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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

Anupam Rej, David S Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been significant interest in gluten over the last decade, with an increase in interest of gluten-related disorders outside coeliac disease. Particularly, there has been a focus on the role of gluten in noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is significant overlap between both of these conditions, with the aim of this review to explore their complex relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: Gluten has been demonstrated to generate symptoms in individuals with NCGS...
February 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Luca Elli, Francesca Ferretti, Valentina Vaira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the current 'state of the art' on autoimmune enteropathy and small-bowel mucosal atrophy, with the aim of supporting clinicians in a frequently challenging diagnosis through different therapeutic options and prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of small-bowel diseases has radically changed over the last 10 years. The possibility to 'easily' obtain bioptic samples from the jejunum and ileum by means of the enteroscopic techniques (particularly, device-assisted enteroscopy) and the novel cross-sectional imaging studies have opened the window to new insights on intestinal disorders...
February 8, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Pui Y Lee-Law, Liyanne F M van de Laarschot, Jesus M Banales, Joost P H Drenth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an outline of the most recent insights and significant discoveries regarding the genetic mechanisms involved in polycystic liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Polycystic liver disease includes a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by multiple hepatic cysts. Isolated liver cysts are caused by mutations in Protein Kinase C Substrate 80K-H (PRKCSH), SEC63, and LDL Receptor Related Protein 5 (LRP5), whereas Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)1, PKD2, and PKHD1 mutations cause kidney cysts often accompanied by liver cysts...
January 15, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Véronique Barbu, Chantal Housset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Susanne N Weber, Caroline Bopp, Marcin Krawczyk, Frank Lammert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease is one of the most frequent diseases in gastroenterology and treatment by endoscopy and surgery causes high costs in our health-care systems. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that gallstones are, in part, genetically determined. Here we review all recent genome-wide and phenome-wide studies of gallstones in humans and provide an updated 'inventory of human lithogenic genes.' RECENT FINDINGS: The largest population attributable risk is conferred by the common variant (p...
January 2, 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Atsushi Tanaka, Patrick S C Leung, Merrill Eric Gershwin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a female predominant chronic autoimmune disease of the intrahepatic bile ducts and with a long latent period. It is crucial to understand how genetics contribute to the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Geo-epidemiological studies in PBC have provided evidence of familial risk; case-control studies and genome wide association studies have identified various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA alleles that are associated with PBC...
December 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Fedja A Rochling, Hilary A Catron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the causes, manifestations and therapies IFALD in adults with an emphasis on recent discoveries on pathways of pathogenesis and interventions to reduce the incidence of IFALD. RECENT FINDINGS: IFALD is a multifactorial complication of long-term home parenteral therapy. Although exact pathways are unknown, altered bile acid metabolism, microbiome dysbiosis impact on the gut-liver axis and soybean-based lipid formulations are major drivers of IFALD development...
December 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Muriel Girard, Ganna Panasyuk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biliary atresia is a poorly understood deadly disease. Genetic predisposition factors are suspected albeit not firmly established. This review summarizes recent evidence of genetic alterations in biliary atresia. RECENT FINDINGS: Whole-genome association studies in biliary atresia patients identified four distinct predisposition loci with four different genes potentially involved in the disease occurrence. Variations in these genes were searched for, but none were found in patients with biliary atresia suggesting complex mechanisms...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Dominique Debray, Harriet Corvol, Chantal Housset
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM 219700) is caused by variations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. CF-related liver disease (CFLD) affects approximately one-third of patients with CF, but the severity of CFLD is highly variable. This review provides the latest knowledge in the pathophysiology and CF genetic modifier research in CFLD. RECENT FINDINGS: So far, the only modifier gene validated in CFLD is SERPINA1 (α-1-antitrypsin) Z allele...
December 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Martyn Dibb, Simon Lal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the monitoring aimed at achieving good long-term outcomes in people dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). RECENT FINDINGS: There have been recent studies highlighting the importance of treating low bone mineral density in HPN-dependent patients, methods of screening for liver disease, assessment of quality of life (QoL) and the need for early assessment for intestinal transplantation and growth factor therapy. SUMMARY: High-quality HPN services require expert multidisciplinary teams with a focus on strict aseptic catheter care protocols alongside regular monitoring and management of clinical, laboratory and patient-related factors...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Chen Hsing Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Food intolerance, certain gastrointestinal or systemic diseases are often confused with or mislabeled as food allergy because of symptomatic similarity and general improvement from food avoidance. The differences between these diseases are crucial. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared with many food-related diseases that are isolated to gastrointestinal organs, food allergy can affect not only local but the whole immune system and may lead to a life-threatening allergic reaction, known as anaphylaxis...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Giuseppe Vanella, Livia Archibugi, Serena Stigliano, Gabriele Capurso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol is a type I carcinogen and the WHO stated that it caused 5% of all deaths in 2016, of which 13% because of cancers. Among digestive tract cancers, this association is clear for esophageal, liver and colorectal cancer, and more debated for gastric and pancreatic cancer. The present review will revise recent evidence on epidemiologic association and mechanisms linking alcohol with the risk of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Pan Pan, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Diet has a significant impact on the risk of developing CRC, but though processed meat is a known positive contributor, the effects of other dietary components are largely mixed. This review focuses on dietary patterns to describe the complexity of dietary diversity and overall food consumption and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of CRC...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Parth J Parekh, Edward C Oldfield, David A Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colonoscopy is recognizably, the best colon cancer prevention test, provided the quality of the preparation is adequate for detection of precancerous polyps but also allowing for accurate identification of margins, thereby facilitating complete endoscopic resection. As there are many aspects effecting colon prep outcomes, it is timely to review new standards for optimizing outcomes, including product selection based on patient demographics. RECENT FINDINGS: New national guidelines have set a minimum quality threshold for adequacy and also defined a split day delivery for oral options as the "standard of care"...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Sinéad M Smith, Colm O'Morain, Deirdre McNamara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have fallen in recent years, mainly because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections. Indeed the WHO has recently designated clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection a high priority for antibiotic resistance research and development. This review aims to discuss the most up-to-date information on the methods to detect H. pylori antibiotic resistance, the recent data on resistance rates, and the most appropriate treatment strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Marjorie M Walker, Michael D Potter, Nicholas J Talley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic colitis is a rare condition, with a prevalence rate in the USA of 2-3/100 000 persons (0.003%), but diagnosed in 0.1% of biopsies in those colonoscoped for diarrhoea. Secondary colonic eosinophilia is more common and associated with systemic, colonic and infectious diseases. In this review, the latest advances in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are summarized and discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: What constitutes a 'normal' count of eosinophils is poorly documented but there are recent studies that establish normal colonic eosinophil ranges as well as distinguishing histological and clinical findings in primary eosinophilic colitis and secondary colonic eosinophilia in children and adults...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Christopher R Lindholm, Joseph C Anderson, Amitabh Srivastava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperplastic polyps, once considered to have no malignant potential, are now recognized to be part of a larger group of polyps known as serrated polyps. Serrated polyps can progress to CRC through an epigenetic pathway known as CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP), characterized by hypermethylation of specific DNA regions such as the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair genes like MLH1. The CIMP pathway is tightly linked with mutations of the oncogene BRAF...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Divyesh Reddy Nemakayala, Brooks D Cash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most commonly encountered conditions in primary care and gastroenterology. There is ample evidence that an IBS diagnosis based on symptom-based criteria and exclusion of alarm features that would otherwise support diagnostic testing is accurate and durable. For many clinicians, however, IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion because of concern surrounding missed diagnoses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or other organic gastrointestinal diseases...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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