Poonam Vohra, Swikrity Baskota, Zubair Baloch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Valerie A Fitzhugh, Jordan P Reynolds, Melina Flanagan, Ronald Balassanian
Diversity, equity, and inclusion is a powerful goal which many of us strive toward in medicine, both in patient care and administrative leadership. As the world evolves, the practice of medicine must evolve with it. We are cognizant of the importance of the history of our medical specialties. If we do not acknowledge all parts of our history, we are doomed to repeat it. This special issue is unique and unlike anything that has previously been published in Diagnostic Cytopathology. This issue looks at some of the history of cytopathology...
May 18, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Archit Goel, Gargi Kapatia, Brijdeep Singh, Vandana Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Lester J Layfield, Leslie Dodd, Magda Esebua
INTRODUCTION: In 2024, the World Health Organization (WHO) is scheduled to publish the WHO Reporting System for Soft Tissue Cytopathology (WHORSSTC). This system establishes categories with well-defined definitions, criteria, and estimated risks of malignancy (ROMs) for soft tissue tumors. The estimates of ROM are based on a relatively small number of published studies. Interobserver reproducibility is not addressed in the reporting system even though reproducibility of a reporting system is highly important...
May 11, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Swikrity Baskota, Nada Shaker, Ronald Balassanian, Poonam Vohra
In today's medical landscape, social media (SoMe) platforms have expanded their reach beyond mere communication and entertainment, making a significant impact in the pathology field, including cytopathology. In recent years, SoMe platforms have become increasingly adopted by cytopathologists, facilitating continued education, professional networking, enhancing patient engagement, and entertainment. This adoption has influenced the professional growth of cytopathologists, and at its best, has led to the establishment of a robust professional online presence and ultimately contributed to leadership positions, fellowship opportunities, and academic promotions...
May 7, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Mahreen Hussain, Hafiz Ghani, Yasir Ali, Cecilia Clement, Ranjana Nawgiri
INTRODUCTION: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become the mainstay for staging and post-therapy surveillance of cancer as malignant neoplasms generally demonstrate higher FDG uptake that benign entities. However, there are certain benign lesions, most notably oncocytic tumors, that can display very high uptake and fine needle aspiration (FNA) is usually done to confirm malignancy. Therefore, it is important to recognize that benign oncocytic lesions of the head and neck may also present as FDG-avid lesions to avoid a diagnostic pitfall...
May 7, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Simon Sung, Rema Chaari
Cytopathology or cytology as a field has grown remarkably in the 20th and 21st centuries with recent advances shaping the way we train our future colleagues and how we currently practice. This article explores the history of cytopathology tracing back as early as the 18th century with focus on the birth of the cytopathology fellowship in the United States.
May 4, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Serhat Erol, Aslıhan Gurun Kaya, Fatma Arslan, Mirac Oz, Deniz Doğan Mulazimoglu, Ozlem Isık, Aydin Ciledag, Koray Ceyhan, Demet Karnak, Elif Sen, Gokhan Celik, Akin Kaya, Ismail Savas
BACKGROUND: In patients with extrathoracic malignancies (ETM), granulomatous lymph adenopathy called sarcoid-like reactions (SLR) can be seen in the regional or draining lymph nodes. We hypothesized that SLR may be a sign of imminent metastasis and investigated the clinical course and rate of recurrence in patients with ETM and granulomatous mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the medical files of patients with known ETM and who underwent EBUS-TBNA for initial staging or detection of recurrence from 2011 to 2023...
May 1, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Hong Xu, Changwei Yang, Yingmei Wang, Shirong Ma, Jing Zhang
Cytological examination of urine sediment is a helpful diagnostic tool for identifying renal involvement by hematological malignancies. We present the case of a 47-year-old man who was diagnosed with extranodal B-lymphoblastic lymphomas after presenting with gross hematuria as his first symptom. The presence of lymphoma cells in the urine led to a diagnosis confirmed through an immunophenotypic study using cell block sections of urine centrifuge sediment and core needle biopsy histology of the right renal pelvis mass...
April 29, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Marco Montella, Raffaella Ruggiero, Giovanni Savarese, Giuseppe Colella, Andrea Ronchi, Renato Franco, Immacolata Cozzolino
Malignancies of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon and in most cases are primary neoplasms; intraparotid metastases are rare. Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (O- and OP-SCC) can potentially metastasize to the parotid gland or intraparotid lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as the initial diagnostic approach for this purpose. HPV status in FNAC specimens is relevant and can guide the diagnostic workup, indicating a potential oropharyngeal origin of the primary tumor...
April 26, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Megan L Zilla, Sigfred Lajara
Head and neck lesions often undergo fine-needle aspiration to determine the appropriate management and therapeutic decisions. However, there are numerous diagnostic challenges encountered with these specimens, particularly, if atypical squamous cells are identified. Here, we present a case of an enlarging right neck mass in a 38-year-old female and discuss the diagnostic difficulties and potential pitfalls. Additionally, we review the approach to diagnosis, including differential diagnostic considerations as well as available ancillary testing...
