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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Page 2

Filali Rayen, Taidi Behnam, Pareau Dominique
Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms with potential for biofuel production, CO2 mitigation and wastewater treatment; indeed they have the capacity to assimilate pollutants in wastewaters. Light supply and distribution among the microalgae culture is one of the major challenges of photo-bioreactor design, with many studies focusing on microalgae culture systems such as raceway ponds (RWP), widely used and cost-effective systems for algal biomass production. This review focuses on possible improvements of the RWP design in order to achieve optimal microalgal growth conditions and high biomass productivities, to minimize energy consumption and to lower the capital costs of the pond...
February 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiang Zou, Chi Cheng, Jun Feng, Xiaodan Song, Meng Lin, Shang-Tian Yang
Some microorganisms naturally produce β-poly(l-malic acid) (PMA), which has excellent water solubility, biodegradability, and biocompatibility properties. PMA has broad prospective applications as novel biopolymeric materials and carriers in the drug, food, and biomedical fields. Malic acid, a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is widely used in foods and pharmaceuticals, as a platform chemical. Currently, malic acid produced through chemical synthesis and is available as a racemic mixture of l- and d-forms. The d-form malic acid exhibits safety concerns for human consumption...
February 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benjamin D Trump, Jeffrey Cegan, Emily Wells, Kelsey Poinsatte-Jones, Taylor Rycroft, Christopher Warner, David Martin, Edward Perkins, Matthew D Wood, Igor Linkov
Emerging technologies research often covers various perspectives in disciplines and research areas ranging from hard sciences, engineering, policymaking, and sociology. However, the interrelationship between these different disciplinary domains, particularly the physical and social sciences, often occurs many years after a technology has matured and moved towards commercialization. Synthetic biology may serve an exception to this idea, where, since 2000, the physical and the social sciences communities have increasingly framed their research in response to various perspectives in biological engineering, risk assessment needs, governance challenges, and the social implications that the technology may incur...
February 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
André Guerra, Moritz von Stosch, Jarka Glassey
Biotherapeutics, such as those derived from monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), are industrially produced in controlled multiunit operation bioprocesses. Each unit operation contributes to the final characteristics of the bioproduct. The complexity of the bioprocesses, the cellular machinery, and the bioproduct molecules, typically leads to inherent heterogeneity and variability of the final critical quality attributes (CQAs). In order to improve process control and increase product quality assurance, online and real-time monitoring of product CQAs is most relevant...
February 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jing Yi Lai, Stephan Klatt, Theam Soon Lim
Through the discovery of monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology, profound successes in medical treatment against a wide range of diseases have been achieved. This has led antibodies to emerge as a new class of biodrugs. As the "rising star" in the pharmaceutical market, extensive research and development in antibody production has been carried out in various expression systems including bacteria, insects, plants, yeasts, and mammalian cell lines. The major benefit of eukaryotic expression systems is the ability to carry out posttranslational modifications of the antibody...
February 5, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sridevi Nidumukkala, Lavanya Tayi, Rajani Kant Chittela, Dashavantha Reddy Vudem, Venkateswara Rao Khareedu
Diverse abiotic stresses constitute one of the major factors which adversely affect the normal plant growth and development which results worldwide in decreased agricultural productivity. At present, utilization of new molecular tools to achieve improved stress tolerance and increased crop productivity is highly desirable. Abiotic stress in plants induces expression of a wide range of genes like transcription factors, defense related genes and so on, and the products of these genes are important in combating stress conditions...
February 3, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jianhong An, Yao Nie, Yan Xu
Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of oxidoreductases that specifically use NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H as cofactors for electron acceptance or donation and catalyze interconversion between alcohols and corresponding carbonyl compounds. In addition to their physiological roles in metabolizing alcohols and aldehydes or ketones, alcohol dehydrogenases have received considerable attention with respect to their symmetry-breaking traits in catalyzing asymmetric reactions and have Accordingly, they have become widely applied in fine chemical synthesis, particularly in the production of chiral alcohols and hydroxyl compounds that are key elements in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) employed in the pharmaceutical industry...
