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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Francesco Galiano, Alberto Figoli
Since several decades ago, the application of pervaporation (PV) technology has been mainly aimed at the separation of different types of water-organic, organic-water and organic-organic mixtures, reaching its large-scale application in industry for the dehydration of organics. Today, the versatility and high selectivity toward specific compounds have led its consideration to other types of application such as the assisted chemical and bio-chemical reactions. The focus of this review is to provide a compelling overview on the recent developments of PV combined with chemical and bio-chemical reactions...
August 5, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kanchan Vishwakarma, Mitali Mishra, Gunvant Patil, Steven Mulkey, Naleeni Ramawat, Vijay Pratap Singh, Rupesh Deshmukh, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Henry T Nguyen, Shivesh Sharma
Abiotic stress imposed by many factors such as: extreme water regimes, adverse temperatures, salinity, and heavy metal contamination result in severe crop yield losses worldwide. Plants must be able to quickly respond to these stresses in order to adapt to their growing conditions and minimize metabolic losses. In this context, transporter proteins play a vital role in regulating stress response mechanisms by facilitating movement of a variety of molecules and ions across the plasma membrane in order to maintain fundamental cellular processes such as ion homeostasis, osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, and detoxification...
July 30, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Guangshun Yi, Siti Nurhanna Riduan, Yuan Yuan, Yugen Zhang
The prevention of infectious diseases is a global challenge where multidrug-resistant bacteria or "superbugs" pose a serious threat to worldwide public health. Microtopographic surfaces have attracted much attention as they represent a biomimetic and nontoxic surface antibacterial strategy to replace biocides. The antimicrobial effect of such natural and biomimetic surface nanostructures involves a physical approach which eradicates bacteria via the structural features of the surfaces without any release of biocides or chemicals...
July 22, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ayodeji Amobonye, Suren Singh, Santhosh Pillai
This article focuses on significant advances in the production and applications of microbial glutaminases and provides insight into the structures of different glutaminases. Glutaminases catalyze the deamidation of glutamine to glutamic acid, and this unique ability forms the basis of their applications in various industries such as pharmaceutical and food organizations. Microbial glutaminases from bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast, and fungi are of greater significance than animal glutaminases because of their stability, affordability, and ease of production...
July 22, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Andrés Felipe Hernández-Pérez, Priscila Vaz de Arruda, Luciane Sene, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Anuj Kumar Chandel, Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe
Recent advances in biomass conversion technologies have shown a promising future toward fermentation during xylitol production. Xylitol is one of the top 12 renewable added-value chemicals that can be obtained from biomass according to US Department of Energy (USDOE). Currently, xylitol accounts for approximately US$823.6 million of annual sales in the market, and this amount is expected to reach US$1.37 billion by 2025. This high demand has been achieved owing to the chemical conversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysates from different lignocellulosic biomasses, which is a costly and non-ecofriendly process...
July 16, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
P Azizi, M Osman, M M Hanafi, M Sahebi, M Y Rafii, S Taheri, J A Harikrishna, A R Tarinejad, S Mat Sharani, M N Yusuf
A large number of rice agronomic traits are complex, multi factorial and polygenic. As the mechanisms and genes determining grain size and yield are largely unknown, the identification of regulatory genes related to grain development remains a preeminent approach in rice genetic studies and breeding programs. Genes regulating cell proliferation and expansion in spikelet hulls and participating in endosperm development are the main controllers of rice kernel elongation and grain size. We review here and discuss recent findings on genes controlling rice grain size and the mechanisms, epialleles, epigenomic variation, and assessment of controlling genes using genome-editing tools relating to kernel elongation...
July 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Lorenzo Favaro, Trudy Jansen, Willem Heber van Zyl
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred microorganism for the production of bioethanol from biomass. Industrial strain development for first-generation ethanol from sugar cane and corn mostly relies on the historical know-how from high gravity beer brewing and alcohol distilleries. However, the recent design of yeast platforms for the production of second-generation biofuels and green chemicals from lignocellulose exposes yeast to different environments and stress challenges. The industrial need for increased productivity, wider substrate range utilization, and the production of novel compounds leads to renewed interest in further extending the use of current industrial strains by exploiting the immense, and still unknown, potential of natural yeast strains...
June 24, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Nazia Hossain, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia
Microalgae have been exploited for biofuel generation in the current era due to its enormous energy content, fast cellular growth rate, inexpensive culture approaches, accumulation of inorganic compounds, and CO2 sequestration. Currently, research is ongoing towards the advancement of the microalgae cultivation parameters to enhance the biomass yield. The main objective of this study was to delineate the progress of physicochemical parameters for microalgae cultivation such as gaseous transfer, mixing, light demand, temperature, pH, nutrients and the culture period...
June 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Devangana Bhuyan, George Warren Greene, Ratul Kumar Das
Applications of biotechnological tools in food preservation have shown promising results in minimizing food spoilage. Design and development of highly efficient food preservatives are one of the key success factors in this application field. However, due to the inherent shortcomings of the bulk forms of such preservatives, research was in progress to find suitable alternatives to replace conventional modalities. The intervention of nanotechnology has made this approach feasible in almost every aspect of food preservation...
June 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Joseph Sebastian, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Pratik Kumar, Tarek Rouissi, Satinder Kaur Brar
Fumaric acid (FA), a metabolic intermediate, has been identified as an important carbohydrate derived platform chemical. Currently, it is commercially sourced from petrochemicals by chemical conversion. The shift to biochemical synthesis has become essential for sustainable development and for the transition to a biobased economy from a petroleum-based economy. The main limitation is that the concentrations of FA achieved during bioproduction are lower than that from a chemical process. Moreover, the high cost associated with bioproduction necessitates a higher yield to improve the feasibility of the process...
