Journals Current Opinion in Gastroenter...

Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Richard Pratley, Zeb I Saeed, Anna Casu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incretin enhancers and mimetics, including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and GLP-1/GIP co-agonists, have become mainstays in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, the approval of certain GLP-1RA and GLP-1/GIP co-agonists for the treatment of obesity has broadened their popularity and use. In this review, we summarize the evidence for an association of these drugs with acute pancreatitis and other adverse events of special interest to gastroenterologists...
July 5, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Robert T Kavitt, Ian M Gralnek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over 300 000 hospital admissions in the United States each year are due to patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (UGIB). Common etiologies of nonvariceal UGIB include peptic ulcers, mucosal erosions of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, Mallory-Weiss tears, Dieulafoy lesions, upper GI tract malignancy, or other etiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Peptic ulcers classified as Forrest Ia, Ib, or IIa require endoscopic hemostasis, while IIb ulcers may be considered for endoscopic clot removal with endoscopic treatment of any underlying major stigmata...
July 4, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Radmila Choate, David Bradley, Darwin Conwell, Cemal Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines current research on healthcare disparities in pancreatitis, identifies knowledge gaps, and proposes strategies to develop targeted multilevel interventions to address inequities in pancreatitis care. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature has identified patient, disease, and healthcare-level factors contributing to disparities in risk factors and health outcomes of pancreatitis. Moreover, social structures, economic systems, social vulnerability, and policy significantly influence the pancreatitis care continuum...
July 2, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Peter J Lee, Georgios I Papachristou, Cate Speake, Adam Lacy-Hulbert
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis is a common acute inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, and its incidence has been increasing worldwide. Approximately 10% of acute pancreatitis progresses to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which carries significant morbidity and mortality. Disordered immune response to pancreatic injury is regarded as a key event that mediates systemic injury in SAP. In this article, we review recent developments in immune biomarkers of SAP and future directions for research...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Benjamin Spilseth, Evan L Fogel, Frederico G S Toledo, Martha Campbell-Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiographic imaging of the pancreas has drawn recent interest as pancreas volume may serve as a biomarker in identifying the likelihood of diabetes development, subtyping diabetes, and identifying prognostic indicators of poor ultimate outcomes. In this review, the role of pancreas imaging is discussed in various forms of diabetes including type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and diabetes of the exocrine pancreas, particularly diabetes following acute or chronic pancreatitis...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Ariana Pichardo-Lowden, Mark O Goodarzi, Guru Trikudanathan, Jose Serrano, Kathleen M Dungan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is relatively common following acute pancreatitis (AP), even after mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), the most frequent AP presentation, in which there is no overt beta cell injury. Post-AP related diabetes is widely misdiagnosed, resulting in potentially inappropriate treatment and worse outcomes than type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, it is important to understand risk across the spectrum of AP severity. RECENT FINDINGS: Biological mechanisms are unclear and may include local and systemic inflammation leading to beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance, altered gut barrier and/or gut peptides and possibly islet autoimmunity, though no studies have specifically focused on MAP...
June 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Adrianna Wierzbicka, Andrew Ukleja
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to highlight most recent updates on nutritional aspects in gastroparesis (GP) focusing on dietary recommendations, utilization of enteral and parenteral nutrition, endoscopic and surgical interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data addressed eating patterns, nutritional interventions, and clarifications on the role of endoscopic and surgical interventions underlying an impact on nutritional management of GP patients...
June 26, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Christie Y Jeon, Mustafa A Arain, Murray Korc, Richard A Kozarek, Anna E Phillips
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The burdens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and acute pancreatitis are increasing globally. We reviewed current literature on whether acute pancreatitis is a causal factor for PDAC and examined clinical manifestations of PDAC-associated acute pancreatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings detail the timing of acute pancreatitis before and after PDAC occurrence, further solidifying the evidence for PDAC-associated acute pancreatitis and for acute pancreatitis as a causal risk factor for PDAC...
June 26, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Susan J Hagen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the mucosal barrier serves as a primary interface between the environment and host, little is known about the repair of acute, superficial lesions or deeper, persistent lesions that if not healed, can be the site of increased permeability to luminal antigens, inflammation, and/or neoplasia development. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on acute superficial lesions have been sparse in the past year, with more focus given to novel mechanisms of mucosal protection, and the way in which mature epithelial cells or committed stem cells dedifferentiate, reprogram, proliferate, and then regenerate the gastroduodenal mucosa after injury...
