep, 89 goats and 77 cattle) from an abattoir in Selangor between February and October, 2013. Each sample was divided into three pieces with each piece measuring 2-3 mm3. Each piece was then squeezed between two glass slides and examined microscopically at x 10 magnification for the presence of sarcocystosis. Three positive samples from each animal species were then fixed in 10% formalin for histological processing...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
S Sakthivelkumar, P Ramaraj, V Veeramani, S Janarthanan
The basis of the present study was to distinguish the existence of any genetic variability among populations of Culex quinquefasciatus which would be a valuable tool in the management of mosquito control programmes. In the present study, population of Cx. quinquefasciatus collected at different locations in Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their genetic variation based on 28S rDNA D2 region nucleotide sequences. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was detected in the sequences of D2 region of 28S rDNA on the predicted secondary structures in spite of high nucleotide sequence similarity...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
S Suhaini, S Z Liew, J Norhaniza, P C Lee, G Jualang, N Embi, M S Hasidah
Gleichenia truncata is a highland fern from the Gleicheniaceae family known for its traditional use among indigenous communities in Asia to treat fever. The scientific basis of its effect has yet to be documented. A yeast-based kinase assay conducted in our laboratory revealed that crude methanolic extract (CME) of G. truncata exhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)-inhibitory activity. GSK3β is now recognized to have a pivotal role in the regulation of inflammatory response during bacterial infections...
September 2015: Tropical Biomedicine
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