Journals Current Opinion in Gastroenter...

Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Huili Zhu, Ramon U Jin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the number one risk factor for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a deadly cancer with limited treatment options that has been increasing in incidence in the US. In this report, we discuss current studies on the role of mesenchyme and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in BE and EAC, and we highlight translational prospects of targeting these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights through studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (sc-RNA seq) have revealed an important emerging role of the mesenchyme in developmental signaling and cancer initiation...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Vincent Bos, Man Wai Chan, Roos E Pouw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss recent advancements in the endoscopic management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma (T1 EAC). RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with high-risk EAC (defined by the presence of deep submucosal invasion, and/or lymphovascular invasion, and/or poor differentiation) have a higher risk of lymph node metastases than those with low-risk EAC. However, more recent, endoscopically-focused studies report a lower risk of lymph node metastases and distant metastases for high-risk EAC than previously assumed...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Elizabeth A Scoville, Sara N Horst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review details the three new agents, including two novel mechanisms of action, approved to treat Crohn's disease in recent years. We review efficacy, safety, prescribing information, and available data on positioning these new therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Risankizumab and upadacitinib are novel mechanisms of action approved to treat moderate to severe Crohn's disease. Risankizumab targets the cytokine interleukin-23. Upadacitinib is a selective Janus kinase-1 inhibitor approved for use in individuals who have previously failed or are intolerant to an anti-TNF agent...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Tara Nagaraj, John Shinn, Kara De Felice
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several new biologics (mirizikizumab) and small molecules (upadacitinib, ozanimod, etrasimod) are approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. To date, there are no head-to-head trials to guide positioning and use of these newer agents. RECENT FINDINGS: From phase III clinical trials, in the biologic experienced patient, induction with ozanimod, etrasimod, and mirizikizumab had lower clinical remission rates, whereas upadacitinib's clinical remission rates remained similar...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Yasutoshi Shiratori, Syed Matthew Kodilinye, Ahmed E Salem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is focused on diagnostic and management strategies for colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). It aims to present the current state of the field, highlighting the available techniques, and emphasizing findings that influence the choice of therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent guidelines recommend nonurgent colonoscopy (>24 h) for CDB. However, factors such as a shock index ≥1, which may warrant an urgent colonoscopy, remain under investigation...
April 11, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Andres Duarte-Rojo, Keyur Patel, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The result of ongoing liver injury - and disease, regardless of cause - is fibrosis, and fibrosis appears to be a critically important result of ongoing injury. Further, in a number of different liver diseases, the presence of fibrosis has prognostic value. Therefore, the assessment of fibrosis is of critical clinical importance. Given the importance of fibrosis, there has been a rapid evolution in the use of noninvasive liver tests. This review highlights a number of the core principles surrounding...
March 29, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Suneil A Raju, Mohamed G Shiha, Hugo A Penny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Persistent villous atrophy is associated with morbidity in coeliac disease and most commonly due to ongoing gluten ingestion. Current methods for assessing gluten exposure and persisting villous atrophy include dietary questionnaires and repeat duodenal biopsy, which have limited accuracy or are invasive. This review discusses adjunctive and/or novel tests that could be used to overcome these challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is well tolerated and helps to evaluate for persisting villous atrophy and importantly, complications associated with coeliac disease...
March 14, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
M R Pedersen, Marlyn J Mayo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary therapy of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been established for over three decades. This review focuses on updates in the evaluation and management of patients with AIH. RECENT FINDINGS: The evaluation of patients has recently been updated to include more definitive screening for other autoimmune diseases, including thyroid disease and celiac disease. Antibody detection by ELISA, an easier and more commonly available method, has been incorporated into the latest iteration of the AIH scoring system...
February 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
David Schöler, Bernd Schnabl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiome and the gut-liver axis play a major role in health and disease. The human gut harbors trillions of microbes and a disruption of the gut homeostasis can contribute to liver disease. In this review, the progress in the field within the last 3 years is summarized, focusing on metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), autoimmune liver disease (AILD), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
February 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Alisa Likhitsup, Robert J Fontana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to summarize the latest data on the incidence, clinical manifestations, and management of immune- mediated liver injury from checkpoint inhibitors (ILICI). RECENT FINDINGS: ILICI develops in 10-15% of oncology patients receiving immunotherapy with most having asymptomatic serum aminotransferase and/or alkaline phosphatase elevations. Most grade 1-2 ILICI patients improve with drug discontinuation and/or short-term oral corticosteroids...
