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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Page 2

Tao Liu, Shihu Hu, Jianhua Guo
Due to serious eutrophication in water bodies, nitrogen removal has become a critical stage for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) over past decades. Conventional biological nitrogen removal processes are based on nitrification and denitrification (N/DN), and are suffering from several major drawbacks, including substantial aeration consumption, high fugitive greenhouse gas emissions, a requirement for external carbon sources, excessive sludge production and low energy recovery efficiency, and thus unable to satisfy the escalating public needs...
April 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Qingyun He, Piao Xu, Chen Zhang, Guangming Zeng, Zhifeng Liu, Dongbo Wang, Wangwang Tang, Haoran Dong, Xiaofei Tan, Abing Duan
The objective of this study is to summarize the effects of surfactants on anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS). The increasing amount of WAS has caused serious environmental problems. Anaerobic digestion, as the main treatment for WAS containing three stages (i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis), has been widely investigated. Surfactant addition has been demonstrated to improve the efficiency of AD. Surfactant, as an amphipathic substance, can enhance the efficiency of hydrolysis by separating large sludge and releasing the encapsulated hydrolase, providing more substance for subsequent acidogenesis...
April 8, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ashish Prasad, Namisha Sharma, Mehanathan Muthamilarasan, Sumi Rana, Manoj Prasad
Small RNAs (sRNA) are reported to play pivotal roles in the epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during growth, development, and stress response in plants. Recently, the involvement of two different classes of sRNAs namely, miRNAs (microRNAs), and siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) in biotic stress response has been underlined. Notably, during virus infection, these sRNAs deploy antiviral defense by regulating the gene expression of the modulators of host defense pathways. As a counter defense, viruses have evolved strategic pathways involving the production of suppressors that interfere with the host silencing machinery...
April 4, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Rohini Bhat, Dhiraj Vyas
Glucosinolate-myrosinase is a substrate-enzyme defense mechanism present in Brassica crops. This binary system provides the plant with an efficient system against herbivores and pathogens. For humans, it is well known for its anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, cardio-protective, and central nervous system protective activities. Glucosinolate and myrosinase are spatially present in different cells that upon tissue disruption come together and result in the formation of a variety of hydrolysis products with diverse physicochemical and biological properties...
April 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
María Gómez-Brandón, Marta Lores, Heribert Insam, Jorge Domínguez
Grapes are one of the most cultivated fruit crops worldwide. Either for wine or juice production, grape processing generates a large amount of residues that must be treated, disposed of or reused properly to reduce their pollution load before being applied to the soil. In this review, a special focus is given to the treatment and valorization of the winemaking by-product like grape marc via anaerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting at laboratory, pilot, and industrial scales. The impact of the final products (digestates, composts, and vermicomposts) on soil properties is briefly addressed...
April 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Winny Routray, Deepika Dave, Sukhinder K Cheema, Vegneshwaran V Ramakrishnan, Julia Pohling
Microorganisms (microalgae and fungi) are currently the main sources of astaxanthin; however, this carotenoid also accumulates in crustaceans, salmonids, and birds. Seafood (derived from marine animals) processing wastes are significant sources of astaxanthin and can be employed as feed and for nutraceutical applications, where shrimp wastes are the most exploited seafood industry waste employed for astaxanthin extraction. This review discusses different sources, efficient environment-friendly extraction methods employed for astaxanthin extraction, biorefinery approaches for efficient extraction and future aspects of the application of these waste sources for commercial preparation of astaxanthin complexes...
April 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
David Bolzonella, Matteo Papa, Cinzia Da Ros, Lokeshwer Anga Muthukumar, Diego Rosso
Wine production is one of the leading sectors of the food processing industry. The wine industry produces a large amount of wastewater characterized by a high strength in terms of organic pollution and large variability throughout the year. Most of the organic matter is soluble and easily biodegradable. On the other hand, nitrogen and phosphorous are lacking. The aerobic and anaerobic processes are largely applied for winery wastewater treatment because they can quickly react to changes in the organic loading...
April 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Drew Kuraitis, Katsuhiro Hosoyama, Nick J R Blackburn, Chao Deng, Zhiyuan Zhong, Erik J Suuronen
Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in developed nations. As the disease progresses, myocardial infarction can occur leaving areas of dead tissue in the heart. To compensate, the body initiates its own repair/regenerative response in an attempt to restore function to the heart. These efforts serve as inspiration to researchers who attempt to capitalize on the natural regenerative processes to further augment repair. Thus far, researchers are exploiting these repair mechanisms in the functionalization of soft materials using a variety of growth factor-, ligand- and peptide-incorporating approaches...
April 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mariateresa Ferone, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Antonio Marzocchella
Succinic acid (SA) has been recognized as one of the most important bio-based building block chemicals due to its numerous potential applications. Fermentation SA production from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks can have the economic and sustainability potential to replace petroleum-based production in the future, not only for existing markets, but also for new larger volume markets. Design and operation of bio-reactors play a key role. During the last 20 years, many different fermentation strategies for SA production have been described in literature, including utilization of immobilized biocatalysts, integrated fermentation and separation systems and batch, fed-batch, and continuous operation modes...
March 31, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Cristiano E Rodrigues Reis, Heitor B S Bento, Ana K F Carvalho, Aravindan Rajendran, Bo Hu, Heizir F De Castro
The establishment of an efficient and feasible biorefinery model depends on, among other factors, particularly the selection of the most appropriate microorganism. Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungus species able to produce a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes, lipids prone to biodiesel production, carotenoids, ethanol, and biomass with significant nutritional value. M. circinelloides also has been selected as a model species for genetic modification by being the first filamentous oleaginous species to have its genome fully characterized, as well as being a species characterized as a potential bioremediation agent...
