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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

E Martignani, S Miretti, L Vincenti, M Baratta
A loss-of-function mutation of the myostatin gene has a very high prevalence in the Piedmontese cattle breed. The effect of such mutation is a double-muscle phenotype because of hypertrophy. However, differences in muscle mass development can still be detected in individuals of this breed. Such differences must be generated by other factors controlling skeletal muscle development. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA molecules that modulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in skeletal muscle development, and some of them are controlled by steroid hormone signaling...
December 19, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
X Leng, H Jiang
Many studies have shown positive effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on various steps of skeletal muscle formation such as myoblast proliferation and myotube hypertrophy. In animals, PGs are synthesized through the action of the rate-limiting enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and COX-2 from arachidonic acid (AA), a conditionally essential fatty acid. As a step toward exploring the possibility of using dietary supplementation of AA to improve skeletal muscle growth in cattle, which are major meat-producing animals, we determined the effects of AA and its major PG derivatives PGE2 , PGF2α , and PGI2 on proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of primary bovine myoblasts in vitro...
December 19, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
V R P Barros, A P O Monte, T L B G Lins, J M Santos, V G Menezes, A Y P Cavalcante, V R Araújo, B B Gouveia, M H T Matos
This study evaluated the in vitro development and maturation of ovine oocytes from secondary follicles cultured in serum-free medium containing fixed or sequential concentrations of recombinant human FSH (rhFSH). Follicles were cultured in α-MEM+ alone or with constant (500, 750, or 1,000 ng/mL) or sequential concentrations of rhFSH (seq. 1: day 6 = 500; day 12 = 750; day 18 = 1,000 ng/mL and seq. 2: day 6 = 100; day 12 = 500; day 18 = 1,000 ng/mL). At the end of the experiment, follicular survival was higher (P < 0...
December 18, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
T Martins, G Pugliesi, M Sponchiado, B O Cardoso, N S Gomes, B P Mello, E C C Celeghini, M Binelli
Progesterone (P4) supplementation in early diestrus advances changes in the endometrial transcriptome, stimulating embryonic development. However, it also induces early onset of luteolysis. Occurrence of luteolysis before D16 postmating can be detrimental to fertility. A potential counteracting role of the elongating conceptus on early luteolysis is understood poorly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of artificial insemination (AI; ie, pregnancy) on the temporal dynamics of luteolysis of cows supplemented with P4...
December 18, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A Blitek, M Szymanska
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Three isoforms of PPAR named PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ have been described, each encoded by a separate gene: PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG, respectively. In the present study, we examined the profiles of PPAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR; PPAR heterodimer partner) mRNA expression and PPAR DNA binding activity in porcine trophoblast tissue collected on days 15, 20, 25, and 30 of pregnancy and in day-20 embryos...
December 11, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A Llanes, C S Whisnant, W B Knox, C E Farin
The efficacy of several protocols for ovulation synchronization and timed artificial insemination (TAI) in goats was examined. In addition, the relationship between levels of pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) during gestation assessed with a commercially available ELISA and the number of offspring at birth was determined. In Experiment 1, 70 does were randomized into four treatments: (1) breed by estrus [BBE], (2) 6-d treatment with a new [C6N], (3) once-used [C61], or (4) twice-used Controled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) device [C62)]...
November 30, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
R Chen, R H Guo, H X Zhu, Z D Shi
The present study was conducted to establish a sandwich ELISA for the determination of prolactin (PRL) concentrations in the plasma of domestic fowls. The assay uses a recombinant goose PRL as the reference standard, expressed in a eukaryotic system, and as the antigen for raising a polyclonal antibody in rabbit. This rabbit anti-goose PRL polyclonal antibody was used for coating the wells of the ELISA plate, and its biotinylated form served as the detection antibody. An avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was used to bind the detection antibody and to catalyze the chromogenic reaction using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the substrate...
November 24, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Pierre Lacasse, Xin Zhao, Séverinne Ollier
Three experiments were conducted to better understand why milking-induced prolactin (PRL) release decreases as lactation advances. Experiment 1 compared the effects of milking, 2-min manual stimulation of the mammary gland (without milking), or injection of 1 IU of oxytocin (without milking) on hormonal release in early lactation cows, late-lactation and nongestating cows, and late-lactation and gestating cows (n = 6 per physiological status). Blood samples were collected from 20 min before the start of the treatments to 60 min after...
January 2019: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Betty R McConn, Anna Koskinen, D Michael Denbow, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Oxytocin (OT) is a well-characterized neurotransmitter that participates in a wide range of physiological processes including the inhibition of food intake. The avian ortholog, mesotocin (MT), differs from OT by a single amino acid. Little is known regarding the function of OT in regulating energy balance in birds; thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of central OT injection on food intake and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. At 4-d post-hatch, broiler chicks were fasted for 3 h and injected intracerebroventricularly with 0 (vehicle), 0...
November 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Maria Rosa Rebordão, Ana Amaral, Karolina Lukasik, Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Pedro Pinto-Bravo, António Galvão, Dariusz J Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) has contradictory effects in many organs. It may have proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, or anti-fibrotic roles, depending on the type of receptors to which it binds. By signaling through its receptors EP2 and EP4, PGE2 mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. In spite of chronic endometrial fibrosis (endometrosis) being a major cause of mare infertility, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. We have shown that contact of mare endometrium in vitro with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) proteases favors endometrial collagen type I production...
