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Cell Biology and Toxicology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771135/proteomic-and-genomic-profiling-of-pancreatic-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Ansari, William Torén, Qimin Zhou, Dingyuan Hu, Roland Andersson
Pancreatic cancer remains the most fatal human tumor type. The aggressive tumor biology coupled with the lack of early detection strategies and effective treatment are major reasons for the poor survival rate. Collaborative research efforts have been devoted to understand pancreatic cancer at the molecular level. Large-scale genomic studies have generated important insights into the genetic drivers of pancreatic cancer. In the post-genomic era, protein sequencing of tumor tissue, cell lines, pancreatic juice, and blood from patients with pancreatic cancer has provided a fundament for the development of new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers...
February 15, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746600/definition-of-clinical-gene-tests
#2
EDITORIAL
Duojiao Wu, Yunfeng Cheng, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical tests of gene sequence, structure, and function are to predict, diagnose, monitor, and prognose human disease-specific phenomes, characters severities, durations, stages, and responses to therapy. The concept and content of gene tests for clinical application mainly include chromosome/chromatins, DNA, and RNA. Structures and functions of chromosomes and chromatins vary among various durations, phases, and conditions, with the priority consideration in clinical gene tests. Sequences and functions of DNA and associated regulators are an important partial of clinical gene test...
February 11, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739221/the-sodium-pump-%C3%AE-1-subunit-regulates-bufalin-sensitivity-of-human-glioblastoma-cells-through-the-p53-signaling-pathway
#3
Yu-Long Lan, Yu-Jie Zou, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Xun Wang, Shuang Zou, Bin-Bin Ma, Yan Ding, Bo Zhang
Bufalin is the primary component of the traditional Chinese medicine "Chan Su," which has been widely used for cancer treatment at oncology clinics in certain countries. Evidence suggests that this compound possesses potent antitumor activities, although the exact molecular mechanism(s) require further elucidation. Therefore, this study aimed to further clarify the in vitro and in vivo antiglioma effects of bufalin and the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of drug sensitivity. The anticancer effects of bufalin were determined by colony formation assays, apoptosis assays, and cellular redox state tests of glioma cells...
February 9, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721374/activation-of-sirt1-by-l-serine-increases-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-reverses-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotubes-l-serine-activates-sirt1-in-c2c12-myotubes
#4
Woo-Cheol Sim, Dong Gwang Kim, Wonseok Lee, Hyungtai Sim, You-Jin Choi, Byung-Hoon Lee
Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-dependent deacetylase, and the function is linked to cellular metabolism including mitochondrial biogenesis. Hepatic L-serine concentration is decreased significantly in fatty liver disease. We reported that the supplementation of the amino acid ameliorated the alcoholic fatty liver by enhancing L-serine-dependent homocysteine metabolism. In this study, we hypothesized that the metabolic production of NAD+ from L-serine and thus activation of SIRT1 contribute to the action of L-serine...
February 5, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706385/hdac2-mediated-upregulation-of-il-6-triggers-the-migration-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#5
Jing Li, Xiuzhong Yan, Jiaxing Tang, Yan Wang, Jian Tang, Wen Wu, Ming Liu
Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in osteosarcoma (OS) cell is important for the targeted treatment and drug development. Emerging evidence shows that epigenetic factors such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the progression and chemoresistance of OS, while their roles are largely unknown. Our data showed that the expression of HDAC2, while not HDAC1, 4, or 8, was significantly increased in OS cells and tissues. OS patients with increased expression of HDAC2 showed reduced overall survival with p value of 0...
January 31, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680600/current-perspectives-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-in-therapeutic-resistance-potential-mechanism-and-future-strategy
#6
REVIEW
Dhruba Kadel, Yu Zhang, Hao-Ran Sun, Yue Zhao, Qiong-Zhu Dong, Lun-Xiu Qin
The goal of cancer eradication has been overshadowed despite the continuous improvement in research and generation of novel cancer therapeutic drugs. One of the undeniable existing problems is drug resistance due to which the paradigm of killing all cancer cells is ineffective. Tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in inducing drug resistance besides cancer development and progression. Recently, many efforts have been devoted to understand the role of tumor microenvironment in cancer drug resistance as it provides the shelter, nutrition, and paracrine niche for cancer cells...