February 16, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Florence Wong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The definition and diagnostic criteria of hepatorenal syndrome-acute kidney injury (HRS-AKI) has undergone recent changes. A major vasoconstrictor, terlipressin, has recently been approved as pharmacotherapy for HRS-AKI in the United States. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the readers with these new diagnostic criteria of HRS-AKI, and how best to use terlipressin. RECENT FINDINGS: Terlipressin is effective either as bolus dosing or continuous infusion and can achieve reversal of HRS-AKI in approximately 40% of patients...
February 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Nicoletta Nandi, Foong Way David Tai, Mark McAlindon, Reena Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Isolated terminal ileitis is an increasing phenomenon identified during colonoscopy. Idiopathic terminal ileitis (IDTI) is a diagnosis of exclusion, representing a significant challenge from a diagnostic and management point of view. This review provides an overview of the most recent and relevant evidence on idiopathic IDTI, focusing on its evolution, the natural history and the management strategies proposed in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: IDTI is uncommon, with a reported prevalence between 0...
February 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hersh Shroff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid rollout and uptake of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been accompanied by a small yet noticeable accumulation of reports of liver injury occurring after vaccination. This review describes the present evidence surrounding COVID-19 vaccine-induced liver injury (VILI). RECENT FINDINGS: Liver injury occurring after the COVID-19 vaccine often presents clinically similar to autoimmune hepatitis, with positive autoantibodies and a portal and lobular inflammatory infiltrate and varying degrees of necrosis on biopsy...
February 15, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Chak Lam Ip, Ray Boyapati, Rahul Kalla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Crohn's disease is a relapsing inflammatory condition and disease recurrence after surgery is common. Significant variation in clinical practice remains despite progress in management of postoperative Crohn's disease. In this review, we summarise current management strategies and guidelines, unmet needs, and research progress in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been real progress in risk stratifying individuals' postsurgery and tailoring therapies based on their risk; this has been incorporated into current management guidelines in the USA, UK, and Europe...
February 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Joshua M Steinberg, Reezwana Chowdhury, Sowmya Sharma, Aline Charabaty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The terminal ileum and small bowel (SB) are involved in 30-45% of patients with Crohn's disease, while 20% have both small and large bowel involvement. Ileal Crohn's is associated with higher risk of progression to stricturing and penetrating disease1, hence it's imperative to utilize effective therapies to induce and maintain clinical and endoscopic remission and prevent intestinal complications. We review the available data of biologics and upadacitinib in small bowel disease, and the emerging data on the role of surgery as first line therapy for isolated Crohn's ileitis...
February 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Grégory Merlen, Thierry Tordjmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the pathophysiological context of cholangiopathies and more broadly of hepatopathies, while it is conceptually clear that the maintenance of inter-cholangiocyte and inter-hepatocyte tight junction integrity would be crucial for liver protection, only scarce studies have been devoted to this topic. Indeed, in the liver, alteration of tight junctions, the intercellular adhesion complexes that control paracellular permeability would result in leaky bile ducts and bile canaliculi, allowing bile reflux towards hepatic parenchyma, contributing to injury during the disease process...
January 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Reena Sidhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jessica Elizabeth Smith, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic hepatitis (IH) refers to diffuse liver injury secondary to hypoperfusion. The condition is usually seen in the critical care setting and is associated with significant mortality. IH typically occurs in the setting of systemic hypotension superimposed on some form of underlying cardiac dysfunction. This review aims to report what is known and what is new about the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features associated with IH. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, studies on IH have largely confirmed earlier reports regarding etiologies, comorbid conditions, and associated mortality...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hugo A Penny, Imran Aziz, Ching Lam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with joint hypermobility disorders are increasingly referred to gastroenterology services for support with the investigation and management of gastrointestinal complaints. Individuals can present with a myriad of complex coexisting diagnoses, the inter-relationship of which is unclear. This review discusses the proposed association between hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) with disorders of mast cell activation and provides an overview of gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional outcomes in this patient cohort...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Vincenzo Cardinale, Savino Paradiso, Domenico Alvaro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses evidence regarding progenitor populations of the biliary tree in the tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and the pathobiology of cholangiopathies and malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: In embryogenesis biliary multipotent progenitor subpopulation contributes cells not only to the pancreas and gall bladder but also to the liver. Cells equipped with a constellation of markers suggestive of the primitive endodermal phenotype exist in the peribiliary glands, the bile duct glands, of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts...
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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