June 25, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Abdelrahman Yakout, Enrique F Elli, Vivek Kumbhari, Nader Bakheet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of endoscopic therapies for bariatric surgery complications. RECENT FINDINGS: The field of interventional endoscopy now presents a range of minimally invasive procedures for addressing postbariatric complications. Lumen-opposing metal stents have emerged as a reliable solution for managing gastrojejunal strictures following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, whether with or without associated leaks...
June 17, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Cemal Yazici, Medha Priyadarshini, Brian Boulay, Yang Dai, Brian T Layden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates the current knowledge of gut microbiome alterations in acute pancreatitis, including those that can increase acute pancreatitis risk or worsen disease severity, and the mechanisms of gut microbiome driven injury in acute pancreatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational studies in humans showed the association of gut microbiome changes (decreased gut microbiome diversity, alterations in relative abundances of certain species, and association of unique species with functional pathways) with acute pancreatitis risk and severity...
June 14, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Sarah Enslin, Vivek Kaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopic cryotherapy has emerged as a minimally invasive procedure for targeted tissue ablation within the gastrointestinal tract. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current clinical applications of EC with a review of the pertinent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Endoscopic cryotherapy has demonstrated safety and efficacy for various gastrointestinal conditions. Recent studies have highlighted the efficacy of endoscopic cryotherapy, including both liquid nitrogen-based spray cryotherapy and the novel cryoballoon focal ablation system, in achieving complete eradication of dysplasia and neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus...
April 25, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jaclyn Tuck, Blanca C Lizaola-Mayo, Jonathan A Leighton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the types of device-assisted deep enteroscopy endoscopes, tips for a successful procedure as well as areas for improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Deep enteroscopy allows for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention of the small bowel and can be used as an adjunct to video capsule endoscopy to improve the yield and management of small bowel lesions. SUMMARY: Our top tips for deep enteroscopy success include reviewing patient history and prior imaging, utilizing CO2 insufflation or water exchange, verifying quality measures and emphasizing ergonomics...
April 23, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jonathan A Montrose, Satya Kurada, Monika Fischer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the microbiome and dysbiosis is increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Intestinal microbiota transplant (IMT), previously termed fecal microbiota transplant has demonstrated efficacy in restoring a healthy microbiome and promoting gut health in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Several randomized trials (RCTs) highlighted IMT's potential in treating ulcerative colitis, while smaller studies reported on its application in managing Crohn's disease and pouchitis...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Matthew A Ciorba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Annel M Fernandez, Walter W Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Symptoms/complications related to extraesophageal reflux (EER) are increasingly prevalent presentations and pose significant challenges for clinicians. We summarize and discuss clinical advances and developments in pathophysiology, testing and treatment algorithms of upper/lower airway manifestations of EER. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence supports likely multifactorial causes of laryngeal symptoms, including EER, oropharyngeal pathologies, allergic conditions, and cognitive-affective processes (brain-larynx interaction)...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Marco G Patti, Fernando A Herbella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To compare different therapeutic modalities and determine their role in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. RECENT FINDINGS: The last 3 decades have seen a significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia. Conventional manometry has been replaced by high-resolution manometry, which has determined a more precise classification of achalasia in three subtypes, with important treatment implications. Therapy, while still palliative, has evolved tremendously...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Reena Sidhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jessica Elizabeth Smith, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic hepatitis (IH) refers to diffuse liver injury secondary to hypoperfusion. The condition is usually seen in the critical care setting and is associated with significant mortality. IH typically occurs in the setting of systemic hypotension superimposed on some form of underlying cardiac dysfunction. This review aims to report what is known and what is new about the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features associated with IH. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, studies on IH have largely confirmed earlier reports regarding etiologies, comorbid conditions, and associated mortality...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hugo A Penny, Imran Aziz, Ching Lam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with joint hypermobility disorders are increasingly referred to gastroenterology services for support with the investigation and management of gastrointestinal complaints. Individuals can present with a myriad of complex coexisting diagnoses, the inter-relationship of which is unclear. This review discusses the proposed association between hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) with disorders of mast cell activation and provides an overview of gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional outcomes in this patient cohort...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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