January 24, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30648195/protein-carbonylation-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-extract
#7
Graziano Colombo, Maria Lisa Garavaglia, Emanuela Astori, Daniela Giustarini, Ranieri Rossi, Aldo Milzani, Isabella Dalle-Donne
Cigarette smoke is a well-established exogenous risk factor containing toxic reactive molecules able to induce oxidative stress, which in turn contributes to smoking-related diseases, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and oral cavity diseases. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract on human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to various concentrations (2.5-5-10-20%) of cigarette smoke extract for 1, 3, and 24 h. Carbonylation was assessed by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine using both immunocytochemical and Western immunoblotting assays...
January 16, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30627956/lifetime-extension-of-humpback-whale-skin-fibroblasts-and-their-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-lps-and-a-mixture-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-aroclor
#8
Michael Burkard, Susan Bengtson Nash, Gessica Gambaro, Deanne Whitworth, Kristin Schirmer
Marine mammals, such as whales, have a high proportion of body fat and so are susceptible to the accumulation, and associated detrimental health effects, of lipophilic environmental contaminants. Recently, we developed a wild-type cell line from humpback whale fibroblasts (HuWa). Extensive molecular assessments with mammalian wild-type cells are typically constrained by a finite life span, with cells eventually becoming senescent. Thus, the present work explored the possibility of preventing senescence in the HuWa cell line by transfection with plasmids encoding the simian virus large T antigen (SV40T) or telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)...
January 10, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617443/remarkable-apoptotic-pathway-of-hemiscorpius-lepturus-scorpion-venom-on-ct26-cell-line
#9
Mohammadreza Moradi, Rezvan Najafi, Razieh Amini, Reza Solgi, Hamid Tanzadehpanah, Alireza Monsef Esfahani, Massoud Saidijam
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion venom, considered as a treasure trove of various bioactive molecules, is a new approach to induce cancer cell death via apoptosis pathways. In the present study, we evaluated for first time the anti-proliferative efficacy of Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom and its pathway on a colon carcinoma cell. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CT26 and VERO cell lines were treated with various concentrations of the venom. The IC50 values were estimated by MTT assay test, and the apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry...
January 7, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612216/interaction-of-ezh2-and-p65-is-involved-in-the-arsenic-trioxide-induced-anti-angiogenesis-in-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Fei Jiang, Yuan Li, Lu Si, Zengli Zhang, Zhong Li
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common female malignancy in the world. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of BC characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), resulting in the limited therapeutic options. Due to the aggressive behaviors at early stage, TNBC exhibits poorer outcomes compared to other BC subtypes. Hematogenous metastasis, which spreads cancerous cells to lungs and/or bones, plays a pivotal role in the progression of TNBC...
January 5, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610495/deciphering-hi-c-from-3d-genome-to-function
#11
REVIEW
Siyuan Kong, Yubo Zhang
Hi-C is a commonly used technology in 3D genomics which can depict global chromatin interactions across eukaryotic genome. Integrating with different datasets, it can also be applied to studying various biological questions, such as nuclear organization, gene transcription regulation, spatiotemporal development, genome assembly, and cancer genomics. During the last decade, the development and application of Hi-C have dramatically changed the view of genome architecture, chromatin conformation, and gene interaction...
January 4, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30552588/correction-to-znf143-is-a-regulator-of-chromatin-loop
#12
Zi Wen, Zhi-Tao Huang, Ran Zhang, Cheng Peng
There are some errors in Fig. 1. First, owing to a production error, the sub-figure labels a, b, and c were absent in the online version, and the proportion number 55.1% together with its bracket for cell type HelaS3 were messy in Fig. 1a.
December 14, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30542779/drp1-associated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-mitochondrial-autophagy-a-novel-mechanism-in-triptolide-induced-hepatotoxicity
#13
Muhammad Hasnat, Ziqiao Yuan, Muhammad Naveed, Asifullah Khan, Faisal Raza, Dengqiu Xu, Aftab Ullah, Linxin Sun, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Triptolide being an active ingredient of Chinese herbal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. has severe hepatotoxicity. Previous studies from our lab reported triptolide-induced mitochondrial toxicity in hepatocytes. However, biomolecular mechanisms involved in triptolide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction are not yet entirely clear. We explored the connection between mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy in triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity. Triptolide caused an increase in ROS production, a decrease in mitochondrial depolarization, a diminution of ATP generation, a decline in mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial fragmentation, and disturbance in mitochondrial dynamics in a concentration-dependent manner in L02 cells...