April 26, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Marie C Smithgall, William S Towne, Abel A Gonzalez, Adela Cimic
INTRODUCTION: Dual immunostaining for p16/Ki67 is FDA-approved for use on liquid-based cervical cytology specimens; however, the utility of dual staining in anal cytology especially for ASCUS risk stratification is not well established. METHODS: We investigated dual staining performance on anal cytology specimens and correlated with subsequent cytologic interpretation, high-risk HPV status, and anal biopsy results. Dual staining for p16/Ki-67 was performed on all liquid-based anal cytology specimens from December 2021 to June 2022 (n = 43)...
April 26, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Valerie A Fitzhugh
Over the last several years, there has been increased focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion within all areas of pathology and laboratory medicine. Many of the specialty societies within pathology have taken up the mantle of diversity. While there is little research into the diversity of cytopathologists in practice, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has been collecting diversity data on pathology and laboratory medicine trainees since 2011. This data are an opportunity to explore how diverse our trainees in cytopathology are, and by extrapolation, allows us to develop some ideas as to how diverse attending level cytopathologists are...
April 25, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Tiffany Jakowczuk, Shuyue Ren
INTRODUCTION: Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a newly characterized sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Whereas more traditional NE markers, such as chromogranin A and synaptophysin, are cytoplasmic, INSM1 is uniquely nuclear and thus could serve as a useful addition to NE tumor workup. While application of immunohistochemical studies to cytology specimens is becoming increasingly relevant, knowledge of the effects of the certain fixatives as well as the pattern and intensity of immunoexpression are important considerations...
April 24, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Crystal Y Li, Salih Salihoglu, Francisco J Civantos, Jaylou M Velez Torres
NUT carcinoma (NC) is a highly aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinoma that harbors a t(15:19) translocation, leading to the fusion of the NUTM1 gene. While the upper aerodigestive tract along the midline (head, neck, thorax, and mediastinum) is commonly reported as the primary site of NC, subsequent cases have emerged in diverse locations. Achieving a definitive diagnosis based solely on morphology is challenging; however, it can be achieved using immunohistochemistry (IHC) specific to the NUT antibody or by demonstrating the characteristic BRD4::NUTM1 fusion...
April 24, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Fatima Zahra Aly, Alyaa Irhayyim, Richard Jordan, Faisal Mukhtar, Robert Klein
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disease. Cervical screening by cytology and HPV testing (co-testing) are important in prevention of cervical cancer. The Bethesda System category of atypical squamous cells (ASC) is used when a neoplastic process cannot be confidently identified. In such cases, the differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign conditions. Monitoring of ASC/SIL ratio is a commonly used laboratory quality assurance measure to prevent over- or under-use of this category...
April 23, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Hitesh Mathew, Ros Bartle-Jones
We present a case report of a 76-year-old male with a histologically confirmed KRAS mutated, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) positive, grade 1, mucinous adenocarcinoma with cytologically difficult to interpret lymph node metastasis showing loss of TTF1 expression and overlapping features with goblet cell hyperplasia. The case highlights the importance of molecular testing in aiding diagnosis and guiding treatment of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC).
April 23, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Roseann I Wu, Vanda F Torous
A cytopathology fellowship match would create an enforced and structured recruitment timeline for the benefit of applicants and programs. Major benefits would include delaying fellowship applications to allow residents to explore different subspecialty areas, a standardized application process for administrative ease, and optimization of matches between applicants and programs based on ranked preferences rather than use of time-limited "exploding offers." The overall gains in efficiency and achieving the primary goals of supporting trainees and recruiting in an equitable and inclusive manner outweigh any downsides to instituting a cytopathology fellowship match...
April 20, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Ramon Robledano, Maria D Lozano
In the 21st century, there has been a dramatic shift in the diagnosis and management of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), with an increasing use of minimally invasive tissue acquisition methods. Current treatments require morphologic subtyping and biomarker information in all cases. Determining such biomarkers is a continuously evolving field; current guidelines state that the determination of mutations on the Epidermal Growth Factor (EFGR), Kirsten Rat Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), Proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF), Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK), genes as well as fusions on genes such as ROS Proto-Oncogene 1, Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (ROS1), MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET), RET proto-oncogene (RET), and the Neurotrophic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase (NTRK) family is mandatory...
April 18, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Kush Kumar Singh, Abhilasha Kochhar, Chakshu Bansal, Latika Gupta, Samir Malhotra
Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is a rare manifestation of human cysticercosis which mainly affects central nervous system, skeletal muscles, eyes and subcutaneous tissues. Pulmonary involvement is usually a part of disseminated disease and mainly presents as bilateral pulmonary nodules. We report a rare case of isolated pulmonary cysticercosis presenting as lung cyst with pleural effusion. The diagnosis was made on pleural fluid cytology and cell block preparation. Herein we wish to recapitulate the importance of cell block as a diagnostic aid for parasitic infections, where morphological features and architectural patterns are as clearly discernable as in histopathology...
April 11, 2024: Diagnostic Cytopathology
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