March 31, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Vemana Gowd, Lianghua Xie, Xiaodong Zheng, Wei Chen
Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other secondary complications, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, etc. The important risk factors for the pathogenesis of DM are aging, family history, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary habits, and obesity. Evidence from epidemiological studies also indicates that DM is characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota (GM). GM transplantation in rodents and humans revealed that a specific GM constituent can be the cause and not just the consequence of the DM condition and complications...
February 27, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Bo-Bo Zhang, Yu-Yan Guan, Peng-Fei Hu, Lei Chen, Gan-Rong Xu, Liming Liu, Peter C K Cheung
Edible and medicinal mushrooms have usually been considered as a sustainable source of unique bioactive metabolites, which are valued as promising provisions for human health. Antrodia cinnamomea is a unique edible and medicinal fungus widespread in Taiwan, which has attracted much attention in recent years for its high value in both scientific research and commercial applications owing to its potent therapeutic effects, especially for its hepatic protection and anticancer activity. Due to the scarcity of the fruiting bodies, the cultivation of A...
February 27, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Filali Rayen, Taidi Behnam, Pareau Dominique
Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms with potential for biofuel production, CO2 mitigation and wastewater treatment; indeed they have the capacity to assimilate pollutants in wastewaters. Light supply and distribution among the microalgae culture is one of the major challenges of photo-bioreactor design, with many studies focusing on microalgae culture systems such as raceway ponds (RWP), widely used and cost-effective systems for algal biomass production. This review focuses on possible improvements of the RWP design in order to achieve optimal microalgal growth conditions and high biomass productivities, to minimize energy consumption and to lower the capital costs of the pond...
February 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiang Zou, Chi Cheng, Jun Feng, Xiaodan Song, Meng Lin, Shang-Tian Yang
Some microorganisms naturally produce β-poly(l-malic acid) (PMA), which has excellent water solubility, biodegradability, and biocompatibility properties. PMA has broad prospective applications as novel biopolymeric materials and carriers in the drug, food, and biomedical fields. Malic acid, a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is widely used in foods and pharmaceuticals, as a platform chemical. Currently, malic acid produced through chemical synthesis and is available as a racemic mixture of l- and d-forms. The d-form malic acid exhibits safety concerns for human consumption...
February 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benjamin D Trump, Jeffrey Cegan, Emily Wells, Kelsey Poinsatte-Jones, Taylor Rycroft, Christopher Warner, David Martin, Edward Perkins, Matthew D Wood, Igor Linkov
Emerging technologies research often covers various perspectives in disciplines and research areas ranging from hard sciences, engineering, policymaking, and sociology. However, the interrelationship between these different disciplinary domains, particularly the physical and social sciences, often occurs many years after a technology has matured and moved towards commercialization. Synthetic biology may serve an exception to this idea, where, since 2000, the physical and the social sciences communities have increasingly framed their research in response to various perspectives in biological engineering, risk assessment needs, governance challenges, and the social implications that the technology may incur...
February 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
André Guerra, Moritz von Stosch, Jarka Glassey
Biotherapeutics, such as those derived from monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), are industrially produced in controlled multiunit operation bioprocesses. Each unit operation contributes to the final characteristics of the bioproduct. The complexity of the bioprocesses, the cellular machinery, and the bioproduct molecules, typically leads to inherent heterogeneity and variability of the final critical quality attributes (CQAs). In order to improve process control and increase product quality assurance, online and real-time monitoring of product CQAs is most relevant...
February 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jing Yi Lai, Stephan Klatt, Theam Soon Lim
Through the discovery of monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology, profound successes in medical treatment against a wide range of diseases have been achieved. This has led antibodies to emerge as a new class of biodrugs. As the "rising star" in the pharmaceutical market, extensive research and development in antibody production has been carried out in various expression systems including bacteria, insects, plants, yeasts, and mammalian cell lines. The major benefit of eukaryotic expression systems is the ability to carry out posttranslational modifications of the antibody...
February 5, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jianhong An, Yao Nie, Yan Xu
Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of oxidoreductases that specifically use NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H as cofactors for electron acceptance or donation and catalyze interconversion between alcohols and corresponding carbonyl compounds. In addition to their physiological roles in metabolizing alcohols and aldehydes or ketones, alcohol dehydrogenases have received considerable attention with respect to their symmetry-breaking traits in catalyzing asymmetric reactions and have Accordingly, they have become widely applied in fine chemical synthesis, particularly in the production of chiral alcohols and hydroxyl compounds that are key elements in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) employed in the pharmaceutical industry...
January 30, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mounia Akassou, Denis Groleau
Thermoduric pullulanases, acting as starch-debranching enzymes, are required in many industrial applications, mainly in the production of concentrated glucose, maltose, and fructose syrups. To date, however, a single pullulanase, from Bacillus acidopullulyticus, is available on the market for industrial purposes. This review is an investigation of the major advances as well as the major challenges being faced with regard to optimization of the production of extracellular thermoduric pullulanases either by their original hosts or by recombinant organisms...
January 30, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ana Clara Mignaqui, Vanesa Ruiz, Yves Durocher, Andrés Wigdorovitz
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which causes severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). Although inactivated virus vaccines have proved to be effective in FMD control, they have a number of disadvantages, including the need for high bio-containment production facilities and the lack of induction of immunological memory. Novel FMD vaccines based on the use of recombinant empty capsids have shown promising results...
January 17, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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