December 13, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30520004/the-effects-of-five-types-of-tea-solutions-on-epiboly-process-neural-and-cardiovascular-development-and-locomotor-capacity-of-zebrafish
#14
Xu Li, Qiuping Zhang, Xi Peng, Jia Xu, Yuan Zhang, Jiaojiao Zhu, Yuhua Wang, Yunhe An, Dongyan Chen
The effects of teas on embryonic development are still known little. The objective of this study was to compare and analyze developmental effects of green tea, delicate flavor oolong tea, strong flavor oolong tea, black tea, and pu'er tea using zebrafish embryos. Embryos were exposed in tea solutions from one-cell stage; the morphology, locomotor capacity, and gene expression of embryos or larvae were analyzed. The results showed that either tea could decrease the length of body and the size of head and eyes...
December 5, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478652/studies-on-combination-of-oxaliplatin-and-dendrosomal-nanocurcumin-on-proliferation-apoptosis-induction-and-long-non-coding-rna-expression-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#15
Elahe Seyed Hosseini, Marziyeh Alizadeh Zarei, Sadegh Babashah, Roohollah Nakhaei Sistani, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Hamad Haddad Kashani, Javad Amini Mahabadi, Fatemeh Izadpanah, Mohhamad Ali Atlasi, Hossein Nikzad
Drug resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, the development of new anticancer drugs is a clinical priority to develop more effective therapies. New approaches to improve clinical outcomes and limit the toxicity of anticancer drugs focus on chemoprevention. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dendrosomal nanocurcumin (DNC) and oxaliplatin (Oxa) and their combination on cell death and apoptosis induction in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines analyzed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
November 26, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30120652/znf143-is-a-regulator-of-chromatin-loop
#16
Zi Wen, Zhi-Tao Huang, Ran Zhang, Cheng Peng
It is known that transcription factor ZNF143 frequently co-binds with CTCF-Cohesin complex in the anchor regions of chromatin loops. However, there is currently no genome-wide experiment to explore the functional roles of ZNF143 in chromatin loops. In this work, we used both computational and experimental analyses to investigate the regulatory effect of ZNF143 on chromatin loops. By jointly analyzing the ZNF143 and CTCF motifs underlying the isolated ZNF143-binding sites, ZNF143-CTCF co-binding sites and ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites, our result shows that the ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites are enriched with CTCF motifs but depleted of Znf143 motifs, implying that the CTCF but not ZNF143 may directly binds to the genome and thus ZNF143 may act as a cofactor instead of pioneer factor of ZNF143-CTCF-Cohesin complex...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30094641/cd8-it-cell-a-budding-star-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
EDITORIAL
Ling Xu, Zhenyi Jin, Yangqiu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30032454/is-the-clinical-lipidomics-a-potential-goldmine
#18
Linlin Zhang, Xianlin Han, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical lipidomics is a new extension of lipidomics to study lipid profiles, pathways, and networks by characterizing and quantifying the complete lipid molecules in cells, biopsy, or body fluids of patients. It undoubtfully has more values if lipidomics can be integrated with the data of clinical proteomic, genomic, and phenomic profiles. A number of challenges, e.g., instability, specificity, and sensitivity, in lipidomics have to be faced and overcome before clinical application. The association of lipidomics data with gene expression and sequencing of lipid-specific proteins/enzymes should be furthermore clarified...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29484527/history-applications-and-challenges-of-immune-repertoire-research
#19
REVIEW
Xiao Liu, Jinghua Wu
The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptor sequences is huge in the vertebrate's immune system and provides broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cell receptors and B cell receptors (also named immunoglobulin) that makes the organism's adaptive immune system. Before the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, the studies on immune repertoire were limited by the underdeveloped methodologies, since it was impossible to capture the whole picture by the low-throughput tools...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29484526/mir-146a-down-regulation-alleviates-h-2-o-2-induced-cytotoxicity-of-pc12-cells-by-regulating-mcl1-jak-stat-pathway-mir-146a-down-regulation-relieves-h2o2-induced-pc12-cells-cytotoxicity-by-mcl1-jak-stat
#20
Xuecheng Yang, Xin Mao, Xuemei Ding, Fengju Guan, Yuefeng Jia, Lei Luo, Bin Li, Hailin Tan, Caixia Cao
Oxidative stress and miRNAs have been confirmed to play an important role in neurological diseases. The study aimed to explore the underlying effect and mechanisms of miR-146a in H2 O2 -induced injury of PC12 cells. Here, PC12 cells were stimulated with 200 μM of H2 O2 to construct oxidative injury model. Cell injury was evaluated on the basis of the changes in cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results revealed that miR-146a expression was up-regulated in H2 O2 -induced PC12 cells...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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