November 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A Muñoz-Prieto, D Escribano, J J Cerón, S Martínez-Subiela, A Tvarijonaviciute
The aim of this study was to evaluate if glucose, fructosamine, and insulin levels can be measured in saliva of dogs and assess the changes in these compounds after an experimental glucose administration. Automated spectrophotometric assays for glucose and fructosamine and an ELISA assay for insulin measurements were validated in saliva of dogs, by evaluating precision, accuracy, and limits of detection. In addition, an intravenous glucose bolus was administrated to 10 beagles and fasting serum and saliva samples were obtained immediately before and 5, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min after glucose infusion...
October 25, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Tetsuya Tachibana, Wataru Ueoka, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Ryosuke Makino, Mark A Cline
Infectious conditions are associated with reduced food passage through the digestive tract in both mammals and chicks; however, the precise mechanism mediating this response in chicks remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine if mast cells, a blood cell type which plays an important role in the immune system, might affect food passage through the digestive tract in chicks. Specifically, we performed intraperitoneal (IP) injections of compound 48/80, an inducer of mast cell degranulation, and measured crop emptying...
October 23, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Francesca T Cannizzo, Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza, Sara Divari, Enrica Berio, Frine E Scaglione, Bartolomeo Biolatti
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle, and the analytical methods officially applied most likely underestimate the precise frequency of the abuse. As a side effect, the administration of GCs causes fat infiltration, apoptosis, and atrophy of the thymus. However, gross and histological observations carried out previously showed that the thymus preserves an intrinsic ability to regenerate. The aim of this work was to study the transcriptional effects of GCs on genes likely involved in regeneration of the epithelial cell network in the cervical and thoracic thymus of beef cattle treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or prednisolone (PRD) in comparison with a control group...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Weronika Biernat, Katarzyna Kirsz, Malgorzata Szczesna, Dorota A Zieba
Work in cattle and rodents has shown that resistin, in addition to its roles in insulin resistance and inflammation, is involved in the regulation of gonadal steroidogenesis. However, the role of resistin in the regulation of reproductive processes in other species, such as seasonally breeding sheep, is completely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that resistin can influence the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and that its effect in ewes is dependent on the day length. Thirty Polish Longwool ewes, a breed that exhibits a strong seasonal reproductive pattern, were ovariectomized with estrogen replacement using subcutaneously inserted estradiol implants...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
O J Ginther
Emergence of wave 1 during an interovulatory interval (IOI) in heifers is stimulated by FSH surge 1. A minor FSH surge with absence of a dominant follicle in the associated follicular wave occurs immediately before FSH surge 1. This minor surge is termed an FSH booster surge owing to its occurrence temporally during a resurgence of a preovulatory follicle that has been decreasing or lagging in growth rate for several days. The beginning nadir, peak, and ending nadir of the FSH booster surge occur at means of 7, 4, and 3 d before ovulation...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M A Scuderi, M Ribeiro Petito, S Unniappan, C Waldner, S Mehain, C J McMillian, E C Snead
A commonly used therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans involves the use of synthetic incretin hormone-based therapies including exenatide, a glucagon-like pepetide-1 hormone agonist. Glucagon-like pepetide-1 agonists can be used alone or as an ancillary therapy with other agents, including insulin and oral antihyperglycemics. Little is known about the role of these therapies for DM in cats. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of short-acting exenatide combined with insulin, as compared to placebo and insulin for the treatment of DM in cats...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Ligia D Prezotto, Jennifer F Thorson, Pawel P Borowicz, Jena L Peine, Michelle Bedenbaugh, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents, Joel S Caton, Kendall C Swanson
Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation can exert long-term negative effects on offspring health and performance. Arginine supplementation may rescue some of the negative effects elicited by maternal nutrient restriction. We tested the hypothesis that maternal arginine supplementation during gestation would rescue deleterious effects of nutrient restriction on in vitro O2 consumption in the liver and jejunum and hypothalamic protein expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the colocalization of nNOS and active phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) in female offspring...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
J-L Rault, A J Lawrence, C R Ralph
Environment enrichment is a rising topic for animal welfare but measures to identify effective enrichment interventions are lacking. In humans and rodent species, environmental enrichment increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain. Higher BDNF concentration is ultimately linked to higher stress resilience, and BDNF in the hippocampus enhances learning and memory. In addition, BDNF concentrations in the brain and blood are correlated, offering the opportunity to use peripheral BDNF as a minimally invasive measure of effective enrichment reflecting neural changes...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
K A Morton, L Hargreaves, S Mortazavi, L P Weber, A M Blanco, S Unniappan
Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring 82-amino acid protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) and has been implicated in multiple physiological functions, including food intake and blood glucose regulation. This study aimed to characterize nesfatin-1 in domestic species, especially cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Our in silico analysis demonstrated that the NUCB2/nesfatin-1 amino acid sequence, especially the bioactive core region of the peptide, is very highly conserved (more than 90% identity) in domestic animals...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
H L M Tucker, J Holdridge, C L M Parsons, R M Akers
It is established that the ovary and estrogen are essential to bovine mammary development with the onset of puberty. Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy in the very early prepubertal period, well before onset of puberty, also dramatically impairs mammary growth. Similarly, prepubertal heifers treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) also exhibit markedly impaired mammary growth in correspondence with reduced estrogen receptor α (ESR1) expression. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of TAM on the mammary stroma and specifically to determine if the reported decrease in mammary development was related to changes in TAM-induced alterations in the stroma surrounding the mammary parenchyma...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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