January 30, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mounia Akassou, Denis Groleau
Thermoduric pullulanases, acting as starch-debranching enzymes, are required in many industrial applications, mainly in the production of concentrated glucose, maltose, and fructose syrups. To date, however, a single pullulanase, from Bacillus acidopullulyticus, is available on the market for industrial purposes. This review is an investigation of the major advances as well as the major challenges being faced with regard to optimization of the production of extracellular thermoduric pullulanases either by their original hosts or by recombinant organisms...
January 30, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ana Clara Mignaqui, Vanesa Ruiz, Yves Durocher, Andrés Wigdorovitz
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which causes severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). Although inactivated virus vaccines have proved to be effective in FMD control, they have a number of disadvantages, including the need for high bio-containment production facilities and the lack of induction of immunological memory. Novel FMD vaccines based on the use of recombinant empty capsids have shown promising results...
January 17, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Aili Bao, David J Burritt, Haifeng Chen, Xinan Zhou, Dong Cao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9) system is an RNA-guided genome editing tool that consists of a Cas9 nuclease and a single-guide RNA (sgRNA). By base-pairing with a DNA target sequence, the sgRNA enables Cas9 to recognize and cut a specific target DNA sequence, generating double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger cell repair mechanisms and mutations at or near the DSBs sites. Since its discovery, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing and is now becoming widely utilized to edit the genomes of a diverse range of crop plants...
January 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Thomas Mabey, Domenico Andrea Cristaldi, Petra Oyston, Karl P Lymer, Eugen Stulz, Sandra Wilks, Charles William Keevil, Xunli Zhang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have potential uses in many applications, but current chemical production methods are challenged by scalability, limited particle stability, and the use of hazardous chemicals. The biological processes present in bacteria to mitigate metallic contaminants in their environment present a potential solution to these challenges. Before commercial exploitation of this technology can be achieved, the quality of bacteriogenic AgNPs needs to be improved for certain applications. While the colloidal and morphological stabilities of biogenic AgNPs are widely regarded as superior to chemogenic particles, little control over the synthesis of particle morphologies has been achieved in biological systems...
January 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Wan-Cang Liu, Sarah Inwood, Ting Gong, Ashish Sharma, Li-Yan Yu, Ping Zhu
Pichia pastoris is extensively used to produce various heterologous proteins. Amounts of biopharmaceutical drugs and industrial enzymes have been successfully produced by fed-batch high-cell-density fermentation (HCDF) of this cell factory. High levels of cell mass in defined media can be easily achieved and therefore large quantities of recombinant proteins with enhanced activities and lower costs can be obtained through HCDF technology. A robust HCDF process makes a successful transition to commercial production...
January 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiujuan Qian, Wei Yan, Wenming Zhang, Weiliang Dong, Jiangfeng Ma, Katrin Ochsenreither, Min Jiang, Fengxue Xin
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), an important flavor and fragrance compound with a rose-like smell has been widely used in the cosmetics, perfume, and food industries. Traditional production of 2-PE was mainly through the extraction from plant materials or by chemical synthesis. However, the increasing demand of consumers for natural flavors cannot be met by these methods. Biological production of 2-PE has emerged to be an appealing solution due to an environmental friendly process and the definition of a "natural" product...
December 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiumei Tao, Lingqia Su, Jing Wu
2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) is one of the most important l-ascorbic acid derivatives because of its resistance to reduction and oxidation and its easy degradation by α-glucosidase to release l-ascorbic acid and glucose. Thus, AA-2G has commercial uses in food, medicines and cosmetics. This article presents a review of recent studies on the enzymatic production of AA-2G using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Reaction mechanisms with different donor substrates are discussed. Protein engineering, physical and biological studies of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase are introduced from the viewpoint of effective AA-2G production...
December 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Swati Tyagi, Sikandar I Mulla, Kui-Jae Lee, Jong-Chan Chae, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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