May 29, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Deepak Pant, Shilpi Misra, Abdul-Sattar Nizami, Mohammad Rehan, Rebecca van Leeuwen, Silvia Tabacchioni, Reeta Goel, Priyangshu Sarma, Rob Bakker, Neeta Sharma, Kees Kwant, Ludo Diels, Kathy Elst
India has emerged as a key player with a high potential to develop a biomass and biobased economy due to its large geographic size and the massive amounts of agricultural and non agricultural biomass produced. India has joined hands with Europe to synchronize its efforts to create and facilitate the development of a biobased economy in this country. This paper aims to examine common research and development actions between the European Union (EU) and India to facilitate the development of these biobased economies...
May 29, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Wentao Sun, Lei Qin, Haijie Xue, Yang Yu, Yihua Ma, Ying Wang, Chun Li
Triterpenoids possess versatile biological activities including antiviral, anticancer, and hepatoprotective activities. They are widely used in medicine and other health-related fields. However, current production of such compounds relies on plant culture and extraction, which brings about concerns for environmental, ecological, and infield problems. With increasing awareness of environmental sustainability, various microbes have been engineered to produce natural products, in which yeast turned out to be feasible for the heterologous biosynthesis of triterpenoids on account of its inherent advantages such as the robustness, safety, and sufficient precursor supplementation...
August 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Matías Gutiérrez-González, Yesenia Latorre, Roberto Zúñiga, Juan Carlos Aguillón, María Carmen Molina, Claudia Altamirano
The continuous increase of approved biopharmaceutical products drives the development of more efficient recombinant protein expression systems. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the mainstay for this purpose but have some drawbacks, such as low levels of expression. Several strategies have been applied to increase the productivity of CHO cells with different outcomes. Transcription factor (TF) engineering has emerged as an interesting and successful approach, as these proteins can act as master regulators; the expression and function of a TF can be controlled by small molecules, and it is possible to design tailored TFs and promoters with desired features...
August 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Tong Li, Ya-Hui Wang, Jie-Xia Liu, Kai Feng, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Biotic stress is one of the key factors that restrict the growth and development of plants. Fruit crops are mostly perennial, so they are more seriously endangered by biotic stress. Plant responses to different types of biotic stresses such as pathogens and insects are controlled by a very complex regulatory and defense system. High-throughput sequencing (next-generation sequencing) has brought powerful research strategies and methods to the research fields of genomics and post-genomics. Functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and deep-sequencing of small RNAs provides a new path to better understand the complex regulatory and defense systems behind biotic stress in plants...
May 8, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ying-Yu Wang, Jian-Zhong Xu, Wei-Guo Zhang
l-Leucine, as an essential branched-chain amino acid for humans and animals, has recently been attracting much attention because of its potential for a fast-growing market demand. The applicability ranges from flavor enhancers, animal feed additives and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. Microbial fermentation is the major method for producing l-leucine by using Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum as host bacteria. This review gives an overview of the metabolic pathway of l-leucine (i...
May 6, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sridevi Nidumukkala, Lavanya Tayi, Rajani Kant Chittela, Dashavantha Reddy Vudem, Venkateswara Rao Khareedu
Diverse abiotic stresses constitute one of the major factors which adversely affect the normal plant growth and development which results worldwide in decreased agricultural productivity. At present, utilization of new molecular tools to achieve improved stress tolerance and increased crop productivity is highly desirable. Abiotic stress in plants induces expression of a wide range of genes like transcription factors, defense related genes and so on, and the products of these genes are important in combating stress conditions...
May 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ilaria Mannazzu, Paola Domizio, Gavino Carboni, Severino Zara, Giacomo Zara, Francesca Comitini, Marilena Budroni, Maurizio Ciani
Killer toxins are proteins that are often glycosylated and bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target microorganism, which is then killed through a target-specific mode of action. The killer phenotype is widespread among yeast and about 100 yeast killer species have been described to date. The spectrum of action of the killer toxins they produce targets spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, they have potential as natural antimicrobials in food and for biological control of plant pathogens, as well as therapeutic agents against animal and human infections...
April 25, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ushmaben Chandrakantbhai Dave, Ravi-Kumar Kadeppagari
Alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) (E.C. is a microbial enzyme that catalyzes a reversible conversion of L-alanine to pyruvate. Inter-conversion of alanine and pyruvate by AlaDH is central to metabolism in microorganisms. Its oxidative deamination reaction produces pyruvate which plays a pivotal role in the generation of energy through the tricarboxylic acid cycle for sporulation in the microorganisms. Its reductive amination reaction provides a route for the incorporation of ammonia and produces L-alanine which is required for synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer, proteins, and other amino acids...
April 24, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Rodrigo Gómez, Paula Vicino, Néstor Carrillo, Anabella F Lodeyro
Plants exposed to hostile environmental conditions such as drought or extreme temperatures usually undergo oxidative stress, which has long been assumed to significantly contribute to the damage suffered by the organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduced under stress conditions were proposed to destroy membrane lipids and to inactivate proteins and photosystems, ultimately leading to cell death. Accordingly, considerable effort has been devoted, over the years, to improve stress tolerance by strengthening antioxidant and dissipative mechanisms...
April 16, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Isiri Adhiwarie Perera, Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
The excessive generation and discharge of wastewaters have been serious concerns worldwide in the recent past. From an environmental friendly perspective, bacteria, cyanobacteria and microalgae, and the consortia have been largely considered for biological treatment of wastewaters. For efficient use of bacteria‒cyanobacteria/microalgae consortia in wastewater treatment, detailed knowledge on their structure, behavior and interaction is essential. In this direction, specific analytical tools and techniques play a significant role in studying these consortia...
April 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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